CN104630434B - The superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized using martensitic traoformation circulation - Google Patents

The superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized using martensitic traoformation circulation Download PDF

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CN104630434B
CN104630434B CN201510042246.XA CN201510042246A CN104630434B CN 104630434 B CN104630434 B CN 104630434B CN 201510042246 A CN201510042246 A CN 201510042246A CN 104630434 B CN104630434 B CN 104630434B
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circulation
superplastic
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realized
stainless steels
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CN104630434A (en
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谢文玲
周顺勇
李秀兰
郭翠霞
胡光忠
裴艳阳
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Sichuan University of Science and Engineering
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Sichuan University of Science and Engineering
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Abstract

The superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized using martensitic traoformation circulation the invention discloses one kind, the problem of solving big industrial production difficulty, low production efficiency, high cost.It comprises the following steps:A, 304 stainless steel plates are at the uniform velocity stretched at room temperature, rate of extension v meets 0 < v≤5mm/min;Stretcher strain amount is 30%;B, under temperature T, 304 stainless steel plates after stretching are carried out with Ageing Treatment, wherein T meets 700 DEG C≤T≤900 DEG C, and the time t of Ageing Treatment meets 15min≤t≤25min;Repetitive cycling step a, b, records global cycle times N;304 stainless steel plates of the circulation N (N=1,2,3 ...) after secondary are broken, percentage of total elongation δ is calculatedAlways, δAlwaysWhen >=100%, transformation superplasticity is realized.

