CN104619946A - Downhole cutting tools having hybrid cutting structures - Google Patents

Downhole cutting tools having hybrid cutting structures Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104619946A
CN104619946A CN 201380046979 CN201380046979A CN104619946A CN 104619946 A CN104619946 A CN 104619946A CN 201380046979 CN201380046979 CN 201380046979 CN 201380046979 A CN201380046979 A CN 201380046979A CN 104619946 A CN104619946 A CN 104619946A
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CN
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cutting
cutting element
non
planar
plurality
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CN 201380046979
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Chinese (zh)
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M·阿萨尔
S·哈耶
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史密斯国际有限公司
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/42Rotary drag type drill bits with teeth, blades or like cutting elements, e.g. fork-type bits, fish tail bits
    • E21B10/43Rotary drag type drill bits with teeth, blades or like cutting elements, e.g. fork-type bits, fish tail bits characterised by the arrangement of teeth or other cutting elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/46Drill bits characterised by wear resisting parts, e.g. diamond inserts
    • E21B10/54Drill bits characterised by wear resisting parts, e.g. diamond inserts the bit being of the rotary drag type, e.g. fork-type bits
    • E21B10/55Drill bits characterised by wear resisting parts, e.g. diamond inserts the bit being of the rotary drag type, e.g. fork-type bits with preformed cutting elements with blades having preformed cutting elements mounted on a distinct support, e.g. polycrystalline inserts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/60Drill bits characterised by conduits or nozzles for drilling fluids

Abstract

A drill bit is disclosed, wherein the drill bit has a bit body with a longitudinal axis extending there through and a bit face. A plurality of blades extends from the bit body, wherein the plurality of blades has a blade profile including a nose. A plurality of cutting elements are disposed on the plurality of blades, including a plurality of non-planar cutting elements and a plurality of rotatable cutting elements, wherein the plurality of non-planar cutting elements are disposed in a non-planar cutting element region on at least one of the blades between the longitudinal axis and the nose

Description

具有混合切割结构的井下切割工具 Cleavage structure with mixed downhole cutting tool

背景技术 Background technique

[0001] 在钻地层中的井眼,例如用于回收烃或其它应用时,实际上通常需要将钻头连接在头尾连接到一起以形成“钻柱”的钻杆组件部分的下端上。 [0001] In drilling a borehole in the formation, for example, for recovery of hydrocarbons or other applications, in fact, usually requires a drill bit connected to the head and tail connected together to form the lower end portion of the drill stem assembly "drill string" a. 通过在地面上转动钻柱或者通过致动井下马达或涡轮机,或同时通过这两种方法来使钻头旋转。 Simultaneously rotated by rotation of the drill bit in the drill string or on the ground by actuation of downhole motors or turbines, or by both methods. 借助施加给钻柱的重量,旋转的钻头与地层接合,通过磨蚀,压裂,或剪切作用,或者通过所有切割方法的组合使得钻头切割穿过地层材料,由此形成沿着预定路径朝向目标区域的井眼。 By weight applied to the drill string, the rotating drill bit engages the formation, by abrasion, fracturing or shearing, or by a combination of all of the cutting process so that the cutting bit through the formation material, thereby forming a target along a predetermined path toward wellbore region.

[0002] 已经开发和发现了很多不同类型的应用于例如钻井眼的钻头。 [0002] have been developed and found a lot of different types of drills used in drilling a well bore, for example. 两种主要类型的钻头为牙轮钻头和固定切割器(或者旋转刮刀)钻头。 Two main types of drill bits for the fixed cutter and roller cone bits (or a rotary blade) bit. 大多数的固定切割器钻头设计包括围绕钻头面成角度间隔分布的多个刀翼。 Most of the design of fixed cutter drill bit comprising a surface surrounding a plurality of angularly spaced wing profile blade. 刀翼从钻头本体向外径向突出并且在彼此之间形成流动通道。 Wings projecting radially outwardly from the cutter bit body and a flow path between each other. 此外,切割元件通常被分组并且成径向延伸的列安装在几个刀翼上。 Further, the cutting elements are usually grouped in a row and a radially extending blade is mounted on several wing. 刀翼上的切割元件的配置或布局可以根据多个因素,例如待钻的地层在大范围内变化。 The cutting element layout or configuration of the wings on the knife can vary over a wide range, for example, according to a plurality of factors of the formation to be drilled.

[0003] 设在固定切割器钻头的刀翼上的切割元件通常由极硬的材料形成。 The cutting element [0003] disposed on a fixed cutter drill knife blade typically is formed of a very hard material. 在典型的固定切割器钻头中,每个切割元件包括容纳并且固定在形成于其中一个刀翼的表面的凹口处中的细长且大体上为圆柱形的碳化钨基材。 In a typical fixed cutter drill bit, each cutting element comprising housed and secured in a recess formed therein at the surface of a knife blade and an elongated generally cylindrical tungsten carbide substrate. 切割元件通常包括由多晶金刚石(PCD)或其它超硬磨蚀材料、例如热稳定金刚石或多晶立方氮化硼构成的硬切割层。 The cutting element typically comprises a polycrystalline diamond (PCD) or other superhard abrasive material, such as a hard cutting layer of thermally stable polycrystalline diamond or cubic boron nitride. 为了方便起见,如这里所使用的引述“PCD钻头”或“PCD切割器”所指的是采用由多晶金刚石或其它超硬磨蚀材料构成的硬切割层的固定切割器钻头或者切割元件。 For convenience, as used herein quoted as "PCD drill" or "PCD cutters" referring to the use of hard cutting layer made of polycrystalline diamond or other superhard abrasive material is fixed cutter drill bits or cutting element.

[0004] 参照图1和2,示出了适于钻穿岩石地层以形成井眼的传统的固定切割器或刮刀钻头10。 [0004] Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is shown adapted to drill through the rock formation to form a borehole of a conventional fixed cutter or drag bit 10. 钻头10总体包括钻头本体12、杆13及将钻头10连接到被用于旋转钻头以钻井眼的钻柱(未示出)的螺纹连接结构或销14。 Drill bit 10 generally includes a body 12, the rod 13 and the drill bit 10 is connected to the threaded connection is used for rotating the drill string to a drill bit drilling a well bore (not shown) or pin 14. 钻头面20支撑刀翼状切割结构15并且形成在钻头10的与销的端部16相反的端部上。 Bit face 20 supports the cutting blade wing structure 15 and formed on opposite ends of the pin 10 of the drill end 16. 钻头10进一步包括使钻头10围绕其沿着由箭头18所表示的切割方向进行旋转的中心轴线11。 The drill bit 10 further includes a central axis 10 about which the cutter 11 is rotated along a direction indicated by arrow 18.

[0005] 切割结构15设置在钻头10的面20上。 [0005] cutting structure 15 is provided on the surface 20 of the drill bit 10. 切割结构15包括多个成角度间隔分布的主刀翼31,32,33,以及副刀翼34,35,36,其中,每一个都从钻头面20延伸。 Cutting structure 15 comprises a plurality of angularly spaced wings 32, 33 of the surgeon, and the sub-wing blade 35, 36, which extend from each of the bit face 20. 主刀翼31,32,33和副刀翼34,35,36总体上沿着钻头面20径向延伸并且接着沿着钻头10的一部分外周轴向延伸。 32, 33 and the secondary blade wing surgeon wings 35, 36 extending generally along the bit face 20 radially and then extends axially along a portion of the outer periphery 10 of the drill bit. 然而,副刀翼34,35,36沿着钻头面20从远离钻头轴线11的位置朝向钻头10的外周径向延伸。 However, the sub-wing blade 34, 35, 20 extend radially toward the outer periphery of the drill bit 10 from a location remote from the axis 11 along the bit face. 因此,如这里使用的,“副刀翼”可被用于指代从距离钻头轴线某一距离开始并且总体上沿着钻头面径向延伸到钻头的外周的刀翼。 Thus, as used herein, "sub-wing knife" may be used to refer to an outer periphery of the blade airfoil and extending generally along the radial face of the drill bit to start from a certain distance from the bit axis. 主刀翼31,32,33和副刀翼34,35,36被钻井液流动路径19分隔开。 32, 33 and the secondary blade wing surgeon wings 35, 36 are separated from the drilling fluid flow path 19.

[0006] 仍然参照图1和2,每个主刀翼31,32,33包括用于安装多个切割元件的刀翼顶42,并且每个副刀翼34,35,36包括用于安装多个切割元件的刀翼顶52。 [0006] Still referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, each wing 32, 33 includes a surgeon for mounting a plurality of cutting elements of the cutter wing top 42, 35, 36 and each secondary blade airfoil includes a plurality of mounting top cutting blade 52 the wing element. 特别地,切割元件40 (每一个均具有切割面44)被安装在分别形成于每个主刀翼31,32,33和每个副刀翼34,35,36的刀翼顶42,52中的凹口中。 In particular, the cutting element 40 (each having a cutting surface 44) is mounted in the wing are formed on each of the surgeon 32, 33 and 34, 35 of each sub-blade cutter wing top flap 42 and 52 recess. 切割元件40彼此相邻布置成与每个主刀翼31,32,33和每个副刀翼34,35,36的前缘最接近的径向延伸的列。 The cutting elements 40 arranged in columns adjacent to each other and closest to the wing leading edge of each main blade 32, 33 and 34, 35 of each sub blade wing extending radially. 每个切割面44具有距离安装切割元件40的刀翼顶42,52最远的最外的切割刃44a。 Each cutting surface 44 having a cutting element mounted from the outer top flap 40 of the blade 42 and 52 furthest most cutting edge 44a.

[0007] 现在参照图3,示出了钻头10的轮廓,其表现为所有刀翼(例如,主刀翼31,32,33和副刀翼34,35,36)和所有切割元件40的切割面44被旋转到单个旋转轮廓中。 Cutting surface [0007] Referring now to FIG 3, shows the profile of the drill bit 10, which is, all blade wings (e.g., wings 32, 33 and the secondary blade surgeon wings 34,35, 36) and all of the cutting elements 40 44 is rotated to a single rotation profile. 在旋转轮廓视图中,钻头10的所有刀翼31-36的刀翼顶42,52形成并且限定出从钻头轴线11径向延伸到钻头10的外径23的组合或复合刀翼轮廓39。 In view profile of rotation, all cutting blade wing 31-36 wings 42 and 52 form the top bit 10 and defines a combined or composite blade airfoil profile 39 extends from axis 11 to the radially outer diameter of the drill bit 10 23. 因此,如这里使用的,词组“复合刀翼轮廓”指的是从钻头轴线向钻头的外径延伸的轮廓,其由旋转到单个旋转轮廓(即,在旋转轮廓视图中)的钻头的所有刀翼的刀翼顶形成。 Thus, as used herein, the phrase "composite blade wing contour" refers to a contour extending from the outer diameter of the drill bit axis into which a single rotating by the rotation of the profile (i.e., in a rotary profile view) of all cutting bit top knife blade wing is formed.

