CN104684686A - Abrasive elements with precisely shaped features, abrasive articles fabricated therefrom and methods of making thereof - Google Patents

Abrasive elements with precisely shaped features, abrasive articles fabricated therefrom and methods of making thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104684686A
CN104684686A CN201380040394.7A CN201380040394A CN104684686A CN 104684686 A CN104684686 A CN 104684686A CN 201380040394 A CN201380040394 A CN 201380040394A CN 104684686 A CN104684686 A CN 104684686A
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China
Prior art keywords
abrasive
element
diamond
major surface
features
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CN201380040394.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
D·K·勒胡
N·O·珊蒂
谢俊清
K·R·布雷舍
V·W·内林
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3M创新有限公司
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Priority to US201261678665P priority Critical
Application filed by 3M创新有限公司 filed Critical 3M创新有限公司
Priority to PCT/US2013/052828 priority patent/WO2014022462A1/en
Publication of CN104684686A publication Critical patent/CN104684686A/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B53/00Devices or means for dressing or conditioning abrasive surfaces
    • B24B53/017Devices or means for dressing, cleaning or otherwise conditioning lapping tools
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24DTOOLS FOR GRINDING, BUFFING, OR SHARPENING
    • B24D18/00Manufacture of grinding tools or other grinding devices, e.g. wheels, not otherwise provided for
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24DTOOLS FOR GRINDING, BUFFING, OR SHARPENING
    • B24D18/00Manufacture of grinding tools or other grinding devices, e.g. wheels, not otherwise provided for
    • B24D18/0009Manufacture of grinding tools or other grinding devices, e.g. wheels, not otherwise provided for using moulds or presses
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24DTOOLS FOR GRINDING, BUFFING, OR SHARPENING
    • B24D3/00Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents
    • B24D3/02Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents the constituent being used as bonding agent
    • B24D3/04Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents the constituent being used as bonding agent and being essentially inorganic
    • B24D3/14Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents the constituent being used as bonding agent and being essentially inorganic ceramic, i.e. vitrified bondings
    • B24D3/18Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents the constituent being used as bonding agent and being essentially inorganic ceramic, i.e. vitrified bondings for porous or cellular structure

Abstract

An abrasive element includes a first major surface and a second major surface. At least the first major surface includes a plurality of precisely shaped features. The abrasive element includes at least about 99% of carbide ceramic by weight and has a porosity of less than about 5%.

Description

具有精确成形特征部的研磨元件、用其制成的研磨制品及其制造方法 Characteristic element having precisely shaped abrasive portion, and a manufacturing method with the abrasive article made thereof

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明总体上涉及研磨制品。 It relates generally to abrasive article [0001] the present invention. 具体地,本发明包括研磨元件,该研磨元件包括按重量计至少99%的碳化物陶瓷并且孔隙率小于约5%。 In particular, the present invention includes a grinding element the grinding element comprises at least 99% by weight of a carbide ceramic and the porosity of less than about 5%.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 半导体和微芯片行业依赖装置制造期间的多种化学-机械平面化(CMP)工艺。 [0002] during various chemical and semiconductor industries dependent on the microchip device fabrication - mechanical planarization (CMP) process. 在制造集成电路的过程中,这些CMP工艺被用于平面化晶片的表面。 During manufacture of integrated circuits, the CMP process is used to planarize the surface of the wafer. 通常,他们使用研磨浆液和抛光垫。 Often, they use abrasive slurry and polishing pad. 在CMP工艺期间,从晶片和抛光垫去除材料,并且形成副产品。 During the CMP process, the wafer and the polishing pad is removed from the material and by-products are formed. 所有这些都可累积在抛光垫表面上,使其表面变光滑并降低其性能,减少其寿命并且增加晶片的缺陷。 All of these defects can be accumulated in the polishing pad surface so as to smooth the surface and reduce its performance and reduce the life and increase the wafer. 为了解决这些问题,垫修整器被设计用于通过去除不期望的废物积累并且在抛光垫表面上重新产生粗糙的研磨机制再生抛光垫性能。 To solve these problems, it is designed for pad conditioner by removing the undesired accumulation of waste and re-create a rough grinding performance mechanisms regeneration polishing pad upper surface of the polishing pad.

[0003] 大多可商购获得的垫修整器具有粘合至基质的工业金刚石研磨。 [0003] Most commercially available having an adhesive pad conditioner industrial diamond abrasive to a substrate. 典型的基质材料包括包括镍铬、硬钎焊金属、电镀材料和CVD金刚石膜。 Typical matrix materials include nickel-chromium comprises, brazing metals, electroplating and CVD diamond film material. 由于金刚石的尺寸和形状分布不规则并且它们的取向是随机的,所以已发明各种专有的工艺来精确地对金刚石进行分选、取向或图案化并且控制它们的高度。 Since diamond of irregular size and shape distribution, and the orientation thereof is random, the invention has various proprietary processes accurately diamond sorting, orientation, or patterned and controlling their height. 然而,在给定金刚石粗粒的自然变型的情况下,通常仅2%~4%的金刚石实际研磨CMP垫("加工金刚石")。 However, in the case of natural variants of a given diamond grit, typically only 2% to 4% of the actual diamond polishing pad CMP ( "diamond machining"). 控制切削刀头和研磨边缘的分布在制造上是一个挑战,并且引起垫修整器性能的变化。 Grinding and cutting head control edges are distributed over a challenge manufacture, and causes a change in the pad dresser performance.

[0004] 此外,当前的基质和粘合方法也可限制可嵌入的金刚石的尺寸。 [0004] In addition, current methods limit the adhesive matrix and the size of the diamond to be embedded. 例如,如果不将小于约45微米的小金刚石埋进基质内,那么可难以粘合。 For example, if the no less than about 45 microns small diamond buried within the matrix, it may be difficult to bond.

[0005] 金属CMP的酸性混悬液也会给传统垫修整器带来挑战。 [0005] The acidic suspension of the metal CMP will bring challenges to the traditional pad dresser. 酸性混悬液可以与金属粘合基质进行化学反应,从而减弱基质和磨粒之间的粘合。 Acidic suspensions can be chemically reacted with a metal bonding matrix, thus weakening the adhesion between the matrix and the abrasive particles. 这可能导致金刚石粒子从修整器表面脱离,从而导致晶片缺陷率高并且有可能在晶片上形成刮痕。 This may result in detachment from the surface of the diamond particles conditioner, resulting in a wafer defect rate and scratches are likely to form on the wafer. 金属基质的溶蚀也可导致晶片的金属离子污染。 Dissolution of the metal matrix may also result in metal ion contamination of the wafer.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0006] 在一个实施例中,本发明是包括第一主表面和第二主表面的研磨兀件。 [0006] In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a first major surface and a second major surface of the polishing member of Wu. 至少所述第一主表面包括多个精确成形特征部。 At least the first major surface comprises a plurality of precisely-shaped features. 所述研磨元件包括按重量计至少约99 %的碳化物陶瓷并且具有小于约5%的孔隙率。 The abrasive member comprises, by weight of at least about 99% of the carbide ceramics and having less than about 5% porosity.

[0007] 在另一个实施例中,本发明是包括第一研磨元件的研磨制品,所述研磨元件包括第一主表面和第二主表面。 [0007] In another embodiment, the present invention comprises a first abrasive member abrasive article, the abrasive member comprises a first major surface and a second major surface. 至少所述第一主表面包括多个精确成形特征部。 At least the first major surface comprises a plurality of precisely-shaped features. 所述第一研磨元件包括按重量计至少约99%的碳化物陶瓷并且具有小于约5%的孔隙率。 Said first abrasive member comprises, by weight of at least about 99% of the carbide ceramics and having less than about 5% porosity.

[0008] 在另一个实施例中,本发明是一种制备研磨制品的方法。 [0008] In another embodiment, the present invention is a process for the preparation of the abrasive article. 所述方法包括提供第一研磨元件和第二研磨元件;将所述研磨元件的第一主表面放置成与对准板接触;提供具有第一主表面和第二主表面的弹性元件;将所述弹性元件的第一主表面附连至所述研磨元件的第二主表面;提供紧固元件;通过所述紧固元件将所述弹性元件的第二主表面附连至载体。 The method includes providing a first and a second grinding element the grinding element; placing a first major surface of the abrasive member is in contact with the alignment plate; providing a resilient member having a first major surface and a second major surface; The the first major surface of said elastic member is attached to the second major surface of the abrasive element; providing a fastening element; said fastening member through said elastic member is attached to the second major surface of the carrier. 每个研磨元件包括第一主表面和第二主表面,其中至少所述第一主表面包括多个精确成形特征部,并且其中所述研磨元件包括按重量计至少约99%的碳化物陶瓷并且孔隙率小于约5%。 Each abrasive element comprises a first major surface and second major surfaces, wherein at least the first major surface comprises a plurality of precisely-shaped features, and wherein the abrasive member comprises, by weight of at least about 99% and the carbide ceramics porosity of less than about 5%.

[0009] 在另一个实施例中,本发明是包括第一研磨元件的研磨制品,所述第一研磨元件包括第一主表面和第二主表面。 [0009] In another embodiment, the present invention comprises a first polishing abrasive article element, said first grinding member includes a first major surface and a second major surface. 至少所述第一主表面包括具有金刚石涂层的多个精确成形特征部。 At least the first major surface comprises a plurality of precisely-shaped features having a diamond coating. 所述第一研磨元件包括按重量计至少约99%的碳化物陶瓷并且具有小于约5%的孔隙率。 Said first abrasive member comprises, by weight of at least about 99% of the carbide ceramics and having less than about 5% porosity.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0010] 图Ia是具有布置成一些实例中使用的网格图案的锥体精确成形特征部的正母模的顶视图。 [0010] FIG. Ia is a number having a cone arranged in a grid pattern used in the examples of the positive master mold precisely shaped portion characterized in top view.

[0011] 图Ib是具有布置成网格图案的锥体精确成形特征部的图Ia的正母模的剖视图。 [0011] FIG. Ib is arranged in a grid pattern having a precise cross-sectional view of the cone of the female mold of FIG. Ia positive features forming portion.

[0012] 图2是包括布置成星形图案的本发明的研磨元件的研磨制品的顶视图。 [0012] FIG. 2 is a top view of abrasive article comprising abrasive elements arranged in a star pattern of the present invention.

[0013] 图3a和图3b示出实例12和比较例13的整体共面性。 [0013] Figures 3a and 3b show an overall coplanarity Example 12 and Comparative Example 13.

[0014] 图4a是具有布置成实例15中使用的网格图案的锥体精确成形特征部的正母模的顶视图。 [0014] FIG 4a is a cone arranged in a grid pattern used in Example 15 in a top view of precisely shaped positive master model feature portion.

[0015] 图4b是具有布置成网格图案的锥体精确成形特征部的图4a的正母模的剖视图。 [0015] FIG. 4b is arranged in a grid pattern having a cone sectional view of the positive master mold pattern having characteristic portion 4a of precisely-shaped.

[0016] 图5a是具有布置成实例16中使用的网格图案的锥体精确成形特征部的正母模的顶视图。 [0016] FIG 5a is a cone arranged in a grid pattern used in Example 16 precisely shaped top plan view of the positive master model feature portion.

[0017] 图5b是具有布置成网格图案的锥体精确成形特征部的图5a的正母模的剖视图。 [0017] FIG 5b is a cross-sectional view of a female mold being arranged in a grid pattern having a precisely shaped cone portion of FIG. 5a feature.

[0018] 图6是包括布置成双星图案的本发明的研磨元件的研磨制品的顶视图。 [0018] FIG. 6 is a top view of abrasive article comprising abrasive elements arranged in a binary pattern of the present invention.

[0019] 这些图不是按比例绘制,并且只是旨在为了进行示意性的说明。 [0019] The figures are not drawn to scale and are merely intended to be illustrative purposes.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0020] 本发明的精确成形研磨元件由约99%的碳化物陶瓷形成,孔隙率小于约5%并且包括多个精确成形特征部。 [0020] The precisely shaped abrasive element according to the present invention is formed from about 99% of the carbide ceramics, a porosity of less than about 5% and comprises a plurality of precisely-shaped features. 多个精确成形特征部是单一的,而不是研磨复合物。 Wherein a plurality of precisely-shaped portion is a single, rather than the abrasive composites. 与侵蚀而使嵌入磨粒释放的复合物不同,在不损耗嵌入磨粒的情况下整体发挥作用,因而降低刮伤的机会。 Erosion and release of abrasive grains embedded in the composite different, play a role in the overall loss without embedded abrasive particles, thereby reducing the chance of scratching. 组装了本发明的研磨元件的研磨制品具有一致且可再现的性能,精确地将研磨工作顶端对着工件表面对准、寿命长、特征部完整性良好(包括重复性好、低侵蚀和抗断裂)、 低金属离子污染、可靠性、通过针对制造的设计实现一致且性价比高的制造,并且能够受到调控以适应各种抛光垫构造。 Grinding element assembled abrasive article of the present invention having properties consistent and reproducible, accurate alignment of the tip against the polishing working surface of the workpiece, long life, good integrity features (including good repeatability, and low corrosion resistance to breakage ), low metal ion contamination, reliability, consistent and cost-effective for the manufacturer and by the design and manufacture, and can be regulated to accommodate various configurations of the polishing pad. 在一个实施例中,研磨制品是垫修整器。 In one embodiment, the abrasive article is a pad conditioner.

[0021] 研磨元件 [0021] The grinding elements

[0022] 本发明的精确结构化研磨元件包括第一主表面、第二主表面和在至少一个主表面上的多个精确成形特征部。 [0022] The precise structure of the abrasive element according to the present invention comprises a first major surface, a second major surface and a plurality of at least one major surface of the precisely shaped feature. 研磨元件由碳化物形成并且是按重量计约99%的碳化物陶瓷。 A carbide is formed and the grinding element is about 99% by weight of a carbide ceramic. 在一个实施例中,碳化物陶瓷是碳化硅、碳化硼、碳化锆、碳化钛、碳化钨或其组合。 In one embodiment, the carbide ceramic is silicon carbide, boron carbide, zirconium carbide, titanium carbide, tungsten carbide, or combinations thereof. 在一些实施例中,按重量计99%的碳化物陶瓷基本为碳化硅。 In some embodiments, 99% by weight of the carbide is silicon carbide ceramic base. 具体地,碳化物陶瓷为按重量计至少约90%的碳化硅。 In particular, a ceramic carbide by weight of at least about 90% silicon carbide. 在未使用碳化物形成物的情况下制造研磨元件,所述研磨元件基本上不含氧化物烧结助剂。 Making abrasive element is not used in the case of carbide formers, the abrasive element is substantially free of an oxide sintering aid. 在一个实施例中,研磨元件包括少于约1%的氧化物烧结助剂。 In one embodiment, the grinding elements comprising less than about 1% of the oxide sintering aid. 研磨元件也基本上不含娃,具体地包括少于约1 %的元素性娃。 The grinding element is also substantially free of baby, in particular comprising less than about 1% of the elemental baby.

[0023] 已令人惊奇地发现,基本上碳化物陶瓷可以被模制为具有优异的特征部完整性。 [0023] It has surprisingly been found that substantially carbide ceramics may be molded to have an excellent integrity feature. 当烧结这些组合物时,它们产生孔隙率小于约5%的稳固且耐用的研磨元件。 When the sintering these compositions, they produce a robust and durable abrasive elements porosity of less than about 5%. 具体地,研磨元件的孔隙率小于约3%,更具体地小于约1%。 Specifically, the porosity, the grinding element is less than about 3%, more particularly less than about 1%. 研磨元件的平均晶粒尺寸也可小于约20 微米,具体地讲小于约10微米,更具体地小于约5微米,甚至更具体地小于约3微米。 The average grain size of the abrasive element may also be less than about 20 microns, particularly less than about 10 microns, more specifically less than about 5 microns, even more specifically less than about 3 microns. 在实现稳固且耐用的重复性特征部中,这种低孔隙率和小晶粒尺寸是重要的,这进而导致良好寿命和磨损率低的研磨元件。 In the repetitive character portion to achieve a firm and durable, such a low porosity and small grain size is important, leading to a good life and low wear rate of the grinding elements.