Description

The superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized using martensitic traoformation circulation
Technical field
The present invention relates to superplasticforming field, particularly relate to one kind and be mainly used in steel realize steel superplasticity A kind of realize the superplastic method of 304 stainless steels using martensitic traoformation circulation.
Background technology
Existing superplasticforming field substantially uses fine crystalline superplastic material, with following deficiency:Crystal grain it is thin Change pretreatment, crystallite dimension typically requires to be less than 5 μm;Certain deformation temperature, generally 0.5Tm~Tm, wherein TmIt is that alloy melts Point, it is relevant with material composition, handbook can be looked into;Low strain rate, typically requires strain rate control 10-4~10-1s-1Scope It is interior.Therefore, fine crystalline superplastic is mainly characterized by equipment requirement high (high temperature deformation), poor efficiency and high pretreatment expense With this is also to cause the reason for fine crystalline superplastic is difficult to extensive use in superplasticforming field.
Application for transformation superplasticity in plastic working field is main also in the experimental study stage, and reason is Some main methods for using stress and high-temperature phase-change circulation synchronous of research, therefore equipment requirement is high, and for large-scale production Product can not then be implemented at all.
Number of patent application is CN201010299718.7, and metal material machine components are corrected shape using transformation superplasticity Method;By as-quenched by school shape part be arranged on technological equipment in, technological equipment to by school shape part apply vitality, It will be fixed to by the super tolerance parts of geomery of school shape part in the qualified scope of dimensional tolerance;Will be by school shape part together with work Skill equipment is together put into the tempering heat treatment process that normal process process is carried out in tempering furnace, by school shape part in tempering heat treatment During undergo phase transition, the superplasticity having during using metal phase change, in the presence of vitality, by school shape part occur school shape Required plastic deformation;After the completion of tempering heat treatment process, technological equipment is laid down, the qualified part of dimensional tolerance is obtained.In the presence of It is not enough:Special tooling device is needed, cost is high;Tooling device need to be put into tempering furnace, the precision of tooling device, table together with workpiece Face quality will decline, and maintenance cost is high;Limited by tooling device for large-scale or need large deformation workpiece to be difficult to carry out.
Number of patent application is CN201310234229.7, and pre-prepd wrought alloy blank initial grain degree is less than 10 μ M, and into nearly equiax crystal state;Forged under isothermy (temperature is 1040-1120 DEG C);Strain rate is 0.0001- 0.0005s-1.Shortcomings:Material grains size need to be pre-processed, increase cost;Isothermal forging is difficult in high temperature Control;Strain rate is low, low production efficiency.
The content of the invention
In order to overcome above-mentioned existing technological deficiency, the purpose of the present invention is:There is provided a kind of processing difficulty it is low, into The superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized in this low and high production efficiency utilization martensitic traoformation circulation.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:304 are realized using martensitic traoformation circulation The superplastic method of stainless steel, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
A, 304 stainless steel plates are at the uniform velocity stretched at room temperature, martensitic phase occurs for the austenite induced in 304 stainless steels Become, wherein rate of extension v meets 0 < v≤5mm/min, stretcher strain amount is 30%;
B, Ageing Treatment, i.e., under temperature T, be incubated to 304 stainless steel plates after stretching, induce the horse in 304 stainless steels Family name's body reverse transformation, while supervening recovery stress, wherein T meets 700 DEG C≤T≤900 DEG C, during the time, i.e. timeliness of insulation Between t meet 15min≤t≤25min;
C, repetitive cycling step a, b, record global cycle times N;
D, will circulate N (N=1,2,3 ...) it is secondary after 304 stainless steel plates break, calculate percentage of total elongation δAlways, δAlways>=100% When, then realize transformation superplasticity.
In step a 304 stainless steel plates are at the uniform velocity stretched with used equipment at room temperature for the omnipotent examination of microcomputer controlled electronic Machine CMT5105 is tested, rate of extension v meets 2.5mm/min≤v≤3.5mm/min.
Ageing Treatment is carried out to 304 stainless steel plates after stretching using chamber type electric resistance furnace in step b, temperature T meets 750 DEG C ≤T≤850℃。
In step a, rate of extension v meets v=3mm/min.
In step b, described temperature T meets T=800 DEG C.
Described time t meets t=20min.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:The superplastic side of 304 stainless steels is realized in the utilization martensitic traoformation circulation of the present invention Method, 304 stainless steel martensitic traoformations can be induced by using room temperature tensile stress, and meeting during martensite reverse transformation in ag(e)ing process Supervene recovery stress;Martensitic traoformation can be carried out in room temperature, highly beneficial for practical application, and only be needed after Ageing Treatment Direct Air-Cooled to room temperature is to complete once phase-change circulation, and carry out complicated heating without special equipment circulates with cooling;Technique It is simple and saved substantial amounts of production cost.
Embodiment
The present invention is further illustrated below, but protection scope of the present invention be not limited to it is as described below.
The superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized in the utilization martensitic traoformation circulation of the present invention, is comprised the following steps:
A, 304 stainless steel plates are at the uniform velocity stretched at room temperature, martensitic phase occurs for the austenite induced in 304 stainless steels Become, wherein rate of extension v meets 0 < v≤5mm/min, stretcher strain amount is 30%;It is less efficient if speed is smaller, if fast Rate is larger, then because the crystal defects increase of material causes processing to be hardened and crystal dislocation motion is more difficult, can cause to go out too early Existing non-homogeneous plastic deformation, makes necking phenomenon produce in advance, for it is superplastic realize it is unfavorable;
B, Ageing Treatment, i.e., under temperature T, be incubated to 304 stainless steel plates after stretching, induce the horse in 304 stainless steels Family name's body reverse transformation, while supervening recovery stress, wherein T meets 700 DEG C≤T≤900 DEG C, during the time, i.e. timeliness of insulation Between t meet 15min≤t≤25min;If temperature is less than 500 DEG C, because temperature is relatively low, the reduction of martensite reverse transformation ability, geneva Body reverse transformation is not exclusively, poor for the accumulation effect of plasticity;Temperature between 500 DEG C~700 DEG C, can cause reverse transformation obtain Austenite intercrystalline precipitation Cr23C6, make to turn into Cr depletion zone near crystal boundary, produce serious intercrystalline corrosion;Temperature is too high, exceedes 900 DEG C the problems such as can produce high-temperature oxydation;
C, repetitive cycling step a, b, record global cycle times N;
D, will circulate N (N=1,2,3 ...) it is secondary after 304 stainless steel plates break, calculate percentage of total elongation δAlways, δAlways>=100% When, then realize transformation superplasticity.
The superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized in the utilization martensitic traoformation circulation of the present invention, by using room temperature tensile Stress can induce 304 stainless steel martensitic traoformations, and can supervene recovery stress in ag(e)ing process during martensite reverse transformation;Horse Family name's body phase, which becomes, to be carried out in room temperature, highly beneficial for practical application, and only needs Direct Air-Cooled i.e. complete to room temperature after Ageing Treatment Into once phase-change circulation, carry out complicated heating without special equipment and circulated with cooling;Technique is simple and has saved substantial amounts of Production cost.
It is worth noting that, described room temperature is the superiority for illustrating this method implementation process, i.e. implementation process need not Particular surroundings requirement, such as heating, cooling, constant temperature, room temperature environment wider range that this method is implemented, in 0 DEG C~40 DEG C room temperatures It can all carry out.
As preferred, in step a 304 stainless steel plates are at the uniform velocity stretched with used equipment at room temperature and is controlled for microcomputer Electronic universal tester CMT5105, rate of extension v meets 2.5mm/min≤v≤3.5mm/min.Can certainly be from common Stretching-machine replaces CMT5105.It is less efficient if speed is smaller, if speed is larger, because the crystal defects increase of material draws Play processing hardening and crystal dislocation motion is more difficult, can cause occur non-homogeneous plastic deformation too early, necking phenomenon is produced in advance It is raw, for it is superplastic realize it is unfavorable.
As preferred, Ageing Treatment, temperature are carried out to 304 stainless steel plates after stretching using chamber type electric resistance furnace in step b Spend T and meet 750 DEG C≤T≤850 DEG C.
As preferred, in step a, rate of extension v meets v=3mm/min.
As preferred, in step b, described temperature T meets T=800 DEG C.
T=20min is met as preferred, described time t, is in order to ensure martensite reverse transformation is carried out completely. In the case of ensuring that martensite reverse transformation is carried out completely, the time is more short better.On the one hand save;On the other hand prevent due to the time It is long to cause Austenite Grain Growth, so as to cause plasticity to decline.The time increases and increased with specimen size.
Some experimental datas are provided below.
Explanation:1st, according to experiment, cycle-index, which takes 2 times, can realize superplasticity, compare its highest breaking elongation and look for To its Optimal Temperature.
2nd, preferably aging temp is 800 DEG C.Although superplasticity highest when temperature is 900 DEG C, high when only than 800 DEG C 5%, and temperature height means that power consumption is high, oxidation is serious a lot.
Explanation:Aging time t is too short, and martensite reverse transformation is not carried out completely, to unfavorable, the aging time of superplastic raising T is oversize, the Austenite Grain Growth for causing reverse transformation to generate, and can also reduce plasticity, preferably aging time is 20min.
Explanation:1st, rate of extension is lower, and effect is better, but production efficiency can be substantially reduced, so draw speed is less than 3mm/min's does not do specific experiment;
2nd, in terms of result, superplasticity is best when draw speed takes 3mm/min, but in practice, as long as use can be reached Family is required, can suitably use the high draw speed of a bit.Such as, its total deformation of certain part requirements is 138%, can be using stretching Speed is 7mm/min.
3rd, later stage specific experiment result shows, when using draw speed for 20mm/min, deflection up to sample when 30% not It is disconnected, but be due to that the plastic deformation heat produced during austenite is changed into martensite has little time to scatter and disappear, cause temperature bright Aobvious rise, inhibits the generation of martensite, will cause superplastic reduction to a certain extent.
The foregoing is merely illustrative of the preferred embodiments of the present invention, is not intended to limit the invention, all essences in the present invention Any modifications, equivalent substitutions and improvements made within refreshing and principle etc., should be included in the scope of the protection.