[0008] 传统的复合刀翼轮廓39(在图3中的钻头10的右半边中最清晰地示出)总体上可被分割成三个区域,分别被标记为圆锥区域24,肩部区域25,以及轨径区域26。 [0008] The conventional composite blade airfoil profile 39 (FIG. 3 in the right half of the drill bit 10 is the most clearly shown) may be divided into three general regions, are labeled conical region 24, a shoulder region 25 , and track-in area 26. 圆锥区域24包括钻头10的径向最内区域以及总体上从钻头轴线11向肩部区域25延伸的复合刀翼轮廓39。 Tapered region 24 includes a radially innermost region of the drill bit 10 and the bit axis 11 to the overall composite blade airfoil profile 39 of the shoulder region 25 extends from. 如图3所示,在最传统的固定切割器钻头中,圆锥区域24总体上成凹形。 3, in most conventional fixed cutter drill bits, tapered region 24 is generally a concave shape. 与圆锥区域24相邻的为肩部(或向上翻转的弯曲)区域25。 The conical area adjacent to the shoulder 24 (or flipped upwardly bent) region 25. 在最传统的固定切割器钻头中,肩部区域25总体上成凸形。 In the most conventional fixed cutter drill bits, the shoulder region 25 generally is convex. 径向靠外的与肩部区域25相邻的为轨径区域26,其平行于钻头轴线11在复合刀翼轮廓39的外径向周缘上延伸。 And the radially outer shoulder region 25 adjacent to region 26 tracks diameter, extending parallel to bit axis 11 in the outer diameter of the composite blade 39 to the airfoil profile of the peripheral edge. 因此,传统钻头10的复合刀翼轮廓39包括一个凹形区域-圆锥区域24以及一个凸形区域-肩部区域25。 Thus, the conventional drill blade airfoil profile 10 of the composite 39 comprises a concave area - area 24 and a convex tapered region - the shoulder region 25.

[0009] 凸形肩部区域25以及复合刀翼轮廓39的轴向最下的点限定出刀翼轮廓冠顶27。 [0009] point of axial male shoulder region 25, and a composite blade airfoil profile 39 of the lowermost blade airfoil profile defines a crown 27. 在刀翼轮廓冠顶27处,凸形肩部区域25和复合刀翼轮廓39的切线27a的斜率为零。 At the wing profile blade crown 27, the slope of the shoulder region 25 and the composite male blade airfoil profile 39 of a tangent 27a to zero. 因此,如这里使用的,术语“刀翼轮廓冠顶”指的是在旋转轮廓视图中沿钻头的复合刀翼轮廓的凸形区域的点,在该点上与复合刀翼轮廓的切线的斜率为零。 Thus, as used herein, the term "blade airfoil profile crown" refers to the point along the blade airfoil convex contour regions of the composite rotary drill bit in a profile view, the slope of the tangent line at that point the composite blade airfoil profile zero. 对绝大多数传统的固定切割器钻头(例如,钻头10)来说,复合刀翼轮廓仅仅包括一个凸形肩部区域(例如,凸形肩部区域25),并且仅仅包括一个刀翼轮廓冠顶(例如,冠顶27)。 For most conventional fixed cutter drill bit (e.g., bit 10), the composite blade airfoil profile comprises only one convex shoulder area (e.g., convex shoulder region 25), and includes only one blade wing contour crown top (e.g., crown 27). 如图1-3所示,切割元件40沿着刀翼31-36成列布置并且沿着前面描述的复合刀翼轮廓39的圆锥区域24,肩部区域25以及轨径区域26等区域中的钻头面20设置。 1-3, the wing knives 40 disposed along columns 31-36 and the composite cutting elements along cutter wing profile previously described tapered region 2439 of the shoulder region 25 and the track-area region 26, and the like bit face 20 is provided. 特别地,切割元件40安装在刀翼31-36上的相对于钻头10的中心轴线11径向间隔开的预定位置上。 In particular, the cutting element 40 is mounted in a predetermined position with respect to the upper blade wing 31-36 11 central axis of the drill 10 is radially spaced apart on.

[0010] 不考虑钻头类型,钻井的费用与将井眼钻到期望的深度和位置处所花费的时间长度成正比。 [0010] without regard to the type of drill bit, the drilling costs and the time proportional to the length of the wellbore drilled to a desired depth and position takes place. 因而,钻井时间很大程度上受必须更换钻头以达到目标地层的次数的影响。 Thus, the drilling time is largely influenced by the number of drill bit must be replaced in order to reach the target formation. 这是因为每次更换钻头时,可能为几英里长的整个钻柱必须从井眼中一段一段地取出来。 This is because every time the bit exchange, possibly the entire drill string length must be taken out for some period of a few miles from the wellbore. 一旦钻柱被取出并且安装好新的钻头,钻头必须在钻柱上被下降到井眼底部,钻柱必须再次一段一段地构建。 Once the drill string is removed and installed a new drill bit on the drill string must be lowered to the bottom of the borehole, the drill string must be constructed in some period again. 称为钻柱的“起下”的这种过程需要大量的时间、工作量以及花费。 "Tripping" This process is called the drill string requires a lot of time, effort and cost. 因此,总是期望采用钻井更快且更长并且在较宽的不同地层硬度范围内都可以使用的钻头。 Thus, always desirable to use a faster and longer and drilling bit in a wide range of different hardness may be used in the formation.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0011] 本概述用于引入在详细描述中进一步描述的构思的选取。 [0011] This Summary is used to select concepts are further described in the detailed description is introduced. 本概述不是用于限定要求保护的主题的关键或实质特征,也不是用于帮助限定要求保护的主体的范围。 This summary is not intended to limit the claimed subject matter of key or essential features, nor is it required to help define the scope of protection of the body.

[0012] 一方面,这里公开的实施例涉及一种钻头,其具有钻头本体,钻头本体具有贯穿延伸的纵轴线以及钻头面。 [0012] In one aspect, embodiments disclosed herein relate to a drill bit having a bit body, the bit body having a bit face and a longitudinal axis extending therethrough. 多个刀翼从钻头本体延伸,其中所述多个刀翼具有包括冠顶的刀翼轮廓。 A plurality of blade wings extending from the bit body, wherein said plurality of airfoil blade having a knife comprising a crown wing profile. 多个切割元件设置在所述多个刀翼上,且包括多个非平面切割元件和多个旋转切割元件,其中,所述多个非平面切割元件设置在至少一个刀翼上的位于纵轴线和冠顶之间的非平面切割元件区域中。 A plurality of cutting elements disposed on said plurality of cutter wing, non-planar and includes a plurality of cutting elements and a plurality of rotary cutting elements, wherein said plurality of longitudinal axis located non-planar cutting element disposed on at least one blade wing and a non-planar cutting element in the region between the crown.

[0013] 另一方面,这里公开的实施例涉及一种具有工具本体的井下切割工具,该工具本体具有贯穿延伸的纵轴线和切割端。 [0013] On the other hand, embodiments disclosed herein relate to a downhole tool having a cutting tool body, said tool body having a longitudinal axis extending therethrough and a cutting end. 多个刀翼从工具本体在方位角方向上延伸,并且多个切割元件设置在多个刀翼上。 A plurality of blade wings extending from the tool body in the azimuth direction, and a plurality of cutting elements disposed on a plurality of wing knives. 所述多个切割元件包括至少一个旋转切割元件和至少一个非平面切割元件,其中,所述至少一个非平面切割元件位于刀翼的与切割端最接近的非平面切割元件区域中。 The plurality of cutting elements comprise at least a rotating cutting element located closest to the cut end of the knife blade cutting elements of non-planar region of at least one non-planar cutting member, wherein said at least one non-planar with the cutting element.

[0014] 要求保护的主题的其它方面和优点通过后面的描述和所附的权利要求变得更加明显。 [0014] Other aspects and advantages of the claimed subject matter as claimed by the appended description and become more apparent from the following claims.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0015] 图1示出现有技术的钻头。 [0015] FIG. 1 illustrating a prior art drill.

[0016] 图2示出现有技术的钻头的顶视图。 [0016] FIG. 2 is a top view of a prior art illustrating the drill bit.

[0017] 图3示出现有技术的钻头的剖视图。 [0017] FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the drill illustrating the prior art.

[0018] 图4示出根据本公开的实施例的钻头的顶视图。 [0018] FIG. 4 shows a top view of a drill according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0019] 图5示出根据本公开的实施例的切割轮廓。 [0019] FIG. 5 shows a cutting profile of the present embodiment of the disclosure.

[0020] 图6示出根据本公开的实施例的圆锥形切割元件。 [0020] FIG. 6 illustrates an embodiment of the conical cutting element according to the present disclosure.

[0021] 图7示出根据本公开的实施例的圆锥形切割元件。 [0021] FIG. 7 shows an embodiment of the conical cutting element according to the present disclosure.

[0022] 图8示出根据本公开的实施例的圆锥形切割元件。 [0022] FIG. 8 shows an embodiment of the conical cutting element according to the present disclosure.

[0023] 图9示出根据本公开的一个实施例的切割元件。 [0023] FIG. 9 shows an embodiment of a cutting element according to the present disclosure a.

[0024] 图10示出根据本公开的实施例的旋转切割元件。 [0024] FIG. 10 illustrates an embodiment of the rotary cutting element in accordance with the present disclosure.

[0025] 图11示出根据本公开的实施例的圆锥形切割元件。 [0025] FIG. 11 shows the cutting element of the embodiment according to the present embodiment conical disclosure.

[0026] 图12示出根据本公开的实施例的圆锥形切割元件。 [0026] FIG. 12 illustrates an embodiment of the conical cutting element according to the present disclosure.

[0027] 图13示出根据本公开的实施例的双心钻头的侧视图。 [0027] FIG. 13 shows a side view of a drill bit according to an embodiment of the present double heart disclosure.

[0028] 图14示出根据本公开的实施例的双心钻头的切割轮廓。 [0028] FIG. 14 illustrates a dual-core drill bit according to an embodiment of the present disclosure cutting profile.

[0029] 图15A-15B示出圆锥形切割元件的侧视图和剖视图。 [0029] Figures 15A-15B illustrate a side view and a sectional view illustrating the conical cutting element.

[0030] 图16A-16B示出具有凸出的侧表面的尖形切割元件的侧视图和剖视图。 [0030] FIGS. 16A-16B illustrate a side view and a cross-sectional view of a convex side surface of the pointed cutting element.

[0031] 图17示出具有凹入的侧表面的尖形切割元件的剖视图。 [0031] FIG 17 shows tapered surface having a concave side cross-sectional view of the cutting element.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0032] 一方面,这里公开的实施例涉及钻头或包括多种类型的切割结构的其它井下切割工具。 [0032] In one aspect, embodiments disclosed herein relate to a drill bit or other downhole cleavage structure comprising a plurality of types of cutting tool. 特别地,这里公开的实施例涉及包含两种或更多种类型的切割元件的切割工具,每种类型切割元件都具有不同形式的切割地层的动作。 In particular, embodiments herein relate to a cutting tool comprising two or more types of cutting elements disclosed herein, each type of operation of the cutting element has cut the formation of different forms. 这里公开的其它实施例涉及包含具有非平面切割端的固定切割元件和旋转切割元件的钻头,包括这些切割元件在钻头上的布置方式以及可以被用于优化钻井的切割元件上的变型。 Other embodiments disclosed herein relates to a fixed cutting element and the cutting element rotary drill bit having a non-planar cut end, the arrangement comprises a cutting elements on the drill bit and variations on the cutting element may be used to optimize drilling.