[0024] 在陶瓷烧结中,通常得到低孔隙率的代价是晶粒尺寸生长。 [0024] In the ceramic sintered, low porosity generally obtained consideration the grain size is grown. 令人惊奇的是,尽管高烧结温度,但可以通过基本上这些碳化物组合物得到低孔隙率和小晶粒尺寸。 Surprisingly, despite the high sintering temperature, but can obtain a low porosity and a small grain size by essentially carbide compositions. 当将这与所添加的可由于形成结构化生坯而导致的不理想压实的挑战组合时,同样令人惊奇的是,通过这些组合物可以将它们模制为具有高特征部保真性。 When these undesirable compaction in combination with the added challenge may be due to the formation of the green body structure caused, equally surprisingly, they may be molded as features having high fidelity by these compositions.

[0025] 研磨元件包括精确成形的研磨特征部,或者包括朝向工件突出的研磨元件内的突出部。 Polishing feature [0025] The precisely shaped grinding elements comprise or include the projecting portion projecting toward a workpiece grinding elements. 研磨特征部可以具有任何一种或多种形状(多边形或非多边形)并且可以具有相同或变化的高度。 Wherein the polishing portion may have any one or more shapes (polygons or polygons) and may have the same or varying height. 另外,研磨特征部可以具有相同的基部尺寸或变化的基部尺寸。 Further, the abrasive characteristics of the base portion may have the same size or varying size of the base. 研磨特征部可以按规则或不规则阵列间隔并且可以被制成包含单位单元的图案。 Wherein the polishing portion may be spaced at regular or irregular arrays and may comprise a pattern formed by unit cells.

[0026] 研磨元件包括研磨特征部,其长度在约1微米至约2000微米之间,具体地讲在约5 微米至约700微米之间,更具体地在约10微米至约300微米之间。 [0026] The grinding elements includes a grinding feature, a length between about 1 micron to about 2000 microns, in particular between about 5 microns to about 700 microns, more specifically from about 10 microns to about 300 microns . 在一个实施例中,研磨元件的特征部密度在约1个特征部/平方毫米至约1000个特征部/平方毫米之间,具体地讲在约10个特征部/平方毫米至约300个特征部/平方毫米之间。 In one embodiment, the feature density in the grinding member about a feature / mm to about 1000 features / mm between, in particular about 10 features / mm to about 300 wherein unit / mm between.

[0027] 在一个实施例中,研磨元件包括周边区或者在研磨元件周围的其中没有研磨特征部的区域。 [0027] In one embodiment, the abrasive element comprising abrasive peripheral region or regions wherein no portion in which the grinding elements around.

[0028] 可以涂覆研磨元件,以实现另外的耐磨损和耐用性,降低摩擦系数,防止腐蚀,以及改变表面属性。 [0028] The grinding elements may be coated, in order to achieve additional abrasion and durability, lower coefficient of friction, to prevent corrosion, and changing the surface properties. 可用的涂层包括(例如)化学气相沉积(CVD)和或物理气相沉积(PVD) 金刚石,掺杂的金刚石、碳化硅、立方氮化硼(CBN)、含氟化合物涂层、疏水性或亲水性涂层、 表面改性涂层、抗腐蚀涂层、类金刚石碳(DLC)、类金刚石玻璃(DLG)、碳化钨、氮化硅、氮化钛、粒子涂层、多晶金刚石、微晶金刚石、纳米晶金刚石等。 Coating may be used include (e.g.) a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) of diamond, doping of diamond, silicon carbide, cubic boron nitride (the CBN), fluorochemical coatings, hydrophobic or affinity water-based coating, surface modification coatings, corrosion resistant coatings, diamond-like carbon (the DLC), diamond-like glass (the DLG), tungsten carbide, silicon nitride, titanium nitride, coated particles, polycrystalline diamond, micro polycrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond. 在一个实施例中,涂层也可以是复合物材料,诸如(例如)细小金刚石粒子和气相沉积金刚石基质的复合物。 In one embodiment, the coating may be a composite material, such as (for example) the composite fine particles and the diamond CVD diamond substrates. 在一个实施例中,这些涂层为共形的,使得在涂层表面下能够看到精确的表面特征部。 In one embodiment, the coating is conformal, such that the coating surface can be seen at the precise surface features. 可以通过本领域中已知的任何合适方法沉积涂层,包括化学或物理气相沉积、喷涂、浸渍和辊涂。 It may be deposited by any suitable method known in the coating art, including chemical or physical vapor deposition, spraying, dipping and roll coating.

[0029] 在一个实施例中,研磨元件可以被涂覆有非氧化物涂层。 [0029] In one embodiment, the abrasive element may be coated with a non-oxide coating. 当使用CVD金刚石涂层时,使用碳化硅陶瓷的附加有益效果在于碳化硅和CVD金刚石膜之间的热膨胀系数能很好地匹配。 When using the CVD diamond coatings, silicon carbide ceramics additional benefit in that the thermal expansion coefficient between the silicon carbide and the CVD diamond film can be well matched. 因此,这些金刚石涂覆的研磨另外地具有优秀的金刚石膜粘附性和耐用性。 Thus, these diamond-coated abrasive is additionally a diamond film having excellent adhesion and durability.

[0030] 在一个实施例中,研磨元件由被模制的生坯制成。 [0030] In one embodiment, the grinding element is made of a green compact being molded. 在这种情况下,可以将研磨元件当作被模制的研磨元件。 In this case, as the grinding element the grinding element may be molded. 精确的结构化研磨是被压入模具并被烧结的陶瓷。 Precise structured abrasive is pressed into a mold and sintered ceramics. 可以将模具本身用于制造精确结构化的研磨元件。 The mold itself may be used to manufacture grinding elements of precise structure. 精确结构化的研磨元件具有最大的特征部高度均匀度。 The precise structure of the abrasive element has a maximum height uniformity feature. 特征部高度均匀度指所选择特征部相对于特征部基部的高度的均匀度。 It refers to a portion of the highly uniform characteristic of the selected feature with respect to the uniformity of the base height of the feature section. 非均匀度是所选择特征部的平均高度与所选择特征部高度之差的绝对值的平均值。 Non-uniformity is the average height of the features and the absolute values ​​of the difference between the height of the selected features selected. 所选择特征部是具有最大公共设计高度D tl的特征部集合。 Wherein the selected portion having a greatest common feature set design height D tl. 本发明的精确成形研磨元件具有小于约20%的特征部高度的非均匀度。 Precisely shaped abrasive element according to the present invention has less than about 20% of the non-uniformity of the height of the features. 在一个实施例中,研磨元件的非均匀度小于约10%的特征部高度,具体地讲小于约5%的特征部高度,更具体地小于约2%的特征部高度。 In one embodiment, the non-uniformity of the grinding elements is less than about 10% of the height of the features, particularly less than about 5% of the height of the feature, and more particularly less than about 2% of the height of the feature.

[0031] 当模制研磨元件时,它是其结构由模制工艺所赋予的精确结构化研磨元件的子集。 [0031] When molding grinding elements, which is a subset precisely structured abrasive element by the molding process, the structure imparted. 例如,形状可以与模具腔体反向,使得已从模具中取出研磨元件生坯之后保持该形状。 For example, the shape of the mold cavity may be reversed, so that the shape retaining element green compact after polishing removed from the mold. 可以使用各种陶瓷成形工艺,包括(但不限于):注塑、流铸、模压、热压、压印、转印模制、凝胶浇注等。 Various ceramic forming processes may be used, including (but not limited to): injection molding, casting, molding, pressing, embossing, transfer molding, gel casting and the like. 在一个实施例中,在室温下使用模压工艺,接着进行烧结。 In one embodiment, a molding process at room temperature, followed by sintering. 通常,接近室温的陶瓷模压被称为陶瓷干压。 Typically, the ceramic molded close to room temperature is referred to as a ceramic dry pressing. 通常,陶瓷干压与陶瓷注塑的不同之处在于,其在较低的温度下完成,所使用的粘合剂的量少很多,使用模压,并且适合用作粘合剂的材料不必限于热塑性的。 Typically, the ceramic dry pressing ceramic injection molding differs in that it is completed at a lower temperature, much less binder is used, the use of molding, and the material suitable as a thermoplastic binder not necessarily limited .

[0032] 研磨制品 [0032] The abrasive article

[0033] 本发明的精确加工研磨制品总体包括至少一个研磨元件、紧固元件和弹性元件。 [0033] The accurately machined abrasive article of the invention generally comprises at least one grinding element, the fastening element and the resilient element. 在一个实施例中,精确加工研磨制品包括多个研磨元件。 In one embodiment, the abrasive article comprising a plurality of precisely machined abrasive elements. 紧固元件是用于将一种或多种材料粘附在一起的材料。 The fastening member is a material of one or more materials adhered together. 合适的紧固元件的例子可以包括(但不限于):两份环氧树脂、压敏粘合剂、结构粘合剂、热烙性粘合剂、B-stageabIe粘合剂、机械紧固件和机械锁定装置。 Examples of suitable fastening element may include (but are not limited to): Two epoxy resin, pressure sensitive adhesives, structural adhesives, hot branding adhesive, B-stageabIe adhesives, mechanical fasteners, and mechanical locking means.

[0034] 弹性元件用于独立悬挂单个研磨元件或者整体性地悬挂多个结构化研磨元件。 [0034] The elastic member for independently suspending individual abrasive element or a plurality of structural integrity of the suspended abrasive element. 弹性元件是刚性小于精确结构化研磨元件和/或载体并且可压缩性大于精确结构化研磨元件和/或载体的材料。 The elastic member is less rigid than the precise structure of the grinding elements and / or carrier materials and precisely structured abrasive elements and / or compressibility is greater than the carrier. 弹性元件在压缩的情况下弹性变形并且可以通过紧固元件将其锁定在压缩位置,或者在使用过程中允许弹性变形。 The elastic member is elastically deformed and compressed in the case of the fastening member can be locked in the compressed position, or to allow the elastic deformation during use. 弹性元件可以是分段的、连续的、不连续的或万向的。 The resilient member may be segmented, continuous, discontinuous or gimbaled. 合适的弹性元件的例子包括(但不限于):机械弹簧样装置、柔性垫圈、泡沫、聚合物或凝胶。 Examples of suitable elastic elements include (but are not limited to): a mechanical device like a spring, a flexible gasket, foam, a polymer or gel. 弹性元件也可以具有紧固特征,诸如,具有粘合剂背衬的泡沫。 The resilient member may also have a fastening feature, such as a foam having an adhesive backing. 在一个实施例中,弹性元件也可以用作紧固元件。 In one embodiment, the resilient member may serve as a fastening element.

[0035] 与金刚石高度可变的金刚石粗粒垫修整器不同,研磨元件的研磨特征部可以与基准平面对准。 [0035] the variable height of the diamond grit diamond pad conditioner different polishing characteristics of the polishing elements may be aligned with the reference plane. 基准平面是通过研磨元件或研磨制品的所选择特征部的最大值的理论平面。 Theoretical reference plane is the plane of maximum feature selection element by grinding or abrasive article. 特征最大值也被称为一个或多个特征部顶端。 Wherein the maximum value is also referred to as a top portion or more features. 所选择特征部是具有最大共同设计高度D tl的工作特征部的集合。 The selected feature is a set of operating characteristic portion has a maximum height D tl of a common design. 对于成轮廓表面而言,限定基准平面的特征部是高度最高的三个特征部。 For contoured surface, characterized in that the portion defining a reference plane height of the highest portion of the three characteristics.

[0036] 对准工艺对于可再生产地形成限定的承载区域或呈现给工件或抛光垫来说是重要的。 [0036] The alignment process is important for the area of ​​the carrier may be defined or formed reproducibly presented to the workpiece or the polishing pad is. 与和位于载体下最平坦的表面(即,非金刚石顶端)对准的金刚石粗粒修整器不同, 精确结构化研磨元件使用与最大特征部接触的平坦表面(即,"对准板")最好地对准。 And most of the carrier with the lower planar surface (i.e., non-diamond tip) different alignments coarse diamond dresser, the precise use of structured abrasive member into contact with the flat surface portion wherein the maximum (i.e., "aligning plate"), most well aligned. 对准板的平坦表面优选地具有每4英寸(10. 2cm)长度至少约+/-2. 5微米的公差或者甚至更低,即甚至更平坦。 Preferably, the flat surface alignment plate having per 4 inches (10. 2cm) a length of at least about +/- 2.5 microns or even lower tolerance, i.e. even flatter. 在该装配工艺中使用弹性元件和紧固元件,以在载体基底上彼此相对地精确对准元件。 Elastic element and the fastening element in the assembly process, the carrier substrate opposite to the precise alignment with each other member.

[0037] 研磨制品也可以包括一个或多个清洁元件,清洁元件可以是连续的或者不连续的。 [0037] The abrasive article may also include one or more cleaning elements, the cleaning element may be continuous or discontinuous. 清洁元件具有提供清洁工件表面的功能。 Cleaning elements to provide cleaning member having a surface feature. 清洁元件可以包含刷子或被设计用于扫除碎屑的其它材料,或者可以是提供用于从表面去除浆液或尘屑的通道或凸起区域。 The cleaning member may comprise a brush or other materials designed for sweeping debris, or may be provided for removing dust or slurry channels or projections from the surface region.

[0038] 研磨元件可以在精确平坦载体上对准或被安装在精确平坦载体上。 [0038] The grinding elements may be precisely aligned or mounted on a flat support in precision flat carrier. 合适载体材料的例子包括(但不限于):金属(例如,不锈钢)、陶瓷、聚合物(例如,聚碳酸酯)、金属陶瓷、硅和复合物。 Examples of suitable support materials include (but are not limited to): metal (e.g., stainless steel), ceramics, polymers (e.g., polycarbonate), cermet, silicon and composites. 研磨元件和载体也可以具有被成轮廓的圆形或非圆形周边,或者拥有杯形或圆环形等形状。 Grinding elements and the carrier may have a circular or non-circular perimeter to be contoured, or have a cup or circular shape. 在这种情况下,研磨元件对准,使得特征部顶端的共面性最大。 In this case, the grinding element is aligned so that the tip of coplanarity maximum feature. 非共面性是与通过顶端集合的理想基准平面的所选择顶端集合的距离值的绝对值的平均值。 Non-coplanarity is an average over the selected reference plane to the top set of absolute distance value by the set top. 非共面性被描述为相对于所选择特征部高度D。 Noncoplanarities been described with respect to the height of the selected characteristic portion D. 的百分比。 Percentage.

[0039] 本发明的研磨元件和制品具有精确加工表面,导致可再现且可预测的表面形貌, 如通过低缺陷率和接合工件的特征部的数量所测量的。 [0039] The abrasive articles of the invention and the element having a precisely machined surface, resulting in a reproducible and predictable surface topography, such as by the number of features of low defectivity and engage the workpiece being measured. 当存在多个特征部高度时,主工作特征部是基本等高的最高特征部。 When a plurality of feature height, wherein the working portion of the main features is the highest portion of the basic contour. 第二工作特征部和第三工作特征部是高度从主工作特征部起的第一偏移量和第二偏移量,使得第二特征部的偏移比第三特征部的偏移小。 The second and third operating portion operating characteristic feature is the height of the first offset and the second offset from the starting portion of the main operating characteristics, so that the offset portion is smaller than the second characteristic feature of the third offset portion. 该定义对其它特征部高度同样有效。 This definition is also valid for the height of the other features.