Claims (6)

1. realize the superplastic method of 304 stainless steels using martensitic traoformation circulation, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
A, 304 stainless steel plates are at the uniform velocity stretched at room temperature, martensitic traoformation occurs for the austenite induced in 304 stainless steels, its Middle rate of extension v meets 0 < v≤5mm/min, and stretcher strain amount is 30%;
B, Ageing Treatment, i.e., under temperature T, be incubated to 304 stainless steel plates after stretching, induce the martensite in 304 stainless steels Reverse transformation, while supervening recovery stress, wherein T meets 750 DEG C≤T≤850 DEG C, and the time of insulation, i.e. aging time t expire Sufficient 15min≤t≤25min;
C, repetitive cycling step a, b, record global cycle times N, wherein N=1,2,3 ...;
D, 304 stainless steel plates circulated after n times are broken, calculate percentage of total elongation δAlways, δAlwaysWhen >=100%, then the super modeling of phase transformation is realized Property.
2. the superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized in utilization martensitic traoformation circulation according to claim 1, its feature exists In:In step a 304 stainless steel plates are at the uniform velocity stretched with used equipment at room temperature for microcomputer controlled electronic universal tester CMT5105, rate of extension v meets 2.5mm/min≤v≤3.5mm/min.
3. the superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized in utilization martensitic traoformation circulation according to claim 1, its feature exists In:Ageing Treatment is carried out to 304 stainless steel plates after stretching using chamber type electric resistance furnace in step b.
4. the superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized in the utilization martensitic traoformation circulation according to Claims 2 or 3, it is special Levy and be:In step a, rate of extension v meets v=3mm/min.
5. the superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized in utilization martensitic traoformation circulation according to claim 4, its feature exists In:In step b, described temperature T meets T=800 DEG C.
6. the superplastic method of 304 stainless steels is realized in utilization martensitic traoformation circulation according to claim 5, its feature exists In:The time t of the insulation meets t=20min.
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CN106893813B (en) * 2017-02-28 2018-09-04 浙江工贸职业技术学院 It is degenerated based on deformation twin and realizes the superplastic method of TWIP steel
CN109777933B (en) * 2019-02-26 2020-08-11 东南大学 Method for strengthening martensitic stainless steel through micro-deformation
CN113528778A (en) * 2021-06-30 2021-10-22 中国科学院金属研究所 Preparation method of superplastic high-silicon austenitic stainless steel

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