[0033] 如这里使用的,“非平面切割元件”指的是具有非平面切割端的切割元件并且还可以指的是成型的切割元件。 [0033] As used herein, "non-planar cutting element" refers to a non-planar cutting end having a cutting element and may also refer shaped cutting element. 非平面切割端的形状可以包括任何几何形状,其中,切割元件与地层接合的部分为非平面的。 A non-planar shape of the cut end may comprise any geometry, wherein the portion of the cutting element engages the formation of non-planar. 通常,传统的切割器在圆柱状坯块的外周边缘处接合地层并且随着切割器切割或挖掘而进入地层中,平面切割面的一部分与地层接合。 Typically, conventional cutting engagement in an outer peripheral edge of the formation of a cylindrical billet and cutting with a cutter or excavating into the formation, a portion of the planar cutting surface engages the formation. 这些切割器通常还可以包括斜面或斜坡边缘,然而实际上大部分的切割面的表面区域为平面的。 These cutters can typically further comprise a ramp or bevel edge, but in fact most of the surface area of ​​the cutting surface is planar. 然而,这些形状并不位于这里限定的术语“非平面切割元件”的范围之内。 However, these shapes are not located within the defined term "non-planar cutting element" of the scope herein. 相反,非平面切割元件在从圆柱状侧表面到切割端的过渡部上方具有高度延伸部,并且基本上大部分的切割端为非平面的。 In contrast, non-planar cutting element portion having a height above the transition portion extending from the cylindrical side surface of the cutting end, the cutting end and substantially most of the non-planar. 这些形状通常可包括尖的切割元件和圆顶形的切割元件。 These shapes may generally comprise a pointed dome-shaped cutting element and the cutting element. 总体上为尖的切割元件通常可具有尖的切割端,即,如图15-17所示,具有圆锥、凸起或凹陷侧表面地终止于一顶点。 A sharp cutting element generally may have a generally pointed cutting end, i.e., as shown in Figure 15-17, has a conical, convex or concave side surface terminates at an apex. 为了便于区分这两种类型的切割元件,如上面参看图1和2所描述的,术语“切割元件”一般指的是任何类型的切割元件,而“切割器”指的是具有平面切割面的那些切割元件,“非平面切割元件”指的是那些具有非平面切割端的切割元件。 To facilitate the distinction between these two types of cutting elements, 1 and 2 as described above with reference to FIG term "cutting element" generally refers to any type of cutting element, and "cut" refers to a plane having a cutting surface those cutting elements, "a non-planar cutting element" refers to those having a non-planar cutting element cut ends.

[0034] 如这里使用的,术语“圆锥形切割元件”指的是具有大体上为圆锥形的切割端62(包括直锥或斜锥)的切割元件,即,如图15A-15B所示,以圆形顶点66终结的圆锥侧壁64。 [0034] As used herein, the term "conical cutting element" refers to a cut having a generally conical end 62 (comprising a straight cone or taper) of the cutting element, i.e., 15A-15B shown in FIG., a circular cone the apex 66 of the end wall 64. 与以尖形顶点终结的几何圆锥不同,本公开的圆锥形切割元件的顶点具有位于侧表面和顶点之间的弯曲部。 And pointed at the apex end of conical geometry different from the present disclosure conical apex of the cutting element has a curved portion positioned between the side surface and the vertex. 此外,在一个或多个实施例中,可以使用子弹形切割元件70。 Further, in one or more embodiments may be used a bullet-shaped cutting element 70. 如图16A-16B所示,术语“子弹形切割元件”指的是切割元件具有与总体上为圆锥形的侧表面不同的总体上为凸起的并且以圆形顶点76终结的侧表面78。 As shown in FIG. 16A-16B, the term "bullet-shaped cutting element" refers to a cutting element having a generally conical shape with the upper side surface of different overall convex vertex end 76 and a circular side surface 78. 在一个或多个实施例中,顶点76的曲率半径明显比凸起侧表面78的小。 In one or more embodiments, the radius of curvature of the vertex 76 is significantly smaller than the convex side surface 78. 然而,还可以注意到本公开的非平面切割元件还可包括其它形状,例如,如图17所示以圆形顶点终结的凹形侧表面。 However, the present disclosure may also be noted that the non-planar cutting element may further comprise other shapes, e.g., as shown in a circular concave side surface of the end vertices 17 in FIG. 在每个这样的实施例中,非平面切割元件在侧表面和圆形顶点之间可具有光滑过渡(即侧表面或侧壁与顶点的弯曲部分正切相接),但是在某些实施例中,可以具有非光滑的过渡(即,侧表面的切线与顶点的切线相互交叉成非180度角,例如从大约120度到小于180度)。 In each such embodiment, the cutting element between the non-planar side surfaces and the rounded vertex may have a smooth transition (i.e., the side surface or a curved portion in contact with the side wall and the vertex tangent), in certain embodiments , may have a non-smooth transition (i.e., the tangential line tangent to the apex of the side surfaces intersect each other in a non-180 degree angle, e.g., from about 120 to less than 180 degrees). 此外,在一个或多个实施例中,非平面切割元件可包括具有在夹持或基座区域上方延伸的切割端的任何形状,其中,切割端的延伸高度至少为切割元件的直径的0.25倍,或在一个或多个其它实施例中为切割元件的直径的至少0.3,0.4,0.5或者0.6倍。 Further, in one or more embodiments, the cutting element may comprise a non-planar shape having any cutting end extending above the holder or the base region, wherein the height of the cut end of the extension is at least 0.25 times the diameter of the cutting element, or at least 0.3,0.4,0.5 or 0.6-fold in one or more other embodiments of the cutting element diameter.

[0035] 例如,图6-8示出了可处于这里公开的任何实施例中的圆锥形切割元件的变型。 [0035] For example, FIG 6-8 show a variant may be in any of the embodiments disclosed herein the conical cutting element. 如图所示,圆锥形切割元件128在基材134 (例如烧结碳化钨基材)上可具有金刚石层132,其中,金刚石层132形成圆锥形金刚石工作表面。 As shown, the conical cutting element 128 in a substrate 134 (e.g. cemented tungsten carbide substrate) layer 132 may have a diamond, wherein the diamond layer 132 is formed a conical diamond working surface. 然而,圆锥形切割元件也可以由其它材料制成,因为是它们的形状限定出圆锥形切割元件而不是它们的材料。 However, the conical cutting element may also be made of other materials, because of their conical shape defining member rather than their cut material. 具体地,圆锥几何形状可以包括与顶点的弯曲部分正切相接的侧壁。 In particular, the conical geometry may include a curved portion with a vertex tangent contact sidewall. 圆锥形切割元件128可以采用与形成金刚石增强镶嵌物(用在牙轮钻头中)类似的过程或者通过将部件焊接到一起而形成。 Conical cutting element 128 may be formed together with forming a diamond reinforcing inlay (used in roller cone bits) is similar to the process or by welding using the member. 金刚石层132和基材134之间的接合部(没有单独地示出)可以是非平面或不均匀的,例如,用于帮助减小在操作中金刚石层132从基材134上发生脱落的意外并且提高元件的强度和耐冲击性。 Joint (not separately shown) may be non-planar or uneven between the diamond layer 132 and the substrate 134, e.g., to help reduce the diamond layer 132. In operation occurs accidentally detached from the substrate 134 and improve the strength and impact resistance element. 本领域技术人员可以意识到接合部可包括一个或多个凸起或凹陷部分,如本领域中已知的非平面接合部。 Those skilled in the art may be appreciated engaging portion may comprise one or more protrusions or portions known in the art as a non-planar engagement recess. 此外,本领域技术人员可以意识到使用某些非平面接合部可以允许层的顶端区域中的金刚石层具有更大的厚度。 Moreover, those skilled in the art may realize that the use of certain non-planar diamond layer bonding the top layer region may have a greater thickness allows. 此外,可以期望的是产生使金刚石层在包围金刚石增强元件和地层之间的主接触区域的关键区域中具有最大厚度的接合部形状。 Further, it may be desirable that the joint portion is to produce a diamond layer surrounding the diamond shape to enhance the contact area between the main elements and the formation of critical areas has a maximum thickness.

[0036] 可以用于本公开的基本上为尖的切割元件的其它形状和接合部包括在美国专利公开N0.2008/0035380中所描述的,其整体通过引用被结合于此。 [0036] The present disclosure may be used in other shapes and substantially engaging tip comprises cutting elements disclosed N0.2008 / 0035380 as described in U.S. Patent, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. 此外,金刚石层132可以由任何多晶超硬研磨材料形成,例如包括多晶金刚石、多晶立方氮化硼、热稳定多晶金刚石(通过对由金属例如钴形成的多晶金刚石或者对由具有热膨胀系数比钴低的金属形成的多晶金刚石进行处理形成)。 In addition, the diamond layer 132 may be formed of any of polycrystalline ultra-hard abrasive material, including, for example, polycrystalline diamond, polycrystalline cubic boron nitride, thermally stable polycrystalline diamond (polycrystalline diamond made by a metal such as cobalt or formed by a pair having polycrystalline diamond is formed lower than the coefficient of thermal expansion of cobalt metal forming processes).

[0037] 圆锥形切割元件的顶点可具有弯曲部分,其包括一曲率半径。 [0037] The conical apex of the cutting element may have a curved portion, which includes a radius of curvature. 在图6-8所示的实施例中,曲率半径的范围可为大约0.050到0.125。 In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 6-8, the radius of curvature may range from about 0.050 to 0.125. 这些弯曲部分还可以在图16和17所示的切割元件类型中存在。 The curved portions may also be present in the cutting element 16 and 17 of the type shown in FIG. 在某些实施例中,弯曲部分可包括可变化的曲率半径,抛物线的一部分,双曲线的一部分,悬链线的一部分或者参数样条。 In certain embodiments, the curved portion may comprise a varying radius of curvature, a portion of a parabola, a portion of a hyperbola, or a catenary portion of parametric spline. 此外,参照图6和7,圆锥端的圆锥角130可以变化并且基于被钻的具体地层而进行选取。 Further, referring to FIGS. 6 and 7, the cone angle of the conical end 130 may be varied based on the particular selection is performed and the formation drilled. 在特殊的实施例中,圆锥角130可为大约75到90度。 In a particular embodiment, the cone angle 130 may be approximately 75 to 90 degrees.

[0038] 现在参照图8,其示出了不对称或偏斜的圆锥形切割元件。 [0038] Referring now to FIG. 8, which shows a skewed or asymmetrical conical cutting element. 如图8中所示,圆锥形切割元件128的切割圆锥切割端部135的轴线与基材134的轴线不同轴。 As shown in FIG. 8, a conical cutting conical cutting element 128 different from the axis of the cutting end portion of the axis 135 of the substrate 134. 在一个特殊的实施例中,至少一个非对称圆锥形切割元件可以用在任何描述过的钻头或铰刀扩孔器中。 In a particular embodiment, at least one asymmetrical conical cutting element may be used in any of the described drill or reamer of the reamer. 非对称圆锥形切割元件的选取可以被选择为更好地将从地层作用于切割元件上的法向力或反作用力与切割尖端轴线对正或改变圆锥形切割元件相对于地层的侵入性。 Select asymmetrical conical cutting element may be selected from the formations to better law acting on the cutting element to force or reaction force axis of the cutting tip or a positive conical cutting element changes with respect to the formation invasive. 在一个特殊的实施例中,在切割端或圆锥轴线与基材轴线之间形成的角度131可为37.5到45度,其中,切割元件的尾侧上的角更大,比前缘角(从切割元件的前侧测量得到的)大5-20度。 In a particular embodiment, the angle formed between the cutting end of the axis or cone axis of the substrate 131 may be 37.5 to 45 degrees, wherein a larger angle on the trailing side of the cutting element, than the front edge angle (from the front side of the cutting element obtained measurement) 5-20 degrees.

[0039] 圆锥形切割元件的其它设计也可以用在本公开的实施例中,例如在美国专利申请N0.61/441,319,13/370,734,61/499,851,13/370,862 和61/609,527 中所描述的,它们全部被转让给本受让人并且整体通过引用被结合到这里。 [0039] Other designs conical cutting element may also be used in embodiments of the present disclosure, for example, in U.S. Patent Application N0.61 / 441,319,13 / 370,734,61 / 499,851,13 / 370, 862 and 61 / 609,527 are described, they are all assigned to the present assignee and are incorporated by reference in entirety here.