[0040] 所得的研磨元件和制品能精确复制特征部,缺陷低,并且主特征部的均匀性和平面性好。 [0040] The resulting abrasive article can clone elements and features, low defect, and the uniformity and planarity of the main features of the good. 当例如精确成形的研磨特征部表面内存在意想不到的凹陷、气隙或气泡时,出现缺陷,并且通常从一个精确成形的研磨特征部向着下一个精确定形的研磨特征部,位置和/ 或尺寸发生变化。 Wherein when the abrasive surface, such as precisely-shaped portion in unexpected recess memory, an air gap or bubble defects, and abrasive characteristics from a precisely shaped portion generally toward the next portion precisely shaped abrasive characteristics, location and / or dimensions Variety. 通过看研磨制品内的许多精确成形特征部的整体形状和图案,当与阵列中单个精确成形特征部比较时,缺陷在显微镜下是容易分辨的。 By looking at the overall shape and design of many of the features of precisely shaped abrasive article, when the array of precisely shaped individual feature comparison, defects are easily distinguishable under the microscope. 在一些实施例中,精确成形研磨元件缺陷导致缺失精确成形研磨特征部的顶点。 In some embodiments, the precisely-shaped abrasive element defects result in loss of precisely-shaped abrasive characteristics apex portion. 在一个实施例中,研磨元件或制品缺陷特征部的百分比小于约30%,具体地讲小于约15%并且具体地讲小于约2%。 In one embodiment, the percentage of defective products abrasive elements or features is less than about 30%, particularly less than about 15%, and particularly less than about 2%.

[0041] 研磨制品的每个研磨元件在处理或与所涂覆材料失去热匹配时,还具有低的或受控的卷曲或翘曲,导致元件平面性好。 Each grinding element [0041] The abrasive article during processing or loss of the coating material thermally matched, but also has low curling or warping or controlled, resulting in good planar element. "元件平面性"指精确结构化研磨元件内所选择的特征部顶端相对于基准平面的平面性。 "Planar member" refers to the top portion to the precise features structured abrasive member with respect to the plane of the selected reference plane. 元件的平面性部分是由模具设计、模制工具的保真性以及模制和烧结工艺的均匀度(例如,不同的收缩和翘曲)等所确定的。 Planar portion is designed by the mold element, and the fidelity of uniformity of the molding tool molding and sintering process (e.g., different shrinkage and warpage) and the like determined. 对于单个元件,平面性指一组特征部顶端相对于基准平面的距离的变化。 For a single element, the flatness of a group refers to the top portion wherein the distance changes with respect to the reference plane. 用于计算平面性的一组顶端包括具有公共最大设计高度D tl的所有特征部的顶端。 For calculating a set top plane of the top of all features include having a common height D tl of the maximum design. 基准平面被限定为具有最佳线性回归拟合所有所选择的高度为Dtl的特征部顶端的平面。 The reference plane is defined as having the best linear regression fit for all of the selected planar top Dtl feature height. 非平面性是所选择的顶端与基准平面距离绝对值的平均值。 Non-planarity is selected from the top of the absolute values ​​of the reference plane. 可以通过以下方式测量平面性:通过与图像分析软件(例如,M0UNTAINSMAP V5.0图像分析软件(法国贝桑松的数字冲浪(Digital Surf, Besangon,France)))结合的碳纸压印测试或标准形貌工具(包括激光轮廓术、共焦成像和共焦扫描显微镜)测量。 Planarity can be measured in the following ways: by image analysis software (e.g., M0UNTAINSMAP V5.0 image analysis software (Besancon, France digital Surf (Digital Surf, Besangon, France))) bonded carbon paper or embossing test standard topography tool (including laser profilometry, confocal imaging and scanning confocal microscope) measurement. 元件形貌也通过偏差、尖峰值等来表征。 Characterized by the morphology element deviation, the peak value and the like. 本发明精确成形研磨元件具有小于约20%的特征部高度的非平面性。 The present invention is precisely-shaped abrasive element having a height of less than about 20% of non-planarity features. 在一个实施例中,研磨元件的非平面性小于约10%的特征部高度,具体地讲小于约5%的特征部高度,更具体地小于约2%的特征部高度。 In one embodiment, wherein the non-planar portion of a height less than about 10% of the abrasive element, particularly less than about 5% of the height of the feature, and more particularly less than about 2% of the height of the feature.

[0042] 研磨制品也与精确成形研磨元件准确对准,使得具有基本的共面性。 [0042] The abrasive article precisely shaped grinding elements are also accurately aligned, so as to have substantially coplanarity. 对于多个元件,共面性指一组特征部顶端相对于基准平面与多个元件的距离的变化性。 For a plurality of elements, means coplanarity variability with respect to the reference plane and the plurality of elements from the set of features of the top portion. 该基准平面被限定为具有最佳线性回归拟合了所有所选择的最大高度为D tl的特征部顶端的平面。 The reference plane is defined as having the best linear regression fit for all of the maximum D tl planar top portion of the height of the selected feature. 非共面性是所选择顶端与基准平面距离的绝对值的平均值。 Non-coplanarity is selected from the reference plane to the top of the absolute values. 当单独的研磨元件未对准时,导致非共面性。 When the individual grinding elements misaligned, resulting in the non-coplanarity. 例如通过碳压印测试,通过不均匀的压力分布可以看到非共面性。 For example, by a carbon imprint testing by non-uniform pressure distribution can be seen that the non-coplanarity. 对于碳压印测试上具有平均分布的多个研磨元件,可以通过标准的形貌工具进一步量化共面性的程度, 包括激光轮廓术、共焦成像和共焦扫描显微镜。 For a plurality of abrasive elements evenly distributed embossing carbon test can be further quantified by a standard degree of coplanarity topography tool, comprising a laser profilometry, confocal imaging and scanning confocal microscope. 可以将图像软件(例如,M0UNTAINSMAP)与多种形貌图谱组合成用于分析的组合形貌图谱。 Imaging software (e.g., M0UNTAINSMAP) with the topography map may be combined into a combined pattern morphology for analysis. 公共最大设计特征部高度为D tl的所有研磨元件上的特征部的集合组具有小于约20%的特征部高度的非共面性。 Design features common maximum height of the set of groups of features on all grinding elements D tl is less than about 20% of the height of the non-coplanarity features. 在一个实施例中, 研磨元件的非共面性小于约10 %的特征部高度,具体地讲小于约5 %的特征部高度,更具体地小于约2%的特征部高度。 In one embodiment, the non-coplanarity of the grinding element is less than about 10% of the height of the features, particularly less than about 5% of the height of the feature, and more particularly less than about 2% of the height of the feature.

[0043] 可以通过机械加工、显微机械加工、微复制、模制、挤出、注塑、陶瓷挤压等形成本发明的研磨元件,使得制造出精确成形结构并且可以在部件间和部件内重复生产,从而反映复制设计的能力。 [0043] may be by machining, micromachining, microreplication, molding, extrusion, injection molding, extrusion forming a ceramic grinding elements according to the present invention, such structures create a precisely shaped and the inner member and may be repeated among the member production, thereby reflecting the ability to copy the design. 在一个实施例中,使用陶瓷模压工艺。 In one embodiment, the ceramic molding process. 具体地,陶瓷模压工艺是陶瓷干压处理。 Specifically, the ceramic molding process is a ceramic dry pressing process.

[0044] 在一个实施例中,用多个精确成形的、加工整料制成包括一个或多个研磨元件的研磨制品,所述整料被设计为具有良好的特征部完整性,相对不易蚀,并且抗断裂。 [0044] In one embodiment, a plurality of precisely-shaped, processed or monoliths made abrasive article comprising a plurality of grinding elements, the monolith was designed to have good integrity feature, relatively non-erodible , and resistance to fracture. 整料具有连续的结构和精确成形形貌,其中,研磨特征部和研磨元件的研磨特征部之间的区域是连续的并且在无居间基质的情况下由主要研磨材料构成,诸如,在结构化研磨组合物中存在的那些。 Monolith structure having a continuous and precisely shaped morphology, wherein the region between the abrasive characteristics of the polishing feature and the grinding element is continuous and composed of a main abrasive material in the matrix without intervening circumstances, such as in the structure of polishing those present in the composition. 形貌是预先确定的并且由可以采用诸如机械加工或微机械加工、水喷切割、注塑、挤出、微复制或陶瓷模压的方法形成的材料复制。 Morphology is determined in advance and may be employed, such as a copy material by a machining or micro-machining, water jet cutting, injection molding, extrusion, microreplication, or a ceramic molding formed by the method.

[0045] 牛坏及方法 [0045] cow and bad methods

[0046] 可以烧结模制的陶瓷生坯,以实现高密度、高刚度、高断裂韧度以及良好的特征部保真性。 [0046] The green ceramic can be sintered molded, to achieve high-density, high stiffness, high fracture toughness and good feature fidelity. 如本领域的技术人员通常所指出的,生坯是未烧结的、压实的陶瓷元件。 As those skilled in the art usually noted, is unsintered green compacted ceramic element. 生坯包括第一主表面、第二主表面和多个精确成形特征部。 Green body comprising a first major surface, a second major surface and a plurality of precisely-shaped features.

[0047] 生坯包括多个无机粒子和粘合剂,其中,多个无机粒子为按重量计至少约99%的碳化物陶瓷。 [0047] The green body comprising a plurality of inorganic particles and a binder, wherein the plurality of inorganic particles by weight of at least about 99% of the carbide ceramics. 在一个实施例中,无机粒子是陶瓷粒子并且可以是碳化硅、碳化硼、碳化锆、碳化钨或它们的组合。 In one embodiment, the inorganic particles are ceramic particles and may be silicon carbide, boron carbide, zirconium carbide, tungsten carbide, or combinations thereof.

[0048] 生坯的粘合剂可以是热塑性粘合剂。 [0048] The green body may be a thermoplastic adhesive binder. 合适粘合剂的例子包括(但不限于)热塑性聚合物。 Examples of suitable binders include (but are not limited to) a thermoplastic polymer. 在一个实施例中,粘合剂是热塑性粘合剂,其T/J、于约25 °C,并且具体地讲小于约(TC。在一个实施例中,粘合剂是聚丙烯酸酯粘合剂。 In one embodiment, the adhesive is a thermoplastic adhesive, which T / J, at about 25 ° C, and particularly less than about (TC. In one embodiment, the adhesive is a polyacrylate adhesive agents.

[0049] 生坯还包括碳源。 [0049] The green body further comprises a carbon source. 合适碳源的例子包括(但不限于):酚醛树脂、纤维素化合物、 糖、石墨、炭黑以及它们的组合。 Examples of suitable carbon sources include (but are not limited to): a phenol resin, a cellulose compound, a sugar, graphite, carbon black, and combinations thereof. 在一个实施例中,生坯包含按重量计约0%至约10%的碳源并且具体地讲按重量计在约2%至约7%之间的碳源。 In one embodiment, the green body comprising carbon by weight from about 0% to about 10% and by weight, in particular between about 2% to about 7% of the carbon source. 生坯组合物中的碳化合物导致烧结之后具有较低的孔隙率。 Carbon compounds green body compositions results after sintering having a lower porosity. 生坯还可包括另外的功能性材料,诸如,剥离剂或润滑剂。 The green body may also include additional functional material, such as release agents or lubricants. 在一个实施例中,生坯包括按重量计约〇%至10%之间的润滑剂。 In one embodiment, the lubricant by weight of the green body comprises between about billion% to 10%.

[0050] 如之前所讨论地,通过陶瓷成形工艺制作模制的生坯。 [0050] As previously discussed, the production process of the green ceramic molding by molding. 可以烧结生坯,以形成以基本整体制造的研磨元件。 The green body may be sintered to form the abrasive member manufactured substantially integrally. 应当理解,预烧结的生坯包含诸如碳的易挥发的元素,其在最终烧结制品中基本不存在。 It should be appreciated that the pre-sintered green body comprising volatile elements such as carbon, which is substantially not present in the final sintered article. (因此,在最终烧结的制品中碳化物相为99 %,但在生述内为较低的组成。) (Thus, in the final sintered article carbide phase is 99%, but lower in said endogenous composition.)

[0051] 生坯是研磨元件前体,并且通过首先混合多个无机粒子、粘合剂和碳源以形成混合物而制成。 [0051] grinding the green component precursors, and by first mixing the mixture to form a plurality of inorganic particles, a binder and a carbon source is made. 在一个实施例中,通过喷雾干燥方法形成混合物的凝聚物。 In one embodiment, the aggregate mixture is formed by spray-drying process.

[0052] 在一个实施例中,通过诸如陶瓷干压的模压操作形成生坯。 [0052] In one embodiment, the green body is formed by molding operation such as a ceramic dry pressing. 将混合物喷雾干燥的凝聚物填充至模具腔体中。 The mixture was spray-dried aggregates filled the mold cavity. 可以任选地筛选凝聚物,以提供特定尺寸的凝聚物。 Aggregates may optionally be filtered to provide a specific size aggregates. 例如,可以筛选凝聚物,以提供尺寸小于约45微米的凝聚物。 For example, aggregates can be screened, to provide a size less than about 45 micrometers agglomerates.

[0053] 将具有多个精确成形腔体的模具放置在模具腔体中,使得模具的精确成形腔体的主要部分被填充混合物。 The main part of [0053] a mold having a plurality of precisely-shaped cavities placed in a mold cavity, such that the precisely shaped mold cavity is filled with the mixture. 模具可以由金属、陶瓷、金属陶瓷、复合物或聚合物材料形成。 Mold may be formed of metal, ceramic, cermet, or composite polymer material. 在一个实施例中,模具是诸如聚丙烯的聚合物材料。 In one embodiment, the mold is a polymeric material such as polypropylene. 在另一个实施例中,模具是镍。 In another embodiment, the mold is nickel. 接着将压力施加至混合物,以将混合物压实在精确成形腔体中,以形成具有第一主表面和第二主表面的生坯陶瓷元件。 Then applying pressure to the mixture, to the mixture was compacted in a precisely-shaped cavity to form a green ceramic element having a first major surface and a second major surface. 可以在环境温度或在升高的温度下施加该压力。 The pressure may be applied at ambient temperature or at elevated temperature. 还可以使用多于一个施压步骤。 You can also use more than one pressing step.

[0054] 模具(或者生产工具)在其表面上具有至少一种指定形状的预定阵列,其与研磨元件的精确成形特征部的预定阵列和指定形状(一种或多种)反向。 [0054] The mold (or production tool) having a predetermined array of at least one specified shape on the surface thereof, wherein a predetermined portion of the array which is precisely shaped grinding elements with a predetermined shape and a (one or more) counter. 如上所述,可以由例如镍的金属制备模具,尽管也可以使用塑料工具。 As described above, the mold can be prepared by, for example nickel, although plastic tools can also be used. 可以通过雕刻、微机械加工或诸如金刚石车削的其它机械方式,或者通过电铸来制造由金属制成的模具。 By engraving, micromachining, or other mechanical means such as diamond turning, or by electroforming to manufacture a mold made of a metal. 优选的方法是电铸。 The preferred method is electroformed.