[0040] 此外,本公开的非平面切割元件可以通过本领域已知的方法,例如钎焊被附接到钻头或其它井下切割工具,或者可以被可旋转地保持在井下工具上。 [0040] In addition, a non-planar cutting elements of the present disclosure can be prepared by methods known in the art, for example, soldering is attached to a drill bit or other downhole cutting tool, or may be rotatably held on the downhole tool. 例如,非平面切割元件可以通过一个或多个保持机构被可旋转地保持在井下工具上,例如通过保持球、弹簧、销等方式。 For example, non-planar cutting element holding mechanism can be rotatably held by the one or more downhole tools, e.g., by holding a ball, a spring, a pin or the like. 在一个或多个实施例中,非平面切割元件可以使用设置在围绕圆锥形切割元件本体的外侧表面形成的相应的凹槽与套筒的内侧表面之间的多个保持球被可旋转地保持在形成与井下工具的刀翼上的凹口中,所述井下工具例如为钻头或铰刀扩孔器,所述套筒被附接到凹口。 In one or more embodiments, the non-planar plurality of cutting elements may be used provided between the inner side surface of a respective recess of the sleeve element surrounding the conical cutting surface of the outer body holding the ball rotatably held recess in the blade wing is formed with a downhole tool, the downhole tool, for example a drill bit or reamer reamer sleeve is attached to the recess. 在其它实施例中,非平面切割元件可以使用非平面切割元件本体的直径变化来可旋转地保持在形成于井下工具的刀翼中的凹口中。 In other embodiments, the cutting element may be used a non-planar non-planar cutting element varying diameter of the body to be rotatably held in a recess in the blade wing is formed in the downhole tool. 例如,非平面切割元件本体或基材可以具有与非平面切割端邻近的第一直径以及轴向远离非平面切割端的第二直径,其中第二直径大于第一直径。 For example, a cutting element body or a non-planar substrate may have a non-planar cut end adjacent the first diameter and a second diameter axially away from the plane of the non-cutting end, wherein the second diameter is greater than the first diameter. 包围非平面切割元件本体的套筒(其可被附接到凹口)或凹口可以具有与非平面切割元件的第一直径对应的第一内直径。 A non-planar cutting element surrounding the sleeve body (which may be attached to the recess) or notch may have a first diameter and the inner diameter of the first non-planar cutting element corresponds. 因此,当非平面切割元件被组装在对应的套筒或凹口内部时,较大的第二直径保持住非平面切割元件。 Thus, when the non-planar cutting elements are assembled in the interior of a sleeve or a corresponding recess, a second, larger diameter to hold the non-planar cutting element. 保持机构的各种例子还包括在美国专利公开N0.2012/0132471和美国专利N0.7,703,559和8,091,655中描述的那些,它们全部被转让给本受让人并且整体通过引用被结合于此。 Various examples of retention means further comprises in U.S. Patent Publication N0.2012 / 0132471 and those, all of which are assigned U.S. Patent No. 8,091,655 and N0.7,703,559 described entirety to the present assignee and It is incorporated herein by reference.

[0041] 此外,尽管本公开的非平面切割元件可以可旋转地保持在井下切割工具、例如钻头或铰刀扩孔器上,但指具有非平面切割端的切割元件的术语“非平面切割元件”与术语“旋转切割元件”不同,可旋转切割元件可以类似地被可旋转地保持在井下切割工具上,但是没有非平面切割端。 [0041] Further, although the non-planar present disclosure cutting element may be rotatably held in a downhole cutting tool, for example, a drill or reamer reaming, but a term having a non-planar cutting end of the cutting element of the "non-planar cutting element" the term "rotating cutting element" is different, rotatable cutting element may similarly be rotatably held in a downhole cutting tool, but not the non-planar cut end.

[0042] 如这里使用的,术语“旋转切割元件”通常指的是切割元件的至少一个表面或部分随着其与地层的接触而发生旋转的切割元件。 [0042] As used herein, the term "rotary cutting element" generally refers to at least one surface or portion of the cutting element is in contact with the formation as it is rotated while the cutting element occur. 随着旋转切割元件接触地层,切割动作可允许切割元件的一部分围绕延伸通过切割元件的切割元件轴线旋转。 Contacting the formation with the rotary cutting element, the cutting element may allow for operation of the cutting portion of the cutting element about an axis extending through the rotation of the cutting element. 旋转切割元件的至少一部分的旋转可允许切割表面使用切割表面的整个外边缘切割地层而不是在传统固定切割元件中所看到的那样使用外边缘的相同区段切割地层。 Rotation of the rotary cutting element may allow at least a portion of the cut surface using a cutting edge of the cutting surface of the entire outer layer instead of a conventional cut formation at fixed cutting element seen in the same section as the outer edge of the use. 本公开的旋转切割元件可包括各种类型和大小的旋转切割元件。 Rotating the cutting element of the present disclosure may include a rotating cutting element types and sizes. 例如,旋转切割元件的大小可以包括当不限于9mm,13mm, 16mm和19_。 For example, the size of the rotary cutting element may include as limited to 9mm, 13mm, 16mm and 19_. 此外,旋转切割元件可包括那些保持在外部支撑元件内的、通过保持机构或限制器保持的或二者组合保持的旋转切割元件。 Further, rotary cutting element may comprise a rotating cutting element as those held by the holding means or limiters or a combination retained within the outer support member held.

[0043] 可用在本公开中的旋转切割元件的例子可以至少在美国专利公开N0.2007/0278017,2011/0297454 和2012/0132471 以及美国专利N0.7,703,559 和8,091,655中找到,这些专利公开通过引用被结合于此。 [0043] Examples of useful rotation of the cutting element in the present disclosure may be disclosed in U.S. Patent least N0.2007 / 0278017,2011 / 0297454 and 2012/0132471, and U.S. Patent No. 8,091,655 and N0.7,703,559 found, these publications are incorporated herein by reference. 例如,某些旋转切割元件包括设置在外壳内部或者切割器凹口和保持机构内部的内部旋转切割元件。 For example, some include rotary cutting element disposed within the cutter housing or recess and maintain the internal mechanism inside the rotary cutting element. 内部旋转切割元件的旋转可以通过侧向切割力和支承表面之间的摩擦力被控制。 Rotation of the rotary inner cutting member can cut through the lateral force and the frictional force between the bearing surface is controlled. 如果侧向切割力产生能够克服来自于摩擦力的扭矩,旋转部分发生旋转运动。 If lateral cutting forces can be generated to overcome the friction torque from the rotary part of the rotary movement occurs. 侧向切割力可受到切割器侧倾角、后倾角和几何形状(包括这里公开的工作表面样式)的影响。 A lateral force may be a cutter cutting a roll angle, the impact angle and geometry (including a working surface pattern disclosed herein) is. 此外,侧向切割力可受到切割元件部件表面的表面完工特性、地层的磨擦特性以及钻井参数例如切割深度的影响。 Further, the lateral surface of the cutting force can be completed in a cutting element characteristics of the surface member, the depth of the impact frictional properties of the formation and drilling parameters such as cutting. 支承表面上的摩擦力例如可受到表面完工特性、泥浆侵入等等的影响。 Friction on the bearing surface, for example, may be affected by the surface characteristics of the completed, mud invasion and the like. 这里公开的旋转切割元件的设计可被选择为确保侧向切割力克服摩擦力从而允许旋转部分发生旋转。 Design herein disclosed rotary cutting element may be selected to ensure that the lateral cutting force overcomes the frictional force so as to allow the rotary part from rotating. 本公开的各种设计考虑在下面与旋转切割元件的典型实施例一起进行描述。 Various design considerations of the present disclosure and in the following exemplary embodiment of the rotary cutting element will be described together. 然而,本公开并不局限于此。 However, the present disclosure is not limited thereto. 本领域技术人员可以意识到任何能够围绕其自身轴线旋转的切割元件都可以用于本公开的钻头或其它切割工具。 Those skilled in the art may be appreciated that the present disclosure of any drill bit or other cutting tool about its own axis of rotation of the cutting element may be used.

[0044] 根据本公开的实施例,井下切割工具可具有工具本体,工具本体具有从其中延伸通过的纵轴线和切割面。 [0044] According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the downhole tool may have a cutting tool body, the tool body having a longitudinal axis and wherein the cutting plane extends. 多个刀翼可以沿方位角方向从工具本体延伸,并且多个切割元件,包括至少一个旋转切割元件和至少一个圆锥形切割元件,可以设置在多个刀翼上。 A plurality of blade azimuth direction wings may extend from the tool body, and a plurality of cutting elements, comprising at least a rotating cutting element and at least one conical cutting element may be provided on a plurality of wing knives. 圆锥形切割元件可以设置在刀翼上的在钻井作业中经受高强度冲击的区域中,而旋转切割元件可以设置在刀翼上的经受高磨损的区域中。 Region subject to high wear areas subjected to high impact during drilling operations conical cutting element may be provided in the knife blade, and rotating the cutting element may be provided on the blade wing. 例如,多个圆锥形切割元件可以设置在一个或多个刀翼上的最接近于切割面的刀翼区域中,并且多个旋转切割元件可以设置在刀翼的剩余区域中。 For example, a plurality of conical cutting elements may be disposed on one or more nearest knife blade airfoil wing in the region of the cutting face, and a plurality of rotary cutting elements may be disposed in the remaining region of the blade wing. 在其它实施例中,多个圆锥形切割元件可以设置在一个或多个刀翼上的最接近于纵轴线或者钻头的中心线的刀翼区域中,并且沿着切割面设置,而多个旋转切割元件可以设置在每个刀翼与圆锥形切割元件区域相邻的区域中。 In other embodiments, a plurality of conical cutting elements may be provided on the blade airfoil region nearest to the one or more knife blade to the longitudinal axis or center line of the drill bit, and is disposed along the cutting surface, and a plurality of rotation the cutting element may be provided in the region of each blade wing conical region adjacent to the cutting element. 如这里使用的,圆锥形切割元件区域指的是在其中设置有圆锥形切割元件的区域,旋转切割元件区域指的是在其中设置有旋转切割元件的区域。 As used herein, refers to a region of conical cutting element is disposed in a region in which the cutting element is conical, rotary cutting element region refers to the region which is provided with a rotary cutting element.

[0045] 例如,图4示出了根据本公开的一个实施例的非平面切割元件(具体地为圆锥形切割元件,但是其它类型的切割元件也可以被用在一个或多个其它实施例中)和旋转切割元件在钻头上的布置。 [0045] For example, FIG. 4 shows (particularly for the conical cutting element cutting element according to a non-planar embodiment of the present disclosure, other types of cutting elements may also be used in one or more of the other embodiments ) and a rotating cutting element disposed on the bit. 如图所示,钻头400具有钻头本体402,其具有从其中延伸通过的纵轴线405和钻头面404。 As shown, the drill bit 400 having a body 402 having a longitudinal axis which extends through the bit face 405 and 404. 多个刀翼410沿着钻头面404从纵轴线径向延伸并且沿着钻头本体402从钻头面404轴向延伸。 A plurality of wing knives 410,404 and 402 extending from the bit face 404 extends axially along the longitudinal axis of the bit body from radially along the bit face. 特别地,图4所示的钻头具有多个主刀翼417和多个副刀翼418,其中,主刀翼417从比副刀翼418更接近纵轴线的点开始延伸。 In particular, the drill bit shown in FIG. 4 has a plurality of wings 417 and a plurality of sub surgeon blade wing 418, wherein the wing 417 extending from the main blade 418 is closer than the point of the longitudinal axis of the sub-wing blade begins. 多个圆锥形切割元件420和多个旋转切割元件430设置在刀翼410上。 A plurality of conical cutting elements 420 and a plurality of rotary cutting elements 430 disposed on the blade wing 410. 如图所示,圆锥形切割元件420设置在至少一个刀翼410上的最接近于纵轴线405的刀翼410的区域中,旋转切割元件430设置在刀翼410的剩余区域中。 As shown, the closest conical cutting element 420 disposed on at least one blade wing in the region of the longitudinal axis 410 of the blade 410 of the wing 405, the rotation of the cutting element 430 is disposed in the remaining region of the wing 410 of the knife. 圆锥形切割元件区域从纵轴线405开始围绕钻头面404延伸一个径向距离411,旋转切割元件区域沿着钻头本体402从圆锥形切割元件区域开始延伸一个距离。 Conical cutting element region extending from the longitudinal axis 405 404 411 a radial distance, from the rotating cutting element region conical cutting element region extends a distance along the bit body 402 around the start bit face.

[0046] 切割工具的刀翼可包括单一类型的切割元件或者可包括多于一种类型的切割元件。 Knife wing [0046] The cutting tool may include a single type of cutting element or may include more than one type of cutting elements. 例如,参照图4,主刀翼417具有两种类型的切割元件,即包括多个圆锥形切割元件420和多个旋转切割元件430,而副刀翼418具有一种类型的切割元件、即多个旋转切割元件430。 For example, referring to FIG. 4, the wing surgeon cutting element 417 has two types, i.e., a plurality of conical cutting elements comprising a plurality of rotary cutting elements 420 and 430, while the secondary blade wing 418 has one type of cutting elements, i.e., a plurality of rotating the cutting element 430. 然而,本公开并不局限于此。 However, the present disclosure is not limited thereto. 例如,根据某些实施例,刀翼可以仅仅包括圆锥形切割元件。 For example, according to certain embodiments, it may include only the wing blade conical cutting element. 在其它实施例中,刀翼可以包括多于两种类型的切割元件,例如圆锥形切割元件、旋转切割元件和固定切割器的组合,固定切割器例如可以设置在钻头的径规区域中。 In other embodiments, the wing blade may include more than two types of cutting elements, for example, a combination of conical cutting element, the cutting element and the rotation of the fixed cutter, the cutter is fixed, for example, may be provided in the gage region of the drill bit.

[0047] 此外,如图4所示,圆锥形切割元件420仅设置在主刀翼417上,其中,如旋转轮廓视图所示,圆锥形切割元件区域的径向距离与副刀翼418并不重叠。 [0047] Further, as shown in FIG. 4, conical cutting element 420 is provided only on a surgeon wing 417, wherein the profile view of such rotation, the radial distance of the cutting element is conical and the sub-region 418 do not overlap wing blade . 然而,根据其它实施例,圆锥形切割元件可以仅仅设置在选取的刀翼上以形成延伸一个与没有圆锥形切割元件的刀翼重叠的径向距离的圆锥形切割元件区域。 However, according to other embodiments, conical cutting element may be disposed only on selected conical knife to form a wing extending radially from a blade wing without overlapping with the conical cutting element cutting element region. 在另一个其它实施例中,圆锥形切割元件可以设置在切割工具的所有刀翼上。 In another further embodiment, the conical cutter element may be provided on all of the wing blade cutting tool. 在这样的实施例中,如旋转轮廓视图所示,形成在每个刀翼上的圆锥形切割元件区域可以径向均等设置,以使得每个刀翼上的圆锥形切割元件区域占据相同的区域。 In such an embodiment, rotating the profile view shown, is formed on each blade wing conical cutting element region may be arranged radially uniformly, so that the conical cutter on each blade wing elements occupying the same area region . 可选择地,如旋转轮廓视图所示,在圆锥形切割元件设置在切割工具所有的刀翼上的实施例中,形成在每个刀翼上的圆锥形切割元件可以不均等设置和/或延伸不同的径向距离,以使得圆锥形切割元件区域占据不同的区域。 Example Alternatively, as rotation of a profile view, in the conical cutting element disposed on the cutting tool for all knife blade, blade wing is formed on each of the conical cutting element may set unequal and / or extension different radial distances so that the conical cutting element areas occupy different regions.

[0048] 根据本公开的实施例的圆锥形切割元件区域和旋转切割元件区域在图5的旋转轮廓视图中示出。 [0048] The rotating element region shown in FIG. 5, a profile view and a rotary cutter according to the area conical cutting element of the embodiment of the present disclosure. 特别地,钻头500的轮廓被示出其看起来使所有的刀翼510并且全部的切割元件的切割面旋转到单个旋转轮廓512。 In particular, the profile of the drill bit 500 is shown it appears that all the blade wing 510 and the entire cutting element cutting face to a single rotation of the rotary profile 512. 在旋转轮廓视图中,钻头500的所有刀翼510的刀翼顶形成并且限定出从纵轴线505开始朝向钻头500的外径并且沿着纵轴线505轴向延伸的组合或复合刀翼轮廓512。 In view profile of rotation, all cutting blade airfoil wing of the drill bit 500 forms the top 510 and defines a longitudinal axis 505 from the start bit 500 and toward the outer diameter along the longitudinal axis 505 in combination or composite blade airfoil profile 512 extending axially. 如图所示,刀翼轮廓512具有冠顶514,其设置在刀翼轮廓512轴向最上面的点上。 As shown, the blade airfoil profile 512 has a crown 514, which is disposed axially blade airfoil profile 512 on the uppermost point. 应该注意到术语“最上面”为一个相对的用语并且用在图5中为图中最上面的部分。 It should be noted that the term "top" is a relative term and is used in FIG. 5 as the uppermost part of FIG. 多个圆锥形切割元件520设置在位于纵轴线505和冠顶514之间的刀翼510的区域525中,其中,圆锥形切割元件区域525从纵轴线505开始延伸一径向距离。 A plurality of conical cutting elements 520 disposed in the tool 510 and the wing regions 525 located between the longitudinal axis 514 and 505 in the crown, wherein the conical area of ​​the cutting element 525 extends a radial distance from the longitudinal axis 505. 多个旋转切割元件530设置在与圆锥形切割元件区域525相邻的刀翼区域535中,其中,旋转切割元件区域535从圆锥形切割元件区域525开始沿着钻头本体延伸一距离。 A plurality of rotary cutting elements 530 disposed on the wing blade element region 525 and the region 535 adjacent to the conical cutting, wherein the rotation of the cutting element 535 from the region of the cutting element is conical region 525 extends a distance along the bit body. 在某些实施例中,旋转切割元件区域535可以从圆锥形切割元件区域525开始延伸刀翼的剩余距离,在其它实施例中,旋转切割元件区域535可以从圆锥形切割元件区域525开始延伸一小于刀翼的剩余距离的距离。 In certain embodiments, the cutting member rotating element region 525 region 535 may extend from the remaining wing knives, in other embodiments, the rotating cutting region of the cutting element 535 may extend from the conical conical cutting element region 525 from a the remaining distance is less than the distance of the knife blade.

[0049] 根据某些实施例,非平面切割元件区域可以从纵轴线开始到冠顶延伸整个距离。 [0049] Example, non-planar region of the cutting element may start from the longitudinal axis to extend the entire crown according to some distance. 如上面所述,轮廓部分的冠顶基本上与垂直于钻头轴线的平面正切。 As described above, the crown portion substantially tangent to the contour of a plane perpendicular to the axis of the drill bit. 然而,在其它实施例中,非平面切割元件区域可以延伸设置在纵轴线和冠顶之间的一部分距离,例如如图5所示的非平面切割元件区域525。 However, in other embodiments, non-planar region of the cutting element may extend part of the distance provided between the longitudinal axis and a crown, for example, non-planar element region 525 as shown in FIG cutting. 例如,非平面切割元件区域可以从偏离纵轴线的位置开始向冠顶延伸,从偏离纵轴线的位置开始延伸一个相对于冠顶径向靠内的距离,或者从纵轴线开始延伸一个相对于冠顶径向靠内的距离。 For example, non-planar region of the cutting element may start from a position offset from the longitudinal axis extending crown, the crown extending from one phase of the radially inner, or extending from the longitudinal axis with respect to the beginning of a crown from a position offset from the longitudinal axis top distance radially inside. 因此,根据本公开的实施例,非平面切割元件区域可以在纵轴线和冠顶之间的钻头面区域内的各个位置延伸各种径向距离。 Thus, embodiments of the present disclosure, non-planar region of the cutting element may extend various radial distances at various locations within the region between the bit face and the longitudinal axis of the crown according.

[0050] 此外,在钻头纵轴线505上或附近,非平面切割元件(在一个实施例中为圆锥形)可作为中心核心元件524被包括在内。 [0050] Further, in the vicinity of the drill bit or the longitudinal axis 505, the cutting element is non-planar (in one embodiment a conical shape) as the central core element 524 can be included. 这种核心元件直接地附接到位于形成在刀翼之间的空腔内的钻头本体上,而不是刀翼上(圆锥形切割元件520和旋转切割元件被附接于刀翼上)。 This core element is directly attached to the bit body is located in the formed cavity between the blade wing and the upper wing than the knife (conical cutting element 520 and the rotary cutting member is attached to the upper blade wing). 根据本公开,中心非平面核心元件524可以被设定为其顶点比第一径向切割元件522 (无论是非平面切割元件还是其它类型的切割元件)的切割边缘低。 According to the present disclosure, non-planar central core element 524 may be set to its apex cut (whether non-planar cutting element or other type of cutting element) lower than the first radial edge of the cutting element 522. 在一个特殊的实施例中,圆锥形核心元件的顶点的高度可低于第一径向切割元件的切割边缘,在某些实施例中低O到I英寸,在其它实施例中低0.1到0.35倍的钻头直径,或者到0.1倍的钻头直径。 In a particular embodiment, the height of the apex of the conical core member may be lower than the first radial cutting edge of the cutting element, for example, low I O In certain embodiments the inch, in other embodiments, 0.1 to 0.35 Low times the drill diameter, or 0.1 times the drill diameter. 此外,圆锥形核心元件的圆锥角可在某些实施例中为60到120度,在其它实施例中为80到90度。 In addition, the cone angle of the conical core element may be in some embodiments 60 to 120 degrees, in other embodiments from 80 to 90 degrees. 圆锥形核心元件的直径可为0.25到1.5英寸,并且在其它实施例中为0.3到0.7英寸。 The core diameter of the conical elements may be from 0.25 to 1.5 inches, and in other embodiments from 0.3 to .7 inches. 此外,偏离切割边缘的高度与圆锥形切割元件的直径的比可从大约0.1到6或者在其它实施例中从大约0.5到3。 Further, the cutting edge than the diameter deviation of the height of the conical cutting element may range from about 0.1 to 6, or in other embodiments from about 0.5 to 3. 此外,在其中设置有圆锥形核心元件的中心核心或空腔(即,多个刀翼之间的区域)的直径可达到非平面核心元件直径的3倍。 Further, in the center core which is provided with a conical cavity or core components (i.e., the area between the plurality of cutter wing) can be up to 3 times the diameter of the non-planar core member diameter. 核心元件同样在转让本受让人的美国专利申请N0.13/528,518中进行描述,该申请整体通过引用被结合于此。 Also in the transfer of the core element of the present assignee's U.S. Patent Application N0.13 / 528,518 will be described, which application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0051] 非平面核心元件可以设置在钻头中心线上或者邻近于钻头中心线,即间隔距离从O到非平面核心镶嵌件的半径值(对于对称镶嵌件)。 [0051] The non-planar core member may be disposed in or adjacent to the center line of the drill bit center line, i.e., mosaic radius distance (symmetrical insert) element from O to the non-planar core. 然而,本公开还包括使用非对称非平面核心镶嵌件(与图8所示的形状类似),在这种情况下,距离钻头中心线的距离可以从零到非平面核心镶嵌件的半径与圆锥切割端的顶点和镶嵌件中心线之间的偏移量之和。 However, the present disclosure further includes the use of (a shape similar to FIG. 8) a non-planar asymmetrical core insert, in this case, the distance from the center line of the drill bit may be from zero to a non-planar core radius of the conical insert and the offset between the cut ends of the apex and the center line of the insert. 此夕卜,尽管图5所示的实施例示出了非平面核心元件524被镶嵌成使其轴线与钻头纵轴线505同轴或平行,但同样位于本公开的范围内的是核心非平面镶嵌件的中心线与钻头纵轴线成一角度。 Bu this evening, although the embodiment shown in FIG. 5 illustrates a non planar core element 524 is embedded with its axis coaxial with the drill bit or parallel to the longitudinal axis 505, but also in the scope of the present disclosure is non-planar insert core the center line of the drill longitudinal axis at an angle. 当使用非对称非平面核心镶嵌件时,这种成一角度的镶嵌可能是有用的。 When using a non-planar asymmetrical core insert, this angle into a mosaic may be useful. 此外,非平面核心镶嵌件可以镶嵌到钻头中心区域的孔中以使得非平面核心元件524的圆柱状基底526从钻头表面的向上的尺度为±0.1英寸,并且优选地在各个实施例中与钻头表面平齐。 In addition, non-planar core insert can be embedded into the hole drill center region so that the non planar core element is a cylindrical substrate 526524 from scale-up bit surface is ± 0.1 inches and preferably in the embodiment, the drill various embodiments flush with the surface.