[0055] 除了以上技术外,可以通过制备正母模形成模具,正母模具有预定的阵列和研磨元件的指定形状的精确成形特征部。 [0055] In addition to the above technique, the mold may be formed by preparing a positive master mold, forming the positive master mold feature precise predetermined shape and predetermined array of abrasive elements. 接着,制造其表面形貌与正母模反向的模具。 Subsequently, the surface morphology of manufacturing the positive master mold reverse mold. 可以直接通过机械加工技术制成正母模,诸如,美国专利5, 152, 917 (Pi印er等人)和6, 076, 248 (Hoopman等人)所公开的金刚石车削,这些专利的公开内容以引用方式并入本文。 Positive master mold can be made by direct machining techniques, such as, U.S. Patent No. 5, 152, 917 (Pi printing er et al.) And 6, 076, diamond turning 248 (Hoopman et al.) Disclosed, the disclosure of these patents incorporated by reference herein. 这些技术进一步描述于美国专利6, 021,559 (Smith),该专利的公开内容以引用方式并入本文。 These techniques are further described in U.S. Patent No. 6, 021,559 (Smith), the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0056] 包括例如热塑性塑料的模具可以通过复制金属母模工具制成。 [0056] including, for example, a mold may be made of a thermoplastic by copying a metal master tool. 可以任选地与金属母模一起加热热塑性片材料,使得通过将两个表面压在一起在热塑性材料压印有金属母模呈现的表面图案。 May optionally be heated together with a metal master mold of the thermoplastic sheet material, such that by pressing the two surfaces together in a thermoplastic material embossed with the surface pattern presented by the metal master mold. 还可以将热塑性塑料材料挤出或浇注到金属母模上然后按压。 Thermoplastic materials may also be extruded or cast onto the master tool and then pressed metal. 生产工具和金属母模的其它合适方法在美国专利5,435,816(Sp Urge〇n等人)中有所讨论,其以引用方式并入本文。 Production tools, and other suitable methods of metal master are discussed in U.S. Patent No. 5,435,816 (Sp Urge〇n et al.), Which is incorporated by reference herein.

[0057] 为了形成精确加工研磨元件,从模具中取出生坯陶瓷元件并进行加热,以致使烧结无机粒子。 [0057] In order to form precise machining grinding elements, green ceramic element removed from the mold and heated to cause sintering of the inorganic particles. 在一个实施例中,在约300°C和约900°C之间的温度范围内,在缺氧的气氛中, 在粘合剂和碳源热裂解步骤期间加热生坯陶瓷元件。 In one embodiment, in a temperature range between about 300 ° C and about 900 ° C, in the anoxic atmosphere, green ceramic heating element during the thermal cracking step the binder and carbon. 在一个实施例中,在约1900°C至约2300°C之间在缺氧气氛下,烧结生坯陶瓷元件,以形成研磨元件。 In one embodiment, between about 1900 ° C to about 2300 ° C under anaerobic atmosphere, the sintered green ceramic element to form an abrasive element.

[0058] 在清洁之后,任选地涂覆研磨元件。 [0058] After cleaning, optionally coated abrasive element.

[0059] 鉬件 [0059] The molybdenum member

[0060] 通过首先放置与对准板接触的第一研磨元件和第二研磨元件的第一主表面来组装精确加工研磨制品。 [0060] The abrasive article is assembled by precision machining a first major surface a first and a second grinding element the grinding element is first placed in contact with the alignment plate. 接着,使弹性元件的第一主表面与研磨元件的第二主表面接触。 Subsequently, the resilient member so that the second major surface of the first major surface in contact with the grinding elements. 接着,通过紧固元件将弹性元件的第二主表面附连于载体。 Subsequently, by fastening the second major surface of the elastic member is attached to the support member. 接着,在压力作用下将组件粘合在一起。 Subsequently, the assembly under pressure bonded together. 当组装时,由工件顶端限定的平面相对于载体的背平面基本为平面的。 When assembled, the plane defined by the top of the workpiece relative to the back plane of the carrier is substantially planar. 在一个实施例中,研磨制品是单面垫修整器,其中,精确成形特征部位于一个表面上。 In one embodiment, the abrasive article is a single-sided pad dresser, wherein the precisely-shaped portion located on one surface feature. 然而,也可以组装垫修整器,使得其为双面的,其中,两个面呈现精确结构化特征部。 However, it may be assembled pad conditioner, so that it is double-sided, wherein the two presentation faces of the precise structural features.

[0061] 用涂 [0061] coated with

[0062] 可以在常规化学-机械平面化(CMP)工艺中使用本发明的具有精确结构化研磨元件的垫修整器。 [0062] may be a conventional chemical - Use pad dresser having abrasive precise structural element of the present invention, mechanical planarization (CMP) process. 在此常规CMP工艺中可以抛光或平面化各种材料,包括(但不限于):铜、 铜合金、铝、钽、氮化钽、钨、钛、氮化钛、镍、镍铁合金、硅化镍、锗、硅、氮化硅、碳化硅、二氧化硅、硅的氧化物、二氧化铪、介电常数低的材料以及它们的组合。 In this CMP process may be a conventional polishing or planarizing a variety of materials, including (but not limited to): copper, copper alloys, aluminum, tantalum, tantalum nitride, tungsten, titanium, titanium nitride, nickel, nickel-iron alloys, nickel silicide germanium, silicon, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, silicon dioxide, silicon oxide, hafnium oxide, low dielectric constant materials, and combinations thereof. 可以将垫修整器构造成在此CMP工艺中安装到常规CMP工具上并且在常规运行条件下运行。 Pad dresser may be configured to be mounted to a conventional CMP tool and a CMP process in this run under conventional operating conditions. 在一个实施例中,CMP 工艺在以下状态下运行:在约20RPM至约150RPM之间的旋转速度范围内,在所施加的负载为约Ilb至约901b之间的范围内,并且以每分钟约1次扫描至约25次扫描之间的速率在整个垫上进行来回扫描,利用常规扫描分布(诸如,正弦扫描或线性扫描)。 , The CMP process is operating in one embodiment in the following cases: in the rotation speed range between about 20RPM to 150RPM about, the applied load is in a range between about 901b to about Ilb, per minute and about scanning rate of between about 1 25 to scan back and forth across the pad scanned using conventional scanning distribution (such as sinusoidal scan or linear scan).

[0063] 实魁 [0063] Real Quebec

[0064] 本发明在以下实例中有更具体的描述,所述实例仅为说明性的,因为本发明范围内的许多修改形式和变化对本领域的技术人员将显而易见。 [0064] In the present invention has the following more particular description of examples, the examples are illustrative only, since numerous modifications and variations within the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art will be apparent. 除非另外指明,下述实例中记述的所有份数、百分比和比率均以重量计。 Unless otherwise indicated, all parts, percentages and ratios described in the following examples are by weight.

[0065] 测试方法 [0065] Test Method

[0066] 特征部缺陷测试方法 [0066] Test Method defect feature

[0067] 在63X总放大倍数的立体显微镜(得自宾西法尼亚州中心谷的奥林巴斯美国公司的型号为SZ60(Model SZ60from Olympus America Inc. ,Center Valley, Pennsylvania)) 下检测具有精确成形研磨特征部的研磨制品。 [0067] The total magnification stereoscopic microscope at 63X multiple (available from Center Valley, Pennsylvania US companies Olympus Model SZ60 (Model SZ60from Olympus America Inc., Center Valley, Pennsylvania)) with a precise detected wherein the polishing abrasive article shaped portion. 将缺陷定义为缺失、拥有意想不到的凹陷、气隙、气泡的特征部或者拥有火山口状或截顶的顶端而不是尖的并且充分形成的顶端的特征部。 The defect is defined as a deletion, an unexpected feature has a recess, the air gap, the air bubbles to the top or have crater-like or truncated rather than pointed and the tip portion of the feature is sufficiently formed. 将有缺陷特征部的百分比定义为将研磨元件上具有主要缺陷的特征部的数量除以研磨元件上特征部的总数,乘以1〇〇。 Defines the percentage of the defective feature is the total number of the number of features have a major drawback on the grinding element the grinding element divided by the characteristic portion, multiplied 1〇〇.

[0068] 元件平面件的测试方法 [0068] Test Method planar element member

[0069] 使用与MOUNTAINSMP V5. 0图像分析软件(法国贝桑松的数字冲浪(Digital Surf,Besangon, France))结合的激光轮廓术和莱卡DCM 3D共焦显微镜来测量具有精确成形特征部的个体研磨元件的非平面性。 [0069] using MOUNTAINSMP V5. 0 image analysis software (Besancon, France digital Surf (Digital Surf, Besangon, France)) binding laser profilometry and DCM 3D Leica confocal microscope to measure individual precisely shaped feature having a portion non-planarity of the grinding elements. 将Micro-Epsilon 0ptoNCDT1700激光轮廓曲线仪(北卡罗莱纳州罗利市(Raleigh, North Carolina))安装至B&H机械公司(威斯康星州罗伯茨)(B&H Machine Company, Inc. (Roberts, Wisconsin))提供的XY 测试台。 The Micro-Epsilon 0ptoNCDT1700 laser profilometer (North Carolina, Raleigh (Raleigh, North Carolina)) mounted to the B & H Machinery Company (Wisconsin Roberts) (B & H Machine Company, Inc. (Roberts, Wisconsin)) offers XY test bench. 调节轮廓曲线仪的扫描速率和增量,以提供足够的分辨率,以准确定位特征部顶端,因而取决于精确成形特征部的类型、尺寸和图案化。 Scan rate and incremental adjustment profilometer to provide sufficient resolution to accurately locate features tip portion, thereby precisely formed depending on the type of feature, size and patterning. 对于研磨元件,选择一组特征部,所有特征部具有相同最大设计特征部高度D tl,测量它们相对于基部平面的高度。 The polishing member, select a set of features, all the features have the same design features a maximum height D tl, measuring their height with respect to the base plane. 将基准平面定义为具有最佳线性回归拟合了所有高度为Dtl的所选择特征部顶端的平面。 The reference plane is defined as having a linear regression best fit plane to the top of all features height chosen for the Dtl. 非平面性是所选择顶端与基准平面的距离的绝对值的平均值。 Non-planarity of the reference plane is the distance to the top of the selected absolute values. 非平面性被表达为相对于所选择特征部的高度D tl的百分比。 Non-planarity is expressed as a percentage relative to the selected characteristic portion of the height D tl.

[0070] 研磨制品共面件测试方法I [0070] The abrasive article coplanar items Test Method I

[0071] 通过碳纸压印测试(CPI测试)测量具有多个研磨元件的研磨制品的共面性。 [0071] Measurement of the abrasive article having a surface co-grinding elements by a plurality of carbon paper imprint test (CPI test). 将制品放置在平坦的花岗石表面上,使得精确成形特征部背离花岗石表面朝上。 The article is placed on a flat granite surface, characterized in that the precisely shaped portion facing away from the granite surface. 接着,将碳纸对着特征部放置,使碳面朝上。 Subsequently, the carbon paper is placed against the portion wherein the carbon side facing up. 将照片品质纸的白色片材放置在碳纸的顶部上,使得碳直接接触相纸,以在相纸上形成图像。 The photo-quality white paper sheet placed on top of the carbon paper, so that direct contact with the carbon paper to form an image on the paper. 将平坦板放置在相纸/碳纸/研磨制品堆叠的顶部。 The flat plate was placed on top of the paper / carbon paper / abrasive article stack. 将1201b (54. 4kg)的负载施加至堆叠,保持30秒。 The 1201b (54. 4kg) load is applied to the stack, for 30 seconds. 去除负载并用图像扫描仪扫描相纸,以记录所压印的图像。 The load is removed and the image scanner photographic paper to record images imprinted.

[0072] 共面的研磨制品使得获得独立元件具有相等尺寸和颜色密度的图像,如视觉上或通过图像分析定量的。 [0072] The abrasive article coplanar so as to obtain an image having a separate element of equal size and color density, such as visually or by quantitative image analysis. 当研磨制品的元件明显不共面时,个体元件的图像可能缺失、不对称或示出显著较轻的密度区域。 When the abrasive article is obviously not co-planar elements, the individual elements of the image may be missing, asymmetric or showed a significant lighter density regions.

[0073] 研磨制品共面件测试方法II [0073] The abrasive article Test Method II coplanarity member

[0074] 可以使用与图像分析软件(例如,MOUNTAINSMP)结合的标准形貌工具测量共面性,包括激光轮廓术、共焦成像和共焦扫描显微镜。 [0074] The image analysis software may be used (e.g., MOUNTAINSMP) standard binding topography measurement tool coplanarity, including laser profilometry, confocal imaging and scanning confocal microscope. 元件的形貌也可以通过偏差、尖峰值等来表征。 Morphology element may be characterized by the deviation, the peak value and the like.

[0075] 对于多个元件,共面性指来自多个元件的一组特征部顶端相对于基准平面的位置的变化性。 [0075] For a plurality of elements, the coplanarity refers to the top portion of a set of features from a plurality of elements with respect to a change of position of the reference plane. 基准平面被限定为具有最佳线性回归拟合了高度为D tl的所有所选择特征部的平面。 The reference plane is defined as having a linear regression best fit plane to all of the selected characteristic portion of the height D tl. 用于计算共面性的一组特征部顶端包括具有公共最大设计高度Dtl的所有特征部的顶端。 Calculating a set of features for coplanarity of the top portion including a tip having all of the features common maximum design height of Dtl. 使用所选择顶端与基准平面的距离的绝对值的平均值计算非共面性。 And using the distance to the top of the selected reference plane calculating absolute values ​​of the non-coplanarity. 非共面性被表达为相对于所选择特征部的高度D tl的百分比。 Non-coplanarity is expressed as a percentage relative to the selected characteristic portion of the height D tl.

[0076] 堆密度和孔隙率测试方法 [0076] The bulk density and porosity test method

[0077] 根据ASTM测试方法C373测量具有精确成形特征部的研磨元件的堆密度和表观孔隙率。 [0077] having a bulk density and apparent porosity of the precisely shaped grinding elements according to the features measured ASTM test method C373. 也基于堆密度计算总孔隙率并且假设研磨元件的理论密度为3. 20g/cm3。 The total porosity is calculated also based on assumptions of the theoretical density and bulk density of the grinding element 3. 20g / cm3. 所计算的孔隙率如下:[(理论密度-堆密度)/理论密度]*100。 The porosity is calculated as follows: [(Theoretical density - bulk density) / theoretical density] * 100.

[0078] 平询晶粒尺寸测试方法 [0078] Flat crystal grain size testing method Inquiry

[0079] 用光学显微镜和扫描电子显微镜检测元件表面来确定具有精确成形特征部的研磨元件的碳化物晶粒的平均表面晶粒尺寸。 [0079] surface with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine the element surface having an average grain size of carbide grains precisely shaped grinding elements characteristic portion. 对于光学显微镜,使用在100X放大倍数下的型号为ME600的尼康光学显微镜(日本东京尼康公司(Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan))。 For optical microscopy, using at 100X magnification ME600 Model Nikon optical microscope (Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan (Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan)). 对于扫描电子显微镜,使用在5, OOOX放大倍数、15keV加速电压和4-5mm工作距离下的型号为TM3000的日立高科技扫描电子显微镜(日本东京日立公司(Hitachi Corporation, Tokyo, Japan))。 For scanning electron microscopy, in 5, OOOX magnification, 15keV accelerating voltage and models at a working distance of 4-5mm Hitachi TM3000 high-tech scanning electron microscope (Tokyo, Japan Hitachi (Hitachi Corporation, Tokyo, Japan)). 使用样线截取法。 Using the line intercept method. 首先,绘制水平横过图像(大致等距间隔)的5条直线。 First, an image rendering level crossing (substantially equidistantly spaced) of five straight lines. 接下来,对通过线截取的晶粒的数量进行计数,排除在图像边缘处的第一个晶粒和最后一个晶粒。 Next, the number of lines taken by counting the grains, the grain boundaries excluding the first and last images of the grains. 接着,使用线的长度(缩放至图像)除以所截取晶粒的平均数量并乘以因子1. 56,以确定平均晶粒尺寸(平均晶粒尺寸=1. 56*线的长度/所截取晶粒的平均数量)。 Subsequently, using a wire length (the scale to the image) is divided by the average number of crystal grains taken and multiplied by a factor of 1.56 to determine the length of the average grain size (average grain size = 1.56 * line / taken the average number of grains).

[0080] 铜晶片去除谏率和非询匀度测试方法 [0080] Jian copper removal rate and the wafer non-uniformity exercise test method

[0081] 通过确定正被抛光的铜层厚度的变化来计算去除速率。 [0081] is calculated by determining removal rate variation being polished copper layer thickness. 用该厚度的变化除以晶片抛光时间,以获得正被抛光的铜层的去除速率。 Dividing the wafer with a polishing time variation of the thickness to obtain a removal rate of the copper layer is being polished. 用可商购自加利福利亚州库比蒂诺的利登设计工程公司(Credence Design Engineering, Inc.,Cupertino, California)的4 点探针R映射工具RestMap 168测量300mm直径晶片的厚度。 Thickness was commercially available from Glidden Cupertino, California design company (Credence Design Engineering, Inc., Cupertino, California) 4-point probe measurement RestMap 168 R mapper 300mm diameter wafers. 采用排除5mm边缘的八十一点直径扫描。 Using eighty scanning point diameter 5mm edge exclusion. 通过用整个晶片的49个晶片厚度测量值的标准偏差除以平均晶片厚度值来计算晶片的非均匀度(% NU)。 To calculate the non-uniformity of the wafer (% NU) by dividing the average thickness value of the standard deviation of the wafer 49 is the wafer thickness measurements of the entire wafer.

[0082] 氣化物晶片去除谏率和非询匀度测试方法 [0082] Jian vapor removal rate and wafer non uniformity exercise test method

[0083] 通过确定正被抛光的氧化层厚度的变化来计算去除速率。 [0083] is calculated by determining removal rate variation being polished oxide layer thickness. 用厚度的这种变化除以晶片抛光时间,以获得正被抛光的氧化物层的去除速率。 Dividing the wafer with polishing time of such varying thickness to obtain a removal rate of the oxide layer is being polished. 使用与REFLEXION抛光器整合的NovaScan 3060椭偏仪测量300mm氧化物覆盖层速率晶片的厚度,NovaScan 3060 椭偏仪由加利福利亚州圣塔克拉拉的应用材料公司(Applied Materials, Inc. Santa Clara, California)提供。 REFLEXION polisher using a thickness NovaScan 3060 integrated ellipsometric oxide coating rate 300mm wafer, NovaScan 3060 ellipsometer (Applied Materials of Santa Clara, California, Applied Materials, Inc. Santa Clara, California )provide. 使用25点直径扫描测量氧化物晶片,不包括3mm的边缘。 Scanning the spot diameter measured using a 25-oxide wafer, not including the edges of 3mm. 通过用整个晶片的49个晶片厚度测量值的标准偏差除以平均晶片厚度值来计算晶片的非均匀度NU)。 To calculate the non-uniformity of the wafer NU) by dividing the average thickness value of the standard deviation of the wafer 49 is the wafer thickness measurements of the entire wafer.

[0084] CMP垫磨损谏率和垫表面耜耥度测试方法 [0084] CMP pad wear and surface Jian plow Weeding pad of the test method

[0085] 使用之前在元件平面性测试方法中描述的激光轮廓术和软件分析工具进行测量。 [0085] and laser profilometry software prior to use in the described test method for plane element analysis tool measurements. 在300mm REFLEXION工具上进行处理之后,从30. 5英寸抛光垫切割尺寸为1英寸(2. 5cm) 乘以16英寸(40. 6cm)垫条的径向条。 After processing on 300mm REFLEXION tool, a polishing pad of 30.5 inches from the cutting size of 1 inch (2. 5cm) multiplied by 16 inches (40. 6cm) of the radial stripes pad strip. 在离垫中心3英寸(7. 6cm)、8英寸(20. 3cm)和13英寸(33. Ocm)距离的位置处的Icm2区域内进行二维XY激光轮廓扫描。 In, XY two-dimensionally scanning the laser beam profile at the area Icm2 8 inches (20. 3cm) and 13 inches (33. Ocm) from the position of three inches from the center of the pad (7. 6cm). 使用M0UNTAINSMAP 软件通过分析在这些不同垫位置上垫槽深的变化(其随着抛光时间的变化而变化)并且也通过使用2D和3D数字图像分析垫表面的纹理,来获得垫磨损速度和表面粗糙度(Sa)。 Use M0UNTAINSMAP software depth change (which change with a polishing time varies) in the groove by analyzing the different pad pad position and also by using a textured pad surface 2D and 3D digital image analysis to obtain the velocity and pad wear surface roughening degree (Sa). 垫的磨损速率被计算为在从垫中心3英寸、8英寸和13英寸的位置的平均垫磨损除以总的抛光时间。 Pad wear rate is calculated as three inches from the center of the pad, the pad on average 8 inches and 13 inches positions divided by the total wear of the polishing time.

[0086] 抛光测试方法1 [0086] Polishing Test Method 1

[0087] 使用可以商品名REFLEXION抛光器从加利福尼亚州圣塔克拉拉的应用材料公司(Applied Materials, Inc.,of Santa Clara, California)商购获得的CMP 抛光器进行抛光。 [0087] the use of the trade name REFLEXION polisher from Applied Materials, Santa Clara, Calif. Company (Applied Materials, Inc., of Santa Clara, California) commercially available CMP polisher polishes. 使用IClOlO垫和CSL9044C浆液进行抛光。 Use IClOlO CSL9044C pads and slurries for polishing. 在开始测试之前,将30% (按重量计)的过氧化氢(H2O2)样本添加至浆液,从而获得3% (按重量计)的浆液中H2O2浓度。 Before starting the test, adding 30% (by weight) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to the slurry sample, thereby obtaining a H2O2 concentration of 3% (by weight) slurry. 将具有适于安装到工具的垫修整器臂上的载体的研磨制品安装在其上。 Having a carrier adapted to be mounted to the tool arm pad conditioner abrasive article mounted thereon. 在整个测试过程中,用正持续行进在垫上的浆液持续地在整个测试过程中修整垫。 Throughout the testing process, we are continuing to travel with continuous dressing pad throughout the testing process on the mat slurry. 在适当的时间间隔,四个300mm 的"虚拟"铜晶片将行进,紧接着是两个铜厚度为20kA的300mm电镀铜晶片,以监测铜的去除速率,一个行进在低晶片下压力头部条件下并且另一个行进在高晶片下压力头部条件下。 At appropriate time intervals, four 300mm "virtual" copper wafer will travel, followed by two copper having a thickness of 300mm wafer 20kA copper to copper removal rate monitor, a traveling under low pressure head conditions wafer and the other at the traveling head under conditions of high pressure wafer. 头部压力为高下压力(指明为3. Opsi)或低下压力(指明为1.4psi)。 Head pressure downforce (designated as 3. Opsi) or low pressure (specified as 1.4psi). 下面描述在头部中每个区域内的具体设置压力。 A specific pressure is provided in each area is described in the header. 处理条件如下: Processing conditions were as follows:

[0088] 头部速度:l〇7rpm [0088] Head Speed: l〇7rpm

[0089] 台板速度:113rpm [0089] The platen speed: 113rpm

[0090] 头部压力: [0090] Head Pressure:

[0091] A)对于高下压力测试(3. Opsi):扣环=8. 7psi、区域I = 7. 3psi、区域2 = 3. lpsi、区域3 = 3. lpsi、区域4 = 2. 9psi、区域5 = 3. Opsi [0091] A) compete for stress testing (3. Opsi):. Buckle = 8 7psi, region I = 7. 3psi, zone 2 = 3. lpsi, zone 3 = 3. lpsi, zone 4 = 2. 9psi , region 5 = 3. Opsi

[0092] B)对于低下压力测试(I. 4psi):扣环=3. 8psi、区域I = 3. 3psi、区域2 = I. 6psi、区域3 = I. 4psi、区域4 = I. 3psi、区域5 = I. 3psi [0092] B) For the low pressure test (I. 4psi):. Grommet = 3 8psi, region I = 3. 3psi, zone 2 = I. 6psi, zone 3 = I. 4psi, zone 4 = I. 3psi, zone 5 = I. 3psi

[0093] 楽液流速:300mL/min [0093] yue liquid flow rate: 300mL / min

[0094] 对虚拟晶片抛光的时间:30秒 [0094] The dummy wafer polishing time: 30 seconds

[0095] 对速率晶片抛光的时间:60秒 [0095] The rate of wafer polishing time: 60 seconds

[0096] 垫修整器下压力:5磅 [0096] The pad conditioner pressure: 5 lbs

[0097] 垫修整器速度:87rpm [0097] The pad conditioner Speed: 87rpm

[0098] 垫修整器扫描速率:10次扫描/分钟 [0098] The pad conditioner of scan rate: 10 scans / min

[0099] 垫修整器扫描类型:正弦 [0099] Scan type pad conditioner: Sine

[0100] 抛光测试方法2 [0100] Polishing Test Method 2

[0101] 使用可以商品名REFLEXION抛光器从应用材料公司(Applied Materials, Inc.) 商购获得的CMP抛光器进行抛光。 [0101] the use of the trade name REFLEXION polisher from Applied Materials (Applied Materials, Inc.) commercially available CMP polisher polishes. 使用WPS垫和7106浆液进行抛光。 WPS 7106 using pads and polishing slurry. 在开始测试之前,将30% (按重量计)的H2O2样本添加至浆液,从而获得3% (按重量计)的浆液中的H2O2浓度。 Before starting the test, adding 30% (by weight) sample of H2O2 to the slurry to obtain a concentration of 3% H2O2 (by weight) of the slurry. 将具有适于安装至工具垫修整器臂上的载体的研磨制品安装在其上。 Adapted to be mounted to the tool having a pad conditioner arm abrasive article carrier mounted thereon. 在整个测试过程中,在整个测试过程中使用正持续行进在垫上的浆液持续地修整垫。 Throughout the testing process, used throughout the testing process is continuing to travel continuously dressing pad on the pad slurry. 以适当的时间间隔,四个300mm的Cu"虚拟"晶片将行进,紧接着是两个Cu厚度为20kA的300mm电镀的铜晶片, 以监测铜的去除速率,一个行进在低晶片下压力头部条件下并且另一个行进在高晶片下压力头部条件下。 At appropriate time intervals, the four 300mm Cu "virtual" wafer will travel, followed by two Cu having a thickness of 300mm wafer 20kA electroplated copper to copper removal rate monitor, a wafer travels at a low pressure head traveling conditions and the other under high pressure under the wafer head conditions. 头部压力为高下压力(指明为3. Opsi)或低下压力(指明为1.4psi)。 Head pressure downforce (designated as 3. Opsi) or low pressure (specified as 1.4psi). 下面描述在头部的每个区内的具体设置压力。 A specific pressure of each zone is provided in the head will be described. 处理条件如下: Processing conditions were as follows:

[0102] 头部速度:49rpm [0102] Head Speed: 49rpm

[0103] 台板速度:53rpm [0104] 头部压力: [0103] platen speed: 53rpm [0104] Head Pressure:

[0105] A)对于高下压力测试(3. Opsi):扣环=8. 7psi、区域I = 7. 3psi、区域2 = 3. lpsi、区域3 = 3. lpsi、区域4 = 2. 9psi、区域5 = 3. Opsi [0105] A) compete for stress testing (3. Opsi):. Buckle = 8 7psi, region I = 7. 3psi, zone 2 = 3. lpsi, zone 3 = 3. lpsi, zone 4 = 2. 9psi , region 5 = 3. Opsi

[0106] Β)对于低下压力测试(I. 4psi):扣环=3. 8psi、区域I = 3. 3psi、区域2 = I. 6psi、区域3 = I. 4psi,、区域4 = I. 3psi、区域5 = I. 3psi [0106] Β) to the low pressure test (I. 4psi):. Grommet = 3 8psi, region I = 3. 3psi, zone 2 = I. 6psi, zone 3 = I. 4psi ,, region 4 = I. 3psi , region 5 = I. 3psi

[0107] 楽液流速(当使用时):300mL/min [0107] yue liquid flow (when used): 300mL / min

[0108] 对虚拟晶片抛光的时间:30秒 [0108] The dummy wafer polishing time: 30 seconds

[0109] 对速率晶片抛光的时间:60秒 [0109] The rate of wafer polishing time: 60 seconds

[0110] 垫修整器下压力:5磅 [0110] The pad conditioner pressure: 5 lbs

[0111] 垫修整器速率:119rpm [0111] The pad conditioner rate: 119rpm

[0112] 垫修整器扫描速率:10次扫描/分钟 [0112] The pad conditioner of scan rate: 10 scans / min

[0113] 垫修整器扫描类型正弦 [0113] Scan pad conditioner sinusoidal type

[0114] 抛光测试方法3 [0114] Polishing Method 3

[0115] 使用可以商品名REFLEXION抛光器从应用材料公司(Applied Materials, Inc.) 商购获得的CMP抛光器进行抛光。 [0115] the use of the trade name REFLEXION polisher from Applied Materials (Applied Materials, Inc.) commercially available CMP polisher polishes. 使用VP 5000垫和D6720浆液进行抛光。 Use VP 5000 polishing pads and slurries D6720. 以3份水对I 份浆液的比例用DI水稀释D6720。 I to 3 parts of water to parts of the slurry with DI water dilution ratio D6720. 将具有适于安装至工具垫修整器臂上的载体的研磨制品安装在其上。 Adapted to be mounted to the tool having a pad conditioner arm abrasive article carrier mounted thereon. 在整个测试过程中,在整个测试过程中使用正持续行进在垫上的浆液持续地修整垫。 Throughout the testing process, used throughout the testing process is continuing to travel continuously dressing pad on the pad slurry. 以适当的时间间隔,四个300_的热氧化硅"虚拟"晶片将行进,紧接着是氧化硅厚度为17kA的300mm热氧化硅晶片,以监测氧化物的去除速率。 At appropriate time intervals, four thermal silicon oxide 300 F "virtual" wafer will travel, followed by a silicon oxide having a thickness of thermally oxidized silicon wafers 300mm 17kA to remove oxides rate monitor. 处理条件如下: Processing conditions were as follows:

[0116] 头部速度:87rpm [0116] Head Speed: 87rpm

[0117] 台板速度:93rpm [0117] platen speed: 93rpm

[0118] 头部压力:扣环=12psi、区域I = 6psi、区域2 = 6psi、区域3 = 6psi、区域4 = 6psi、区域5 = 6psi [0118] Head Pressure: buckle = 12psi, the region I = 6psi, zone 2 = 6psi, zone 3 = 6psi, zone 4 = 6psi, zone 5 = 6psi

[0119] 楽液流速:300mL/min [0119] yue liquid flow rate: 300mL / min

[0120] 对虚拟晶片抛光的时间:60秒 [0120] The dummy wafer polishing time: 60 seconds

[0121] 对速率晶片抛光时间:60秒 [0121] The rate of wafer polishing time: 60 seconds

[0122] 垫修整器下压力:6磅 [0122] pressure pad conditioner: 6 lbs

[0123] 垫修整器速度:87rpm [0123] The pad conditioner Speed: 87rpm

[0124] 垫修整器扫描速率:10次扫描/分钟 [0124] The pad conditioner of scan rate: 10 scans / min

[0125] 垫修整器扫描类型:正弦 [0125] Scan type pad conditioner: Sine

[0126] 材料 [0126] Materials

[0127] [0127]

Figure CN104684686AD00151

[0129] 实例I [0129] Example I

[0130] 制各具有多个脖体的牛产工具 [0130] Each system has a plurality of neck cattle production tool body

[0131] 通过金刚石车削第一金属,接着两次循环地电铸第二金属来制备正母模,从而生产正母模。 [0131] The first metal by diamond turning, then two cycles are electrically positive prepared mother die casting a second metal, thereby producing a positive female mold. 正母模的精确成形特征部的尺寸如下。 Wherein n size of the precisely shaped female mold portion as follows. 精确成形特征部由四面、尖顶端的锥体构成:73. 5%是具有正方形基部且基部长度为390微米并且高度为195微米(主要特征部) 的锥体;2%是具有正方形基部,基部长度为366微米并且高度为183微米的锥体;25. 5% 是具有矩形基部的,基部长度为390微米,宽度为366微米并且高度为183微米(次特征部)的椎体。 Precisely-shaped portion is constituted by a cone four features, pointed tip: 735% of a base and a square base having a length of 390 m and a height of 195 m (the primary features) cone; 2% is having a square base, base a length of 366 m and a height of 183 m cone; 25 5% having a rectangular base, the base length of 390 m, a width of 366 m and a height of 183 m (secondary feature) of the vertebral body. 锥体被布置为网格图案,按图Ia和图Ib中的每个图所示;基部处的所有锥体之间的间隔均为5微米。 Cone is disposed in a mesh pattern, according to Figure Ia and Figure Ib each; space between the base of the cone are all 5 microns.