[0052] 根据本公开,第一径向切割元件522可以为圆锥形切割元件。 [0052] According to the present disclosure, the first radial cutting element cutting element 522 may be conical. 在特殊的实施例中,这种圆锥形切割元件的圆形顶点的曲率半径可为0.010到0.125英寸。 In a particular embodiment, the radius of curvature of the apex of this circular conical cutting element may be 0.010 to 0.125 inches. 在某些实施例中,圆锥形切割元件在第一径向位置的曲率半径的变化范围的下限可为0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06或者0.075英寸中任意一个,上限可为0.05,0.06,0.075,0.085,0.10或者0.0125英寸中任意一个。 In certain embodiments, the conical cutting element in the lower range of variation of the curvature radius of the first radial position may be 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.05, 0.06, or 0.075 inches in any upper limit may be 0.05,0.06, 0.075,0.085,0.10 or 0.0125 inches in any one. 此外,特殊的实施例可以使用非对称或倾斜的切割元件,如图8所示,其中,圆锥形切割元件128的圆锥形切割端部135的轴线与基材134的轴线不同轴。 In addition, particular embodiments may use an asymmetrical or inclined cutting element, as shown in FIG. 8, wherein an axis of the conical cutting element 135 and the substrate 128 is different from the axis 134 of the conical cutting end portion. 此外,还可期望的是,按照特定的方向倾角将圆锥形切割元件放置在刀翼上(对于给定的非对称度以及特定圆锥形切割元件的圆锥角),以使得在圆锥形切割元件的径向最内部分和平行于钻头纵轴线的线之间形成有一角度。 In addition, also desirable that the inclination of the conical cutting element is placed on the blade airfoil (for a given degree of asymmetry and the particular angle of the conical taper of the cutting element) in a particular direction, so that the conical cutting element radially innermost portion and is formed parallel to the longitudinal axis between the bit line at an angle. 在各个实施例中,该角度可以为4到45度。 In various embodiments, the angle may be 4-45 °. 在其它实施例中,该角度可以大于O度。 In other embodiments, the angle may be greater than O degrees. 在某些实施例中,该角度变化范围的下限可为0,2,5,10,15,20或30度中的任意一个,上限可为15,20,25,30,35,40或45度中的任意一个,其中,任何的下限都可以与任何的上限组合使用。 In certain embodiments, the lower limit of the variation range of the angle may be 30 degrees or any one of a 0,2,5,10,15,20, 15,20,25,30,35,40 or upper limit may be 45 in any one of, wherein any lower limit may be combined with any upper limit. 通过将圆锥形切割元件放置在这样的径向位置,由于圆锥形切割元件能够在岩芯中产生凹口而可使得形成在钻头中心区域中的岩芯的芯强度变弱。 By the conical cutting element is placed at such a radial position, the cutting element is capable of producing conical recess in the core may be formed such that the strength of the core drill core in the central area becomes weaker.

[0053] 参照图9,本发明的发明人发现将旋转切割元件930与非平面切割元件920组合使用能够使单个钻头具有两种类型的切割动作(由虚线表示):如图9示意性地示出,由非平面切割元件920对地层进行的压力压裂或刨削产生的切割,以及由旋转切割元件930对地层进行的剪切产生的切割。 [0053] Referring to FIG 9, the present inventors found that the rotation of the cutting element 930 using a combination of a non-planar cutting member 920 can be made with a single bit has two types of cutting action (represented by a dashed line): schematically illustrated in FIG. 9 out, the pressure element 920 of a non-planar cutting or gouging of the formation fracturing produced by cutting, shearing and cutting element 930 of the formation of a rotary cutting performed.

[0054] 通常,当将旋转切割元件设置在井下切割工具、例如钻头或铰刀扩孔器的刀翼上时,旋转切割元件可以嵌入到切割器凹口(或者在非平面切割元件的情况下的孔)中以改变切割器碰击地层的角度。 [0054] Typically, when the cutting element is disposed in a downhole rotary cutting tool, for example on a drill bit or reamer wing blade reamer, cutting element may be embedded into the rotary cutter pocket (or in the case of the non-planar cutting element wells) to change the angle of the formation strike against the cutter. 例如,切割器的后倾角(即垂直方位)和侧倾角(即侧向方位)可以被调整。 For example, the angle of inclination of the cutter (i.e., vertical orientation) and roll angle (i.e., lateral orientation) can be adjusted. 通常,后倾角被限定为形成在旋转切割元件142的切割面和与正被切割的地层材料正交的线之间的角度150。 Typically, the tilt angle is defined as the cutting element is formed between the rotary and linear cutting face 142 and the formation material being cut perpendicular to the angle of 150. 如图10所示,在旋转切割元件142具有零度的后倾角的情况下,切割面44基本上垂直于或正交于地层材料。 10, in the case where after the rotary cutting element 142 has a tilt angle of zero degrees, the cut surface 44 is substantially perpendicular or perpendicular to the ground material. 当从地层材料测量时,具有负的后倾角150的切割器142的切割面44以小于90°的角与地层材料接合。 When measured from the ground material, having a negative back rake cutting surface 150 of the cutter 142 is less than 44 angle of 90 ° with the formation material engagement. 类似地,当从地层材料测量时,具有正的后倾角的旋转切割元件的切割面以大于90°的角与地层材料接合。 Similarly, when measured from the ground material, having a positive cutting surface back rake rotating cutting element at an angle greater than 90 ° with the formation of the joining material. 根据本公开的各个实施例,旋转切割元件的负的后倾角可为>5度,>10度,>15度,>20度,>25度,>30度,和/或〈10度,〈15度,<20度,〈25度,〈30度,〈35度,其中,任意的上限可以与任意的下限组合使用。 According to various embodiments of the present disclosure, a negative caster angle of rotation of the cutting element may be> 5 degrees,> 10 °> 15 °> 20 °> 25 °> 30 °, and / or <10 degrees < 15 degrees <20 degrees <25 degrees <30 degrees <35 degrees, wherein any upper limit may be used in combination with any lower limit.

[0055] 此外,在一个实施例中,旋转切割元件的侧倾角范围可为O到±45度,例如5到±35度,10到±35度或者15到±30度。 [0055] Further, in one embodiment, the roll angular range of rotation of the cutting element can be O to ± 45 degrees to ± 35 degrees, for example 5, 10 or 15 to ± 35 degrees to ± 30 degrees. 在一个特殊的实施例中,侧倾角的方向(正或负)可以基于切割元件的分布而进行选取,即,根据旋转切割元件是以前螺旋还是以后螺旋结构布置进行选取。 In a particular embodiment, the roll angle of the direction (positive or negative) may be selected based on the distribution of the cutting element, i.e., the rotary cutter member according to the previous spiral or helical structure after the arrangement to select. 此外,侧倾角可以基于切割元件沿着刀翼的位置(例如在圆锥区域中,肩部区域中,冠顶区域中,等等)而进行选取。 Further, the roll angle may be based on the position of the cutting blade along the wing elements (e.g., the conical area, a shoulder area, the crown region, etc.) to select. 例如,在某些实施例中,放置在钻头的冠顶和/或肩部区域中的每个旋转切割元件的侧倾角的范围可为10到30度或者-10到-30度。 For example, in certain embodiments, the drill bit is placed in the crown and / or shoulder region of the roll angle of rotation range of each cutting element may be 10 to 30 degrees or -10 to -30 degrees. 在其它实施例中,放置在钻头的冠顶和/或肩部区域中的每个旋转切割元件的侧倾角范围可为20到30度或者-20到-30度。 Roll angle range of each rotary cutting element in other embodiments, the bit is placed in the crown and / or shoulder region may be 20 to 30 degrees or -20 to -30 degrees. 在某些实施例中,径向上位于肩部外侧、即径规区域中的旋转切割元件的侧倾角的范围可为5到35度或-5到-35度。 In certain embodiments, the shoulder is located radially outward, i.e., gage region of the rotary cutting elements of the roll angle range may be from 5 to 35 degrees or -5 to -35 degrees. 在更特殊的实施例中,径规区域中的旋转切割元件可以为>5度,>10度,>15度,>20度,>25度,>30度,和/或〈10度,〈15度,〈20度,〈25度,〈30度,〈35度,其中,任意的这些角度可以为正的或负的,并且任意的上限可以与任意的下限组合使用。 In a more specific embodiment, the gage region of the rotary cutting element may be> 5 degrees,> 10 °> 15 °> 20 °> 25 °> 30 °, and / or <10 degrees < 15 degrees <20 degrees <25 degrees <30 degrees <35 degrees, wherein the angles of any of these may be positive or negative, and any upper limit may be used in combination with any lower limit. 此外,在某些实施例中,旋转切割元件可以放置在钻头的圆锥区域中,侧倾角可小于20度或者在更特殊的实施例中为10到15度。 Further, in some embodiments, the cutting element may be placed in a rotating conical region of the drill bit, the roll angle may be less than 20 degrees or, in more particular embodiments 10 to 15 degrees. 在各个实施例中,切割元件可以固定地连接或者可以滚动,但是如果固定或滚动的话可以具有这样的侧倾角。 In various embodiments, the cutting element may be fixedly connected or may scroll or a fixed scroll, but if it can have a roll angle. 可以明确地理解的是,任意区域的任何侧倾角都可以单独使用或者与其它区域的任何其它范围组合使用。 It is clearly understood that any arbitrary region of the roll angle may be used alone or in combination with any other ranges and other regions.

[0056] 然而,非平面切割元件不具有切割面,因此非平面切割元件的方位必须被不同地定义。 [0056] However, the cutting elements do not have a non-planar cutting surface, the non-planar orientation of the cutting element must be defined differently. 当考虑圆锥形切割元件的方位时,除了切割元件本体的垂直或侧向方位,切割端的非平面几何形状还会影响非平面切割元件如何以及以什么样的角度碰击地层。 When considering the orientation of the conical cutting element, in addition to the vertical or lateral orientation of the cutting element of the body, the cut end of the non-planar geometry also affects how non-planar cutting element and at what angle crashing formation. 具体地,除了影响非平面切割元件与地层相互作用的侵蚀性之外,切割端几何形状(具体地为,几何形状类型,顶点角度,曲率半径)明显地影响了非平面切割元件撞击地层的侵蚀性。 Specifically, in addition to affecting the interaction of aggressive non-planar cutting element and the formation outside, the cut end geometry (specifically, the geometry of the type, the vertex angle, radius of curvature) significantly affect the erosion of the non-planar cutting elements strike the formation sex. 在如图11所示的圆锥形切割元件的情况下,后倾角被定义为形成在圆锥形切割元件144的轴线(具体地为圆锥形切割端的轴线)和与正被切割地层材料正交的线之间的角度150。 In the case of the cutting element 11 shown in FIG conical, it is defined as the angle formed in the conical cutting element axis 144 (specifically, the axis of the conical cutting end) and the wire being cut perpendicular to the ground material the angle 150 between. 如图11所示,对于后倾角为零的圆锥形切割元件144来说,圆锥形切割元件144的轴线基本上垂直于或正交于地层材料。 As shown, for a zero angle after the conical cutting element 11 144, the axis of the conical cutting element 144 is substantially perpendicular or perpendicular to the ground material. 当从地层材料测量时,具有负的后倾角角度150的圆锥形切割元件144的轴线与地层材料成小于90°的角度接合。 When measured from the ground material, having a negative back rake angle of the conical cutting element axis 150 and the formation material 144 into engagement angle of less than 90 °. 类似地,当从地层材料测量时,具有正的后倾角角度150的圆锥形切割元件144的轴线与地层材料成大于90°的角度接合。 Similarly, when measured from the ground material, having a positive back rake angle of the conical cutting element axis 150 and the formation material 144 is larger than the engaging angle of 90 °. 这种方位可以被用于描述所有的非平面切割元件的后倾角。 Such orientation may be used to describe all the non-planar angle of the cutting element. 在一个特殊的实施例中,非平面切割元件的后倾角角度可以为零,或者在其它实施例中可以为负的或正的。 In a particular embodiment, the inclination angle of planar cutting elements may be non-zero, or in other embodiments may be negative or positive. 在实施例中,非平面切割元件的后倾角范围可为-35到35度,在其它实施例中可为-10到10度,在另外的其它实施例中,可为零到10度,在另外的其它实施例中可为-5到5度。 In an embodiment, the angle range of the non-planar cutting elements may be -35 to 35 degrees, in other embodiments, can be -10 to 10 degrees, in still other embodiments, may be from zero to 10 degrees, in yet other embodiments may be -5 to 5 degrees. 此外,在这里公开的实施例中使用的非平面切割元件的后倾角角度可以从这些范围内的一个或多个后倾角角度的组合中选取。 Further, in the embodiment disclosed herein a non-planar back rake angle of the cutting elements used in the embodiments can combine one or more of the angles of inclination from within these ranges selected.

[0057] 除了轴线相对于地层的方位以外,非平面切割元件的侵蚀性还可依赖于顶点角,或者具体地依赖于地层和非平面切割元件的前缘部分之间的角度。 [0057] In addition to axis orientation with respect to the formation outside, non-planar erosion cutting element may also be dependent on the vertex angle, in particular it depends on the angle or between the leading edge portion of the formation and a non-planar cutting elements. 对于圆锥形切割元件(然而,应用于所有的非平面形状,包括其它尖的或圆顶形状)来说,由于圆锥形切割元件具有圆锥形状,因而不存在前缘;然而,圆锥形切割表面的前缘线可以被确定为圆锥形切割元件随着钻头的旋转沿着圆锥形切割端表面在每个轴向点上最前的点。 For conical cutting device (however, applies to all non-planar shape, comprising a dome shape or other sharp), because the conical cutting element has a conical shape, the leading edge is not present; however, the surface of the conical cutting leading edge line may be determined as the conical cutting element rotary drill bit along the conical cutting surface of the end point of the foremost point on each axis. 换种方式,如图12所示,示出沿着钻头旋转方向的平面截出的圆锥形切割元件的剖视图。 Stated another way, as shown in FIG. 12, a cross-sectional view cut along a plane drill rotational direction of the conical cutting element is shown. 在该平面中的圆锥形切割元件144的前缘线145可被看作与地层相关。 Conical cutting element in the plane of the leading edge line 144 and formation 145 may be considered relevant. 圆锥形切割元件144的冲击角被定义为形成在圆锥形切割元件144的前缘线145和正被切割的地层之间的角度155。 Impact conical cutting element 144 is defined as the angle formed between the conical cutting element 145 and the leading edge line 144 of the formation being cut angle of 155. 冲击角会根据后倾角和圆锥角变化,由此,圆锥形切割元件的冲击角可以被计算为后倾角加上一半的圆锥角(即,冲击角=(0.5*圆锥角)+后倾角),其中,如果如图11所示后倾角150为负,那么该公式将向(0.5*圆锥角)值增加负值。 After the impact angle based on the impact angle and cone angle changes, whereby the cutting element is conical inclination angle may be calculated after adding the half cone angle (i.e., = impact angle (cone angle 0.5 *) + back rake), wherein, if the angle 150 shown in FIG. 11 is negative, then the formula will be (0.5 * taper angle) of a negative value increases. 在实施例中,冲击角155的范围可为大约5到100度,并且在其它实施例中可为大约20到65度。 In an embodiment, the impingement angle 155 may range from about 5 to 100 degrees, and in other embodiments may be from about 20 to 65 degrees. 此外,在这里公开的实施例中的圆锥形切割元件(或者其它非平面切割元件)的冲击角可以从这些范围内选取。 Further, in the embodiment herein disclosed embodiments of the conical cutting element shock (or other non-planar cutting element) may be selected from angles within these ranges.

[0058] 例如,非平面切割元件区域和旋转切割元件区域的组合,例如如上所述的那些组合,可以用在诸如刮刀钻头(例如如图4所示)、铰刀扩孔器或双心钻头之类的井下切割工具上。 [0058] For example, non-planar region of the cutting element of the cutting assembly and the rotary element region, such as those combinations described above, may be used in, reamer or bi-center reamer bit, such as a drag bit (e.g., FIG. 4) within a downhole cutting tool. 根据本公开的实施例,井下切割工具可具有工具本体,工具本体具有从其中延伸通过的纵轴线和切割端。 According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the downhole tool may have a cutting tool body, the tool body having a longitudinal axis extending therethrough and through the cut end. 如这里使用的,井下工具的切割端指的是工具与井眼底部接触并且切割底部的纵向端部,而连接端与切割端相反并且与将工具连接到地上设备的钻柱最接近。 As used herein, refers to the cut end of the downhole tool is in contact with the bottom of the wellbore tool and cutting a bottom portion of the longitudinal ends, is connected to the opposite end and the cutting end of the drill string and the tool is closest to the ground connection of the device. 多个刀翼可从工具本体在方位角上延伸,并且多个切割元件可设置在多个刀翼上。 A plurality of blade wings may extend from the tool body in azimuth, and a plurality of cutting elements may be disposed on a plurality of wing knives. 切割元件包括至少一个旋转切割元件和至少一个非平面切割元件,其中,该至少一个非平面切割元件位于最接近于切割端的刀翼区域中。 The cutting element comprises at least a rotating cutting element and at least one non-planar cutting element, wherein the at least one non-planar cutting elements located closest to the cut end of the blade wing area. 在一个或多个实施例中,非平面切割元件可以是圆锥形切割元件或其它尖形切割元件。 In one or more embodiments, the cutting element may be non-planar conical cutting element or other pointed cutting element.

[0059] 例如,在某些实施例中,井下切割工具可以是具有工具本体的双心钻头,其中,工具本体具有位于工具的切割端的引导段以及在纵向上偏离引导段的铰刀扩孔器段。 [0059] For example, in certain embodiments, the downhole cutting tool may be a bi-center bit tool body, wherein the tool body having a tool located in the guide section and the cut end deviated from the guide section in the longitudinal reamer reamer segment. 多个引导刀翼可从工具本体的引导段延伸,并且多个铰刀扩孔器刀翼可从工具本体的铰刀扩孔器段延伸。 A plurality of guide wings may extend from the guide blade segment tool body, and a plurality of reamer cutter reamer wing may extend from the reamer of the reamer section of the tool body. 例如,图13示出了根据本公开的实施例的双心钻头的侧视图。 For example, FIG. 13 shows a side view of a drill according to an embodiment of the present double heart disclosure. 如图所示,双心钻头101包括引导段106,所述引导段106具有从其延伸的引导刀翼108和位于引导刀翼108的轴向上远离钻头101的切割端103的端部处的径规垫112。 As shown, bi-center bit 101 includes a guide section 106, the guide 106 has a guide blade section extending from the end flap 108 is located away from the bit and the guide blade 108 of the cutting wings axial end 101 of the 103 caliper pads 112. 铰刀扩孔器段107具有从其延伸的铰孔刀翼111并且径规垫117与引导段106纵向偏离。 Reamer segments 107 having reamer reaming cutter wing 111 extending therefrom and gage pads 117 and the guide segment 106 longitudinally offset. 如图所示,引导段106与铰刀扩孔器段107分离开一个纵向距离,该纵向距离可以包括间隔器102。 As shown, the guide section 106 with the reamer of the reamer segments 107 separated by a longitudinal distance, longitudinal distance which may include a spacer 102. 然而,其它双心钻头可以具有与铰刀扩孔器段相邻的引导段。 However, other bi-center bit having reamer may reamer segments adjacent guide segments. 多个非平面切割元件(在所示的实施例中为圆锥形切割元件)116和多个旋转切割元件110设置在引导刀翼108和铰刀扩孔器刀翼111上。 A plurality of non-planar cutting elements (the cutting element is conical in the embodiment shown) a plurality of rotary cutting elements 116 and 110 provided on the guide blade reamer wing 108 and wing 111 reamer blade. 此外,双心钻头101具有本体114和与切割端103相反的螺纹连接端104。 Further, bi-center bit 101 has a body 114 and a cutting end 103 and an opposite threaded end 104. 本体114可包括扳手平面115或类似物用于连接旋转动力源,例如钻杆或者液压马达。 The body 114 may include wrench flats 115 or the like for connecting the rotary power source, for example a hydraulic motor or a drill.