[0132] 通过用可商购自佛罗里达州西棕榈海岸的商业塑料及供应有限公司(Commercial Plastics and Supply Corp. ,West Palm Beach, Florida)的厚20 密耳(0.51mm)的聚丙烯片材由正母模通过压塑生产聚丙烯生产工具。 [0132] by treatment with commercially available from West Palm Coast, Florida Commercial Plastics and Supply Co., Ltd. (Commercial Plastics and Supply Corp., West Palm Beach, Florida) of thickness of 20 mils (0.51mm) sheet made of polypropylene positive master mold produced by compression molding of polypropylene production tool. 使用可商购自印第安娜州沃巴什的沃巴什MPI 公司(Wabash MPI, Wabash, Indiana)的型号为V75H-24-CLX WABASH 液压机进行压塑, 在负载为5, OOOlb (2, 268kg)的情况下将台板预加热至165°C,持续3分钟。 Use commercially available from Wabash, Indiana Wabash MPI Company (Wabash MPI, Wabash, Indiana) model is V75H-24-CLX WABASH hydraulic compression molding machine, a load of 5, OOOlb (2, 268kg) in the case where platens preheated to 165 ° C, for 3 minutes. 接着,将负载增加至40, OOOlb (18, 140kg)持续10分钟。 Subsequently, the load was increased to 40, OOOlb (18, 140kg) for 10 minutes. 接着,关闭加热器并且冷却流动通过台板的水,直到其达到约70°C (约15分钟)。 Next, the heater was turned off and the cooling water flowing through the platen until it reaches about 70 ° C (about 15 minutes). 接着,释放负载并且去除模制的聚丙烯工具。 Subsequently, the load is released and the tool is removed molded polypropylene.

[0133] 陶瓷桨液的制各 [0133] Each ceramic paddle solution prepared

[0134] 通过将下列组份放入IL的高密度聚丙烯广口瓶中来制备陶瓷浆液:458. 7g蒸馏水、300.0 g SCP1、1. 5g BCPl 和21. 9g PhRes。 [0134] ceramic slurry is prepared by adding the following components into a high density polypropylene IL jar:.. 458 7g of distilled water, 300.0 g SCP1,1 5g BCPl and 21. 9g PhRes. 添加直径为0. 25 英寸(6. 35mm)的球形碳化硅研磨介质并且以IOOrpm的速度在球磨机上将浆液磨15小时。 Add a diameter of 0. 25 (6. 35mm) inches spherical carbide grinding media and mill the slurry at the rate of IOOrpm on a ball mill for 15 hours. 在磨完后,将60. 9g Dura B添加至广口瓶并通过搅动进行混合。 After the grinding, 60. 9g Dura B added to the jar and mixed by stirring. 使用可以商标名"Mini Spray Dryer B-191"从特拉华州纽卡斯尔的步琪公司(Buchi, New Castle, Delaware)商购获得的喷雾烘干器将楽液喷雾干燥,从而生产由85. 37重量%的碳化硅、0. 43重量%的碳化硼、9. 53重量%的聚丙烯酸粘合剂以及4. 67重量%的酚醛树脂构成的陶瓷粘合剂粉末,如通过常规测试筛分法测量的,其平均粒度为32-45微米。 Use tradename "Mini Spray Dryer B-191" commercially available from Newcastle, Delaware Buchi (Buchi, New Castle, Delaware) spray dryer will yue was spray-dried to produce a 85.37 % silicon carbide by weight, 0.43 wt% of boron carbide, 9.53 wt% of a polyacrylic acid binder and ceramic binder powder 4.67% by weight of a phenol resin, such as by routine testing sieving measurement, an average particle size of 32-45 microns. 陶瓷粘合剂粉末可以用于制备具有精确成形特征部的生坯陶瓷元件。 Ceramic powder binder may be used to prepare a green ceramic element having precisely shaped characteristic portion.

[0135] 具有精确成形特征部的牛坏陶瓷元件的制各 [0135] Bovine made bad ceramic element having a precisely shaped portion of each feature

[0136] 使用直径为16. 65mm、具有上压杆和下压杆的圆形钢模具腔体模制具有精确成形特征部的生坯陶瓷元件。 [0136] with a diameter of 16. 65mm, steel mold having a circular cavity molding upper die and the lower die having precisely shaped green ceramic element characteristic portion. 将具有表示生坯陶瓷元件所期望的精确成形特征部的特征部类型(形状)、尺寸和图案的精确设计腔体的聚丙烯生产工具放置在下压杆上的模具腔体内,使腔体朝向上压杆。 Represents a polypropylene production tool having a cavity designed to precisely the type of features desired of the green ceramic element precisely shaped feature (shape), size, and placement of the pattern of the mold cavity on the lower lever, so that the cavity toward the upper lever. 接着,使用4滴25重量/75重量的PDMS/己烷溶液润滑包括腔体的生产工具表面,以有利于复制及释放生坯。 Next, 4 drops of 25 wt / wt of the PDMS 75 / hexane solution produced lubricated surface comprising a tool cavity, to facilitate replication and release of the green body. 对于其它例子,如果在陶瓷浆液组分中包括PDMS (参见表1),则不使用这个步骤。 For another example, if the ceramic slurry comprising PDMS component (see Table 1), this step is not used. 在使得己烷蒸发之后,使用Ig陶瓷粘合剂粉末填充模具。 Such that after evaporation of the hexane, the use of Ig ceramic adhesive filling the mold powder. 将10, OOOlb (4, 536kg)负载施加至上推杆30秒,将陶瓷粘合剂粉末压入工具腔体中。 The 10, OOOlb (4, 536kg) load is applied to the upper ram 30 seconds, the powder is pressed into a ceramic adhesive tool cavity. 去除负载并将另外的Ig陶瓷粘合剂粉末添加至模具腔体。 The load is removed and add additional Ig-ceramic adhesive powder to the mold cavity. 将20, OOOlb (9, 072kg)负载施加至上推杆,持续30秒。 The 20, OOOlb (9, 072kg) load is applied to the upper ram 30 sec. 去除负载并将具有被压入陶瓷粘合剂粉末的工具从模具腔体取出。 The load is removed and the tool is pressed into a ceramic having adhesive powder removed from the mold cavity.

[0137] 接着,从工具取出具有精确成形特征部的生坯陶瓷元件。 [0137] Next, remove the green ceramic element having a precisely shaped feature from the tool. 特征部与工具腔体是反向的。 Wherein the cavity portion of the tool is reversed. 生坯的最大直径和厚度分别反映模具腔体的直径和陶瓷粘合剂粉末的量。 The maximum diameter and thickness of the ceramic green body diameter and the amount of adhesive powder, respectively to reflect the mold cavity. 从模具腔体取出之后,陶瓷元件的直径约为16. 7mm并且厚度约为4. 2mm。 Removed from the mold cavity, of about 7mm diameter of the ceramic member and a thickness of about 4. 2mm 16.. 通过这种技术制成五个生坯陶瓷元件。 Made by this technique five green ceramic element. 在制备具有精确成形特征部的研磨元件的过程中,可以使用具有精确成形特征部的生坯陶瓷元件作为研磨元件前体。 Process abrasive element having precisely shaped features in the preparation, use may be precisely shaped green ceramic element having a feature portion of the front grinding elements thereof.

[0138] 具有精确成形特征部的研磨元件的制各 [0138] prepared having precisely shaped abrasive elements each feature

[0139] 在室温下,将之前所制备的研磨元件前体(即,具有精确成形特征部的生坯陶瓷兀件)放置在Lindbergh Model 51442-S 的干馈烘箱中,Lindbergh Model 51442-S 干馈烘箱可从纽约州罗彻斯特SPX ThermalProduct Solutions(SPX Thermal Product Solutions, a division of SPX Corporation, Rochester, New York)商购获得。 [0139] at room temperature, before grinding element body prepared previously (i.e., members having precisely shaped green ceramic Wu characteristic portion) was placed in a dry oven feed Lindbergh Model 51442-S in, dry Lindbergh Model 51442-S the oven may feed (SPX Thermal Product Solutions, a division of SPX Corporation, Rochester, New York) is commercially available from Rochester, NY SPX ThermalProduct Solutions. 为了降解和挥发生坯陶瓷元件的粘合剂组分,采用如下方式在氮气氛下对生坯陶瓷元件进行退火: 采用超过4小时的时间段以线性速率将烘箱温度增加至600°C,然后在600°C情况下等温保持30分钟。 In order to degrade and volatilize the green ceramic component binder component, using the following manner under a nitrogen atmosphere for annealing green ceramic components: The period over 4 hours at a linear rate increase oven temperature to 600 ° C, and then isothermally held for 30 minutes at 600 ° C conditions. 然后,把烘箱冷却到室温。 Then, the oven was cooled to room temperature. 通过用220-粗粒碳化硅砂纸研磨它们的外周,从经退火的生坯陶瓷元件去除尖锐的边缘,即,去毛刺。 By treatment with 220 grit silicon carbide abrasive paper outer periphery thereof, removal of sharp edges from the green ceramic element annealed, i.e., deburring.

[0140] 将经退火的生坯陶瓷元件装载到石墨坩埚中用于烧结。 [0140] loaded into a graphite crucible for sintering the green ceramic element annealing. 将元件放置在由97重量%的Graphl和3重量%的BCP2构成的粉末混合物的基座(即,烧结粉末基座)内。 The element is placed in the base (i.e., the base sintered powder) powder mixture consisting of 97 wt% and 3 wt% of Graphl BCP2. 接着,使用购自加利佛利亚州圣罗莎热技术有限责任公司(Thermal Technology LLC, Santa Rosa, California)的阿斯特罗加热炉(Astro furnace)HTG-7010,通过在氦气气氛下在超过5小时的时间内从室温加热至2, 150°C,然后在2, 150°C下等温保持30分钟来烧结生坯。 Next, purchased from Santa Rosa hot Jialifoli Georgia Technology Co., Ltd. (Thermal Technology LLC, Santa Rosa, California) of the Astro furnace (Astro furnace) HTG-7010, by helium gas atmosphere over 5 hours in the heating time from room temperature to 2, 150 ° C, and then at 2, 150 ° C isothermal for 30 minutes to sinter the green body.

[0141] 或可将已烧结的生坯陶瓷元件用作具有精确成形特征部的研磨元件。 [0141] or may be sintered element used as the green ceramic element having precisely shaped abrasive characteristic portion. 烧结工艺之后,清洁研磨元件。 After the sintering process, abrasive cleaning elements.

[0142] 使用特征部缺陷测试方法,确定研磨元件有缺陷的特征部少于5%。 [0142] Using the test method wherein a defect portion, determining the grinding element wherein the defective portion is less than 5%.

[0143] 实例2至10和比较例11 (CEll) [0143] Examples 2 to 10 and Comparative Example 11 (CEll)

[0144] 与实例1类似地制备实例2-8和CE111,不同之处在于:所使用的陶瓷浆液组合物和烧结粉末基座根据表1变化。 [0144] Example 1 was prepared similarly to Examples 2-8 and CE111, except that: Change ceramic slurry composition used in the base and sintering the powder according to Table 1.

[0145] 将石墨坩埚用于所有烧结过程,不同之处在于:实例10中采用碳化硅坩埚。 [0145] The graphite crucible used for all the sintering process, except that: in Example 10 using a silicon carbide crucible. 与实例1类似地制备实例9和实例10,不同之处在于使用金属生产工具取代聚丙烯生产工具用一步处理进行模制精确成形特征部。 Example 1 was prepared similarly to Example 9 and Example 10, except that the substituted polypropylene production tool using a metal production tool further processed with molding precisely shaped feature. 通过电铸工艺由正母模制造金属生产工具。 Metal production tools for producing a positive die by electroforming the master. 将两克陶瓷粘合剂粉末添加至钢模具腔体,将具有朝下的精确成形特征部的生产工具添加至模具腔体。 The ceramic adhesive powder was added to two grams of steel mold cavity production tool having precisely-shaped portion downwardly features added to the die cavity. 将15, 0001b (6, 804kg)负载施加于上部推杆,持续15秒,从而将陶瓷粘合剂粉末压入工具腔体。 The 15, 0001b (6, 804kg) load is applied to the upper ram 15 sec, so that the ceramic powder is pressed into the adhesive cavity tool. 去除负载,从模具腔体取出具有被压陶瓷粘合剂粉末的工具。 The load is removed, is removed from the mold cavity having a tool is pressed ceramic adhesive powder. 实例9的烧结粉末基座为97/3 (重量/重量)的Graphl/BCPl的混合物。 Base sintered powder mixture of Example 9 was 97/3 (wt / wt) of Graphl / BCPl of.

[0146] 表1 :陶瓷桨液纟目合物和烧结备件 [0146] Table 1: Liquid pitch ceramic sintered Si compound and spare mesh

[0147] [0147]

Figure CN104684686AD00171

[0148] [0148]

Figure CN104684686AD00181

[0149] 表2中示出研磨元件的物理属性,包括平均晶粒尺寸、孔隙率、堆密度和计算的孔隙率。 [0149] Table 2 shows the physical properties of the abrasive element, including an average crystal grain size, porosity, bulk density and porosity calculations.

[0150] 表2 :研磨元件的物理属件。 [0150] Table 2: Physical metalwork grinding elements.

[0151] [0151]

Figure CN104684686AD00182

[0152] 制各具有CVD金刚石涂层的研磨元件 [0152] Each abrasive element made of CVD diamond coating

[0153] 首先,通过在甲基乙基酮中超声清洁对实例1-10中的具有精确成形特征部的研磨元件脱脂、将其干燥,接着通过浸入含有可以商品名87501-01从加利福利亚州圣塔克拉拉的sp3 金刚石技术公司(sp3Diamond Technologies, Santa Clara, California)商购获得的纳米金刚石溶液的超声波浴槽中进行金刚石引晶。 [0153] First, in methyl ethyl ketone by ultrasonic cleaning for degreasing abrasive element having precisely shaped feature in Examples 1-10, which was dried, followed by dipping the trade name 87501-01 containing from Gary welfare an ultrasonic bath GA technologies of Santa Clara, sp3 diamond (sp3Diamond technologies, Santa Clara, California) is commercially available nano diamond on the diamond was seeded. 一旦从金刚石溶液中取出,使用低压、纯净氮气流干燥元件。 Once removed from the diamond solution using a low-pressure pure nitrogen stream and dried element. 接着,将元件装载到可从sp3金刚石技术公司(sp3Diamond Technologies)商购获得的型号为HF-CVD655的热丝CVD反应器中。 Subsequently, the element may be loaded into the sp3 diamond Technologies (sp3Diamond Technologies) commercially available Model HF-CVD655 hot filament CVD reactor. 将氢气中的2. 7%甲烷的混合物用作CVD金刚石涂覆工艺的前体。 The mixture of 2.7% hydrogen methane CVD diamond coating process is used as a precursor. 在沉积过程期间,将反应器压力保持在6托(800Pa)和50托(6,670Pa)之间,灯丝的温度在1,900和2,300°C之间,如通过光学高温计所测量的。 During the deposition process, the reactor pressure was maintained at 6 torr (800 Pa) and 50 Torr (6,670Pa) between the temperature of the filament is between 1,900 and 2,300 ° C, as measured by the optical pyrometer. CVD金刚石生长速率为0. 6 μ m/hr。 CVD diamond growth rate was 0. 6 μ m / hr.

[0154] 通过将所涂履的元件浸入到液氮中接着用DI水冲洗来评价涂层粘附性。 [0154] Next coating adhesion was evaluated with DI water rinse by the coating shoe element immersed in liquid nitrogen. 将此工序重复5次。 This step was repeated 5 times. 所有的实例通过该测试。 All instances by the test.

[0155] 实例I [0155] Example I

[0156] 装配包含五个具有精确成形特征部的实例1的研磨元件的研磨制品。 [0156] assembly comprises five examples abrasive article having precisely shaped abrasive element feature 1. 开发装配过程,使得每个元件上最高的、精确成形特征部(所有特征部均具有相同设计特征部高度)将变得平坦。 Development of the assembly process, such that each element is highest, precisely shaped features (all have the same design features wherein the height) becomes flat.

[0157] 使用平坦的花岗岩表面作为对准板。 [0157] used as an alignment surface of a flat granite plate. 将这些片段放在对准板上,使得具有精确成形特征部的主表面直接接触对准板(朝下),并且它们的第二平坦、主表面朝上。 These fragments are aligned on the board, such that the main surface portion having a precisely formed features in direct contact with the alignment plate (down), and their second flat main surface facing upward. 研磨元件被布置成圆形图案,使得它们的中心点被沿着半径约为1.75英寸(44.5mm)的圆的圆周定位并且绕着圆周以约72°等距间隔,图2。 Grinding elements are arranged in a circular pattern, so that the circumference of the circle center point thereof being positioned along a radius of about 1.75 inches (44.5mm) and about 72 ° around the circumference of equally spaced, FIG. 将可从乔治亚州亚特兰大的麦克马斯特卡尔公司(Mcmaster-Carr, Atlanta, Georgia)商购获得的弹性元件、柔性垫圈和部件号为9714K22, 302的不锈钢波形弹簧垫圈放置在每个研磨元件的平坦表面上。 The spring element may be commercially available from Atlanta, Georgia McMaster Carr Company (Mcmaster-Carr, Atlanta, Georgia), and a flexible gasket part number 9714K22, 302 stainless steel wave spring washer is placed in each grinding element flat upper surface. 接着,将紧固元件施用至垫圈上和垫圈中心孔区域内的研磨元件的暴露表面上。 Subsequently, the fastening element is applied to the exposed surface of the gasket and the inner gasket member polishing central bore region. 紧固元件为可以商品名3M SCOTCH-WELD EPOXY ADHESIVE DP420 从明尼苏达州圣大保罗的3M 公司(3M Company, St. Paul, Minnesota)商购获得的环氧树脂粘合剂。 An epoxy resin adhesive fastening elements available under the trade name 3M SCOTCH-WELD EPOXY ADHESIVE DP420 from Minnesota Shengdabaoluo 3M Company (3M Company, St. Paul, Minnesota) commercially available. 接着,将直径为4. 25英寸(108mm)并且厚度为0.22英寸(5. 64_)的圆形不锈钢载体面朝下放置在紧固元件的顶部(加工载体的背面,使得它可附接至REFLEXION抛光器的载体臂)。 Next, a diameter of 4.25 inches (108mm) and a thickness of the fastening element is placed on top of the face-down .22 inches (5 64_) a circular stainless steel support (the rear face of the support, so that it may be attached to REFLEXION polisher carrier arm). IOlb (4. 54kg)负载被均匀地施加在载体的暴露表面上,并且在室温下使粘合剂固化约4小时。 IOlb (4. 54kg) load is applied uniformly on the exposed surface of the carrier, and the adhesive is cured at room temperature for about 4 hours.

[0158] 比较例13 (CE 13) [0158] Comparative Example 13 (CE 13)

[0159] 与实例12类似地制备CE13,不同之处在于在制造过程中不使用弹性元件。 [0159] Example 12 was prepared similarly to CE13, except that the elastic member is not used during the manufacturing process.

[0160] 使用研磨制品共面性测试方法I测量实例12和CE13研磨元件的整体共面性。 [0160] abrasive article using Test Method I coplanarity coplanarity measurement overall Examples 12 and CE13 grinding elements. 图3示出结果。 FIG. 3 shows the results. 根据研磨元件更均匀压印,包括弹性元件的实例12表现出的平面性比未采用弹性元件的CE13得到了改善。 According to a more uniform imprinting grinding elements, includes a resilient member of Example 12 exhibits a plane than the elastic member is not employed CE13 improved.

[0161] 实例14-16 [0161] Examples 14-16

[0162] 如实例1所述地制备实例14-16中使用的研磨元件。 [0162] The abrasive elements prepared in Example 1 used in Example 14-16. 每个研磨元件具有精确成形特征部,所述精确成形特征部具有至少两个不同的高度,主要特征部高度(两个特征部中较高的高度)和次要特征部高度,如表3中所总结的。 Each abrasive element having precisely shaped feature, wherein said precisely shaped portion having at least two different heights, the height of the primary features (higher height of the two features) and the height of the secondary features, as shown in Table 3 summarized. 偏移高度是主要特征部和次要特征部之间的高度差。 Offset height is the height difference between the main feature and the secondary features. 实例14的精确成形特征部和实例1所述的精确成形特征部相同。 Precisely shaped portion of the same features of claim 1 wherein the precisely shaped portion 14 and Example instance. 实例15的精确成形特征部由以下四面的、截顶的锥体构成:73. 5%是具有正方形基部且基部长度为146微米并且高度为61微米的在侧面上具有24微米的正方形顶部(主要特征部)的锥体;并且26. 5 %是具有正方形基部,基部长度为146微米并且高度为49微米并且在侧面上具有48微米的正方形顶部(次要特征部)的锥体。 Examples of precisely shaped feature 15 is constituted by four sides, a truncated cone: 735% of a base and a square base having a length of 146 m and a height of the top of a square having sides of 24 microns on a 61 micrometer (mainly wherein the cone portion); and 26.5% having a square base, base length of 146 m and a height of 49 microns and having a top cone 48 square microns (the secondary features) on the sides. 在每个图4a和图4b中,锥形被布置成网格图案;在基部,所有锥形之间的间隔为58. 5微米。 In each of FIGS. 4A and 4B, the cone is arranged in a grid pattern; in the base portion, the spacing between all of the tapered 58.5 microns. 实例16的精确成形特征部由四面、尖顶的锥体构成:73. 5%是具有正方形基部且基部长度为146微米并且高度为73微米(主要特征部)的椎体;2%是具有正方形基部且基部长度为122微米并且高度为61微米的椎体;并且25. 5%是具有长方形基部且基部长度为146微米,宽度为122微米并且高度为73微米(次要特征部)。 Examples of precisely shaped feature 16 is constituted by four, the cone apex: 735% of a base and a square base having a length of 146 m and a height of 73 m (primary features) of the vertebrae; 2% is having a square base. 122 micrometers and the base length of 61 m and a height of vertebral body; and 25.5% having a rectangular base portion and a base length of 146 m, a width of 122 m and a height of 73 m (secondary feature). 在每个图5a和图5b中,锥形被布置成网格图案;在基部,所有锥体之间的间隔为5微米。 In each of FIGS. 5a and 5b, arranged in a grid pattern are tapered; the base portion, the spacing between the cones of all 5 microns.

[0163] 对每个实例14和15,准备五个研磨元件,并且对于实例16,准备十个研磨元件。 [0163] Examples 14 and 15 to each, to prepare five grinding elements, and for example 16, to prepare ten grinding elements. 通过之前描述的过程,用CVD金刚石涂覆研磨元件。 By the procedure described previously, with the CVD diamond coated abrasive element. 接着,使用实例12所述的制备过程,使用CVD金刚石涂覆的研磨元件形成研磨制品。 Next, the preparation process described in Example 12, a CVD diamond-coated abrasive element formed abrasive article. 用实例14和实例15的研磨元件制备的研磨制品被布置成圆形图案,使得它们的中心点被沿着半径约为I. 75英寸(44. 5mm)的圆的圆周定位并且绕着圆周以约72°等距间隔,图2。 Abrasive article prepared by Example 14 and Example 15 abrasive elements are arranged in a circular pattern, so that their center points along a radius of about (44. 5mm) I. 75 inches and is positioned around the circumference of a circle to the circumference equally spaced about 72 °, Fig. 分别将这些研磨制品标注为实例14A和实例15A。 These abrasive article were labeled Examples 14A and Example 15A. 将实例16的十个研磨元件用于制造研磨制品(标注为实例16A),使得研磨元件呈双星图案布置,如图6中所示。 The ten examples of grinding elements for producing the abrasive article 16 (denoted as an example. 16A), so that the grinding elements are arranged as a binary pattern, as shown in FIG. 较大的星形图案与实例14和实例15的星形图案一致。 A star pattern consistent with a large star pattern Example 14 and Example 15. 较小星形图案的元件被布置成圆形图案,使得它们的中心点沿着半径约为1. 5英寸(38. Imm)的圆的圆周定位,并且绕着圆周以约72°等距间隔,如图2所示。 Smaller star pattern elements are arranged in a circular pattern, so that their center points along a radius of about 1.5 inches (38. Imm) of the circumference of a circle positioned around the circumference and equally spaced at about 72 ° ,as shown in picture 2. 这些元件相对于外部元件偏移36。 These elements 36 offset relative to the outer member. .

[0164] 表3 :实例14-16的精确成形特征部参数。 [0164] Table 3: Examples of precisely shaped feature parameters 14-16.

[01651 [01651

[0166」 [0166 "

Figure CN104684686AD00201

[0167] 比较例17 (CE 17) [0167] Comparative Example 17 (CE 17)

[0168] CE17是金刚石粗粒垫修整器,其金刚石尺寸为180微米,可以商品名为"3M DIAMOND PAD C0NDTI0NER A2812" 从明尼苏达州圣保罗的3M 公司(3M Company, St. Paul, Minnesota)商购获得。 [0168] CE17 is coarse diamond pad conditioner, its diamond size of 180 microns, can the trade name "3M DIAMOND PAD C0NDTI0NER A2812" from St. Paul, Minnesota, 3M Company (3M Company, St. Paul, Minnesota) is commercially available .

[0169] 比较例18(CE18) [0169] Comparative Example 18 (CE18)

[0170] CE18是金刚石粗粒垫修整器,其金刚石尺寸为250微米,可以商品名为"3M DIAMOND PAD C0NDTI0NER A165" 从3M 公司(3M Company)商购获得。 [0170] CE18 grit diamond pad conditioner, which diamond size of 250 microns, can trade designation "3M DIAMOND PAD C0NDTI0NER A165" commercially available from 3M Company (3M Company).

[0171] 比较例19(CE19) [0171] Comparative Example 19 (CE19)

[0172] CE19是金刚石粗粒垫修整器,其金刚石尺寸为74微米,可以商品名为"3M DIAMOND PAD C0NDTI0NER H2AG18" 从3M 公司(3M Company)商购获得。 [0172] CE19 grit diamond pad conditioner, a size of 74 microns of diamond which may be the trade designation "3M DIAMOND PAD C0NDTI0NER H2AG18" commercially available from 3M Company (3M Company).

[0173] 比较例20 (CE20) [0173] Comparative Example 20 (CE20)

[0174] CE20是金刚石粗粒垫修整器,其金刚石尺寸为74微米,可以商品名为"3M DIAMOND PAD C0NDTI0NER H9AG27" 从3M 公司(3M Company)商购获得。 [0174] CE20 grit diamond pad conditioner, a size of 74 microns of diamond which may be the trade designation "3M DIAMOND PAD C0NDTI0NER H9AG27" commercially available from 3M Company (3M Company).

[0175] 俥用实例14A、CE17和CE18讲行CMP抛光测试 [0175] Ju with examples 14A, CE17 and CE18 speaking the CMP line test

[0176] 使用抛光测试方法1,使用相对硬的CMP垫IC1010用铜CMP工艺测试作为垫修整器的实例14A的两种研磨制品。 [0176] Method 1 using a polishing test using a relatively hard pad IC1010 CMP process copper CMP pad conditioner as an example of testing two abrasive article 14A. 在晶片头部压力为3psi的情况下测试一种研磨制品,同时在晶片头部压力为1.4psi的情况下测试另一种研磨制品。 Another abrasive article tested in the case of testing a wafer head pressure 3psi case the abrasive article while the wafer head pressure of 1.4psi. 使用上述的铜晶片去除速率和非均匀度测试方法,测试随着修整时间变化而变化的铜去除速率和晶片的非均匀度。 Wafer using the copper removal rate and non-uniformity of the test method, the test dressing with time varying non-uniformity of the wafer and the copper removal rate. 结果示于表4中。 The results are shown in Table 4. 对于低头部压力和高头部压力处理两者,均获得良好的、稳定的去除速率和良好的、稳定的晶片非均匀度。 For the bow section and a high head pressure of both pressure treatment are good, stable removal rate and a good, stable, non-uniformity of the wafer. 抛光之后,通过光学显微镜检测精确成形特征部顶端。 After polishing, the precisely shaped by light microscopy wherein the top portion.

[0177] 在进行CPM抛光测试20. 8小时之后特征部顶端的磨损很小,从而指示修整器将具有长的寿命。 [0177] After 20.8 hours CPM polishing tests performed little wear tip portion of the feature, thereby indicating that the conditioner has a long life.

[0178] 表4 :对实例14A讲行铜CMP抛光的结果。 [0178] Table 4: Results of Example 14A speaks row copper CMP polishing.

[0179] [0179]

Figure CN104684686AD00211

[0180] 对比较例CE17和CE18进行与实例14A(3psi的晶片头部压力)类似的测试,不同之处在于抛光时间仅为〇. 6小时。 [0180] Comparative Examples CE17 and CE18 for Example 14A (3psi wafer head pressure) similar test, except that the polishing time only square. For 6 hours. 表5中示出铜去除速率的结果和晶片非均匀度。 Results Table and wafer non-uniformity of the removal rate of copper is shown. 5.

[0181] 表5 :对实例14A、CE17和CE18讲行铜CMP抛光的结果。 [0181] Table 5: Example 14A, CE17 and CE18 speaking row copper CMP polishing results.

[0182] [0182]

Figure CN104684686AD00212

[0183] 俥用实例15A和CE19讲行CMP抛光测试 [0183] Examples 15A and Ju with the CMP test line CE19 speaking

[0184] 使用抛光测试方法2,使用相对软的CMP垫,WSP用铜CMP工艺测试作为垫修整器的实例15A的两种研磨制品。 [0184] Polishing using Test Method 2, using a relatively soft CMP pad, the WSP copper CMP process test pad conditioner as an example of two of the abrasive article 15A. 在晶片头部压力为3psi的情况下测试一种研磨制品,同时在晶片头部压力为1.4psi的情况下测试另一种研磨制品。 Another abrasive article tested in the case of testing a wafer head pressure 3psi case the abrasive article while the wafer head pressure of 1.4psi. 使用上述的铜晶片去除速率和非均匀度测试方法,测试随着修整时间变化而变化的铜去除速率的晶片的非均匀度。 Wafer using the copper removal rate and non-uniformity of the test method, the non-uniformity of the wafer as the test time the dressing is changed the copper removal rate. 结果示于表6中。 The results are shown in Table 6. 对于低头部压力和高头部压力处理两者,获得良好的、稳定的去除速率和良好的、稳定的晶片非均匀度。 For the bow section and a high head pressure of both pressure treatment, to obtain a good, stable removal rate and good, stable, non-uniformity of the wafer.

[0185] 表6 :实例15A的铜CMP抛光结果。 [0185] Table 6: copper CMP polishing results of Example 15A.

[0186] [0186]

Figure CN104684686AD00213

[0187] [0187]

Figure CN104684686AD00221

[0188] 也使用抛光测试方法2测试的金刚石粗粒垫修整器CE19。 [0188] Test Method 2 is also tested using the polishing grit diamond pad conditioner CE19. 测量随着修整时间变化而变化的铜去除速率和晶片的非均匀度。 Measuring time with dressing changes non-uniformity of the wafer and the copper removal rate. 表7中显示结果。 Table 7 shows the results. 到抛光时间达到6小时时,垫被严重磨损,垫覆盖不复存在,这指示抛光垫完全被金刚石粗粒垫修整器磨掉。 When the polishing time of 6 hours, the pads are badly worn, no longer cover the pad, indicating coarse diamond polishing pad is completely worn pad conditioner.

[0189] 表7 :CE19的铜CMP抛光结果。 [0189] Table 7: CE19 the copper CMP polishing results.

[0190] [0190]

Figure CN104684686AD00222

[0191] 使用之前所述的测试方法测量用实例15A和CE19修整的运行在3. Opsi晶片头部压力下进行CMP抛光测试垫的垫磨损速率和表面粗糙度。 The test method described previously [0191] Example 15A using the measuring operation for trimming and CE19 test pad CMP polishing pad wear rate and surface roughness of the wafer at the head 3. Opsi pressure. 表8中显示结果。 Table 8 shows the results. 用实例15A修整的垫的平均垫磨损速率比用CE19修整的垫低约4倍,这指示用具有精确成形研磨特征部的修整器修整的垫具有明显更长的可用寿命。 Examples 15A trimmed with the average rate of pad wear pad is about four times lower than with the pad dressing CE19, indicating a significantly longer useful life with a dresser having a dressing pad portion of the precisely-shaped abrasive characteristics.

[0192] 表8 :用实例15A和CE19讲行CMP抛光测试的垫磨损结果。 [0192] Table 8: Examples 15A and CE19 speak with rows CMP polishing pad wear results of the test.

[0193] [0193]

Figure CN104684686AD00223

[0194] 使用实例16A和CE20讲行CMP抛光测试 [0194] Example 16A and CMP polishing test line CE20 speaking

[0195] 使用抛光测试方法3,用氧化物工艺将实例16A的研磨制品与比较例CE20的金刚石粗粒垫修整器进行比较。 [0195] Test Method 3 using the polishing, the abrasive article with the oxide process in Comparative Example CE20 Example 16A grit diamond pad conditioner compared. 使用上述的氧化物晶片去除速率和非均匀度测试方法,测量随着修整时间的变化而变化的氧化物去除速率和晶片的非均匀度。 Using the oxide wafer removal rates and non-uniformity of the test method, measuring the change with time of the dressing change oxide removal rate and non-uniformity of the wafer. 结果显示于表9中。 The results are shown in Table 9. 当将使用具有精确成形特征部的垫修整器实例16A的抛光工艺与使用常规金刚石粗粒垫修整器CE20进行比较时,获得较高的去除速率和较低的晶片非均匀度。 When using the pad dresser having precisely shaped feature instances polishing process using a conventional coarse diamond pad conditioner 16A is compared CE20 is obtained when a high removal rate and low non-uniformity of the wafer. 修整4. 9小时后,在离垫中心3英寸(7. 6cm)、7英寸(17. 8cm)和13英寸(33. Ocm)的情况下测量垫表面光洁度。 4.9 hours after trimming, in from 3 inches (7. 6cm) center of the pad, at 7 inches (17. 8cm) and 13 inches (33. Ocm) in the case of measuring the surface finish of the pad. 实例16A的垫表面光洁度比比较例CE20的稍高(分别为8. 47微米对7. 24微米)初始垫表面粗糙度为12微米。 Pad surface finish than Comparative Example 16A Example CE20 was slightly higher (respectively 8.47 microns to 7.24 microns) for the initial surface roughness of the pad 12 microns. 用实例16A作为垫修整器的抛光测试持续超过30小时。 Example 16A used as a polishing pad conditioner test lasting more than 30 hours. 抛光之前和之后通过常规光学显微镜测量研磨元件的特征部高度,从而确定顶端磨损。 Measured before and after polishing grinding elements characterized in height by conventional light microscopy to determine the wear tip. 所确定的磨损速率将约为〇. 1微米/小时。 The determined wear rate will be approximately square. 1 micron / hour. 在特征部上未积累污渍或浆液。 Feature is not accumulated in the soil or slurry.

[0196] 表9 :实例16A和CE20的氣化物CMP抛光结果。 [0196] Table 9: Examples 16A and the vapor CE20 CMP polishing results.

[0197] [0197]

Figure CN104684686AD00231

[0198] 虽然已参考优选实施例来描述本发明,但是本领域的技术人员应当认识到,在不脱离本发明的实质和范围的前提下,可在形式上和细节上做出修改。 [0198] While the embodiment has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, those skilled in the art will recognize that, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, changes may be made in form and detail.

Claims (28)

1. 一种研磨元件,包括: 第一主表面;和第二主表面; 其中至少所述第一主表面包括多个精确成形特征部;并且其中所述研磨元件包括按重量计至少约99%的碳化物陶瓷,并且具有小于约5%的孔隙率。 An abrasive element, comprising: a first major surface; and a second major surface; wherein at least the first major surface comprises a plurality of precisely-shaped features; and wherein the abrasive member comprises, by weight of at least about 99% carbide ceramics, and having less than about 5% porosity.
2. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中所述碳化物陶瓷是碳化娃、碳化测、碳化铅、 碳化铁、碳化鹤或者它们的组合。 2. A grinding element according to claim 1, wherein said carbide is a carbide ceramic baby carbide, measured carbide, lead, iron carbide, carbide, or combinations thereof crane.
3. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中所述孔隙率小于约3%。 3. The abrasive member according to claim 1, wherein the porosity of less than about 3%.
4. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中所述碳化物陶瓷的平均晶粒尺寸小于约20微米。 A polishing element according to claim 1, wherein the average grain size of the carbide ceramic is less than about 20 microns.
5. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中所述平均晶粒尺寸小于约5微米并且所述孔隙率小于约3%。 The abrasive element according to claim 1, wherein the average grain size of less than about 5 microns and a porosity of less than about 3%.
6. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中所述研磨元件基本上不含氧化物烧结助剂。 6. A grinding element according to claim 1, wherein said abrasive element is substantially free of an oxide sintering aid.
7. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中多个精确成形特征部中的至少一些具有沿着至少一个基部边缘的约1微米至约2, 000微米的长度,W及约1个特征部/平方毫米至约1,000个特征部/平方毫米的面密度。 The abrasive element according to claim 1, wherein some of the plurality of precisely-shaped about 1 micron to about 2, 000 length, W, and about 1 micron features having at least along at least one edge of the base portion of the feature / mm to about 1,000 features / square millimeter of the surface density.
8. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中所述多个精确成形特征部具有涂层。 A polishing element according to claim 1, wherein said plurality of precisely-shaped portion wherein a coating.
9. 根据权利要求8所述的研磨元件,其中所述涂层为共形的。 9. The abrasive element according to claim 8, wherein said coating is conformal.
10. 根据权利要求8所述的研磨元件,其中所述涂层包括化学气相沉积或物理气相沉积的金刚石、惨杂的金刚石、碳化娃、立方晶型氮化测、含氣化合物涂层、疏水性或亲水性涂层、表面改性涂层、防腐蚀涂层、聚合物涂层、类金刚石碳、类金刚石玻璃、碳化鹤、氮化娃、 氮化铁、粒子涂层、多晶金刚石、微晶金刚石、纳米晶金刚石W及它们的组合。 10. A grinding element according to claim 8, wherein the coating comprises a diamond chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition, diamond miserable heteroaryl, baby carbide, nitride cubic crystal measured, compound coatings containing gas, a hydrophobic a hydrophilic coating or surface modification coatings, anticorrosive coating, polymer coating, diamond-like carbon, diamond-like glass, carbon crane, baby nitride, iron nitride particle coated polycrystalline diamond , microcrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond W, and combinations thereof.
11. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中所述研磨元件具有小于约5%的精确成形特征部总数的缺陷特征部百分比。 11. The abrasive element according to claim 1, wherein the grinding element has a defect portion wherein the percentage of the total number of precisely shaped features of less than about 5%.
12. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中具有D。 12. The abrasive element according to claim 1, wherein having D. 的最大设计特征部高度的一组精确成形特征部具有小于约20%的所述特征部高度的非平面性。 The maximum height of the design features a set of precisely shaped feature has a height of less than about 20% of the non-planar features.
13. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中所述精确成形特征部具有约20%的所述特征部高度的非均匀度。 13. A polishing element according to claim 1, wherein said precisely shaped feature has a non-uniformity of about 20% of the height of the feature.
14. 根据权利要求1所述的研磨元件,其中所述99%碳化物陶瓷按重量计为按重量计至少约90 %的碳化娃。 14. A polishing element according to claim 1, wherein said ceramic carbide of 99% by weight by weight of at least about 90% of the carbonation baby.
15. -种研磨制品,包括: 第一研磨元件,所述第一研磨元件包括第一主表面和第二主表面; 其中至少第一主表面包括多个精确成形特征部;并且其中所述第一研磨元件包括按重量计至少约99%的碳化物陶瓷并且具有小于约5% 的孔隙率。 15. - species abrasive article, comprising: a first abrasive member, said first abrasive member comprises a first major surface and second major surfaces; and wherein said first; wherein at least the first major surface comprises a plurality of precisely-shaped features an abrasive element comprising, by weight of at least about 99% of the carbide ceramics and having less than about 5% porosity.
16. 根据权利要求15所述的研磨元件,还包括具有第一主表面和第二主表面的弹性元件。 16. A grinding element according to claim 15, further comprising an elastic member having a first major surface and a second major surface.
17. 根据权利要求15所述的研磨制品,还包括紧固元件。 17. The abrasive article according to claim 15, further comprising a fastening member.
18. 根据权利要求15所述的研磨制品,还包括载体。 18. The abrasive article according to claim 15, further comprising a carrier.
19. 根据权利要求16所述的研磨制品,其中所述弹性元件选自;泡沫、凝胶、聚合物、弹黃和柔性垫圈。 19. The abrasive article according to claim 16, wherein said resilient member is selected; foam, gel, polymer, and a flexible spring washer.
20. 根据权利要求15所述的研磨制品,还包括第二研磨元件,其中在所述第一研磨元件和所述第二研磨元件上的特征部的集合组具有化的公共最大设计特征部高度W及小于约20%的所述特征部高度的非共面性。 20. The abrasive article according to claim 15, further comprising a second grinding element, wherein the set of groups of features on the first element and the second abrasive grinding element has design features of a common maximum height W and less than about 20% of the height of the non-coplanar feature.
21. 根据权利要求15所述的研磨制品,其中所述研磨制品是垫修整器。 21. The abrasive article according to claim 15, wherein said abrasive article is a pad conditioner.
22. 根据权利要求15所述的研磨制品,还包括清洁元件。 22. The abrasive article according to claim 15, further comprising a cleaning member.
23. 根据权利要求21所述的研磨制品,其中所述研磨制品是双面垫修整器。 23. The abrasive article according to claim 21, wherein said abrasive article is a two-sided pad conditioner.
24. -种制备研磨制品的方法,包括: 提供第一研磨元件和第二研磨元件,每个研磨元件包括第一主表面和第二主表面,其中至少所述第一主表面包括多个精确成形特征部,并且其中所述研磨元件包括按重量计至少约99%的碳化物陶瓷并且具有小于约5%的孔隙率; 将所述研磨元件的第一主表面放置成与对准板接触; 提供具有第一主表面和第二主表面的弹性元件; 将所述弹性元件的第一主表面附连至所述研磨元件的第二主表面; 提供紧固元件;W及通过所述紧固元件将所述弹性元件的第二主表面附连至载体。 24. - Preparation species abrasive article, comprising: providing a first and a second grinding element the grinding element, each grinding element comprises a first major surface and second major surfaces, wherein at least the first major surface comprises a plurality of precisely shaped feature, and wherein the abrasive member comprises, by weight of at least about 99% of the carbide ceramics and having less than about 5% porosity; the first major surface of the grinding element placed in contact with the alignment plate; providing a resilient member having a first major surface and a second major surface; the first major surface of the resilient member attached to the second major surface of the abrasive member; providing a fastening element; and W is secured by the element of the elastic member is attached to the second major surface of the carrier.
25. 根据权利要求24所述的方法,其中具有公共最大设计特征部高度D。 25. The method of claim 24, wherein the portion having the design features common maximum height D. 的精确成形特征部的集合组具有小于约20%的所述特征部高度的非共面性。 Precisely shaped set of groups has a feature of less than about 20% of the height of the non-coplanar feature.
26. 根据权利要求24所述方法,其中所述紧固元件是所述弹性元件。 26. The method of claim 24, wherein the fastening element is a resilient element.
27. 一种研磨制品,包括: 第一研磨元件,所述第一研磨元件包括第一主表面和第二主表面; 其中至少所述第一主表面包括具有金刚石涂层的多个精确成形特征部;并且其中所述第一研磨元件包括按重量计至少约99%的碳化物陶瓷并且具有小于约5% 的孔隙率。 27. An abrasive article, comprising: a first abrasive member, said first abrasive member comprises a first major surface and a second major surface; wherein at least the first major surface comprises a plurality of precisely-shaped features having a diamond coating unit; and wherein said first abrasive member comprises, by weight of at least about 99% of the carbide ceramics and having less than about 5% porosity.
28. 根据权利要求27所述的研磨制品,其中所述涂层选自金刚石、惨杂的金刚石、类金刚石碳、类金刚石玻璃、多晶金刚石、微晶金刚石、纳米晶金刚石W及它们的组合中的一者。 28. The abrasive article according to claim 27, wherein said coating is selected from diamond, diamond miserable heteroaryl, diamond-like carbon, diamond-like glass, polycrystalline diamond, microcrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond W, and combinations thereof in one.
CN201380040394.7A 2012-08-02 2013-07-31 Abrasive elements with precisely shaped features, abrasive articles fabricated therefrom and methods of making thereof CN104684686A (en)

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