[0060] 根据本公开的实施例,至少一个非平面切割元件(在一个或多个实施例中为圆锥形切割元件)可设置在引导刀翼和/或铰刀扩孔器刀翼上,且至少一个旋转切割元件可设置在引导刀翼和/或铰刀扩孔器刀翼上。 [0060] According to an embodiment of the present disclosure, the at least one non-planar cutting element (in the embodiment, one or more embodiments of conical cutting element) may be disposed on the guide blade wing and / or reamer blade reamer wings, and at least a rotating cutting element may be disposed on the guide blade wing and / or wing blade reamer reamer. 例如,图14示出了根据本公开的实施例的双心钻头201的旋转轮廓视图。 For example, FIG. 14 shows an embodiment of the bi-center bit 201 of the present disclosure rotation profile view. 钻头201具有引导段206和铰刀扩孔器段207,引导段206具有从其延伸的多个引导刀翼208并且铰刀扩孔器段207具有从其延伸的多个铰刀扩孔器刀翼211。 A drill guide 201 having a reamer section 206 and reamer section 207, section 206 has a plurality of guide wings guide blade 208 extending therefrom and reamer section 207 having a plurality of reamer reamer reamer blade extending therefrom 211 wing. 非平面切割元件区域216 (切割工具的具有非平面切割元件的区域)可从钻头201的纵轴线开始沿着引导段206的钻头面延伸一个距离,并且旋转切割元件区域210 (切割工具的具有旋转切割元件的区域)可沿着引导段206的引导刀翼208延伸剩下的距离。 Non-planar cutting element region 216 (region having a non-planar cutting element of the cutting tool) can be started from the longitudinal axis of the drill bit 201 extends a distance along the guide segment of the bit face 206, and the rotary cutting element region 210 (having a rotary cutting tool region of the cutting element) may extend the remaining distance along the guide section of the guide blade 206 of the wing 208. 此外,如图所示,非平面切割元件区域216可从铰刀扩孔器刀翼211与引导段206最接近的一个区域开始沿着铰刀扩孔器刀翼211延伸一个距离,并且旋转切割元件区域210可延伸铰刀扩孔器刀翼211剩余的距离。 Further, as shown, the non-planar region of the cutting element 216 may start from a region 206 closest to the reamer cutter reamer wing 211 and the guide section extends for a distance along the reamer blade reamer wing 211, and the rotary cutting element region 210 may extend from the remainder of the reamer blade reamer wing 211. 然而,在其它实施例中,非平面切割元件区域可以延伸引导刀翼208的整个距离,旋转切割元件区域可延伸绞刀扩孔器刀翼211的整个距离。 However, in other embodiments, non-planar region of the cutting element may extend the entire distance of the guide blade 208 of the wings, rotating the cutting element may extend the entire region from the cutter blade reamer wing 211. 非平面切割元件区域和旋转切割元件区域的其它组合,例如参看图4和5的刮刀钻头所述的组合,可以被用在双心钻头的引导段上。 Region and a non-planar cutting element rotary cutting element region other combinations, see for example FIGS. 4 and 5 of the blade of the bit combinations may be used in the guide section of the bi-center bit.

[0061] 此外,一个或多个非平面切割元件区域和一个或多个旋转切割元件区域的各种组合可以被用在双心钻头的铰刀扩孔器段上。 [0061] In addition, one or more non-planar region of the cutting element, and various combinations of one or more rotating cutting elements may be used in a region on the bi-center bit reamers reamer segments. 例如,至少一个非平面切割元件可以设置在与工具的切割端最接近的非平面切割元件区域中的铰刀扩孔器刀翼上,至少一个旋转切割元件可以设置在与非平面切割元件区域相邻的旋转切割元件区域中。 For example, at least one non-planar cutting element may be provided on the reamer and reamer wing blade cutting tool end closest to the non-planar region of the cutting element, at least one rotary cutting element may be disposed in the region of the cutting element relative to the non-planar rotating the cutting element adjacent region. 在其它实施例中,至少一个非平面切割元件可以设置在与工具的连接端最接近的非平面切割元件区域中的铰刀扩孔器刀翼上,至少一个旋转切割元件可以设置在与工具的切割端最接近的旋转切割元件区域中。 In other embodiments, the at least one non-planar cutting element may be provided on the reamer blade reamer wing tool closest to the connecting end of the non-planar region of the cutting element, the cutting element may be at least one rotating tool provided with closest to the cut end of a rotary cutter element region. 此外,非平面切割元件区域可以形成在一个或多个铰刀扩孔器刀翼上。 In addition, non-planar region of the cutting element may be formed on one or more of the reamer blade reamer wings. 如上面参照图5所描述的,当在旋转轮廓视图中观看时,非平面切割元件区域可以重叠、邻近于或者占据铰刀扩孔器刀翼的相同位置。 As described above with reference to Figure 5, when viewed in profile view rotating, non-planar region may overlap the cutting element, adjacent to or occupied the same position the reamer blade reamer wing.

[0062] 此外,在本公开的某些实施例中,井下切割工具可以为具有工具本体和从工具本体延伸的多个刀翼的铰刀扩孔器。 [0062] Further, in some embodiments of the present disclosure, the downhole tool may be a cutting tool having a tool body and a plurality of wings extending from the reamer reamer tool body. 一个或多个非平面切割元件区域和一个或多个旋转切割元件区域的各种组合,例如参照双心钻头的铰刀扩孔器段所描述的,可以用在铰刀扩孔器切割工具上。 One or more non-planar region of the cutting element, and various combinations of one or more rotating cutting element region, for example bi-center bit reamers described with reference to the reamer section, the reamer may be used in the reamer cutting tool .

[0063] 本公开的发明人已经发现,在切割工具经受冲击损坏的区域中使用非平面切割元件并且在切割工具经受磨损的区域中使用旋转切割元件的切割工具设计能够提高切割工具的寿命。 [0063] The present invention disclosed herein has been found, the area subject to the impact damage to the cutting tool used in a non-planar cutting element and the rotary cutting tool in the region of the cutting element subject to wear, the cutting tool can be designed to improve the life of the cutting tool. 根据这里公开的实施例,非平面切割元件可以提供坚硬和复杂地层钻井所需的增强的抗冲击特性,而旋转切割元件可以提供在磨蚀地层中所需的耐磨性。 According to embodiments disclosed herein, non-planar cutting elements may be enhanced to provide the desired hardness and impact resistance of complex formation drilling, the cutting element may rotate to provide the desired formation in the abrasion wear resistance. 例如,实验室数据和现场测试已经显示出,圆锥形切割元件的耐冲击性是传统PDC切割器的四倍,并且旋转切割元件由于比传统的PDC切割器具有更好的热消散性而可具有增强的耐磨性。 For example, laboratory data and field tests have shown that the impact resistance of conical cutting elements is four times the conventional PDC cutters and rotary cutting element due to the better heat dissipation than conventional PDC cutters may have the increased abrasion resistance.

[0064] 尽管本发明已经参照有限数量的实施例进行了描述,但获得本公开益处的本领域技术人员可以意识到,可以设计出其它实施例,其不会脱离这里公开的本发明的范围。 [0064] Although the present invention has been described with reference to a limited number of embodiments have been described, but the present disclosure is obtained benefit skilled in the art can appreciate that other embodiments may be devised which do not depart from the scope of the invention disclosed herein. 因此,本发明的范围应当仅由所附的权利要求所限定。 Accordingly, the scope of the invention should be limited only by the appended claims.

Claims (26)

  1. 1.一种钻头,包括: 钻头本体,其具有贯穿延伸的纵轴线和钻头面; 从钻头本体延伸的多个刀翼,其中,所述多个刀翼具有包括冠顶的刀翼轮廓; 设置在所述多个刀翼上的多个切割元件,所述多个切割元件包括: 多个非平面切割元件;以及多个旋转切割元件; 其中,所述多个非平面切割元件设置在至少一个刀翼上的位于纵轴线和冠顶之间的非平面切割元件区域中。 1. A drill bit, comprising: a bit body having a bit face and a longitudinal axis extending therethrough; a plurality of blade wings extending from the bit body, wherein said plurality of airfoil blade having a knife comprising a crown wing profile; provided a plurality of cutting elements on said plurality of knife blades, a plurality of cutting elements comprises: a plurality of non-planar cutting element; and a plurality of rotating cutting elements; wherein at least one of said plurality of cutting elements disposed non-planar a non-planar longitudinal axis positioned between the blade wing and the crown region of the cutting element.
  2. 2.权利要求1的钻头,其中,所述多个非平面切割元件具有切割端,所述切割端具有以滚圆的顶点终止的圆锥形、凸形或凹形侧表面。 2. The drill bit of claim 1, wherein said plurality of non-planar cutting element having a cutting end, said cutting end having a rounded apex terminating conical, convex or concave side surface.
  3. 3.权利要求2的钻头,其中,所述多个非平面切割元件包括多个圆锥形切割元件。 3. The drill bit of claim 2, wherein said plurality of non-planar cutting elements comprises a plurality of conical cutting elements.
  4. 4.权利要求3的钻头,其中,所述多个圆锥形切割元件具有范围从-35到35度的后倾角。 4. The drill bit of claim 3, wherein said plurality of cutting elements having a conical angle range from -35 to 35 degrees.
  5. 5.权利要求1的钻头,其中,至少一个旋转切割元件包括大致为平面的切割面。 5. The drill bit of claim 1, wherein the at least one rotating cutting element comprising a generally planar cutting surface.
  6. 6.权利要求1的钻头,进一步包括设置在至少两个刀翼之间的区域中且具有尖形端部的中心核心切割元件。 6. The drill bit of claim 1, further comprising a central core and having a pointed end portion of the cutting element in the region between the at least two blade wings.
  7. 7.权利要求1的钻头,其中,设置在刀翼上的第一径向切割元件具有形成在第一径向切割元件的径向最内部分与平行于钻头的纵轴线的线之间的角度,其中,该角度大于零。 7. The drill bit of claim 1, wherein the knife blade is disposed on a first radial angle of the cutting element between the cutting element radially in a first radially innermost portion of the line parallel to the longitudinal axis of the drill bit having formed , wherein the angle is greater than zero.
  8. 8.权利要求1的钻头,其中,所述多个旋转切割元件设置在与非平面切割元件区域相邻的旋转切割元件区域中。 8. The drill bit of claim 1, wherein said plurality of rotary cutting elements disposed in a non-planar region of the cutting element adjacent rotary cutting element region.
  9. 9.权利要求1的钻头,其中,当在旋转轮廓视图中观察时,所述多个旋转切割元件设置在与非平面切割元件区域重叠的旋转切割元件区域中。 9. The drill bit of claim 1, wherein, when viewed in rotation in a profile view, the plurality of rotary cutting elements disposed in a non-planar overlap with the rotary cutting element in the region of the cutting element region.
  10. 10.权利要求1的钻头,其中,至少一个非平面切割元件可旋转地保持到刀翼上。 10. The drill bit of claim 1, wherein the at least one non-planar cutting element is rotatably held to the blade wing.
  11. 11.权利要求1的钻头,其中,至少一个固定切割器设置在刀翼轮廓的径规区域中。 11. The drill bit of claim 1, wherein the at least one fixed cutter blade disposed gage region of the airfoil profile.
  12. 12.权利要求1的钻头,其中,所述多个刀翼中的至少一个仅包括设置在其上的非平面切割元件。 12. The drill bit of claim 1, wherein said plurality of blade airfoil includes only at least one non-planar cutting elements disposed thereon.
  13. 13.权利要求1的钻头,其中,所述多个刀翼中的至少一个仅包括设置在其上的旋转切割元件。 13. The drill bit of claim 1, wherein said plurality of blade airfoil includes only at least one of which is provided a rotary cutting element.
  14. 14.一种井下切割工具,包括: 工具本体,其具有贯穿延伸的纵轴线和切割端; 从工具本体延伸的多个刀翼; 设置在所述多个刀翼上的多个切割元件,所述多个切割元件包括: 至少一个旋转切割元件;以及至少一个非平面切割元件; 其中,所述至少一个非平面切割元件位于刀翼的与切割端最接近的非平面切割元件区域中。 14. A downhole cutting tool, comprising: a tool body having a longitudinal axis extending therethrough and a cutting end; a plurality of blade wings extending from the tool body; a plurality of knives provided on said plurality of cutting wing element, the said plurality of cutting elements comprises: at least a rotating cutting element; and at least one non-planar cutting element; wherein said at least one non-knife blade positioned closest to the cutting end of the cutting element is non-planar in the region of the plane of the cutting element.
  15. 15.权利要求14的钻头,其中,所述多个非平面切割元件的切割端具有以滚圆的顶点终止的圆锥形、凸形或凹形侧表面。 15. The drill bit of claim 14, wherein said plurality of non-cutting end of the cutting element having a planar apex rounded termination conical, convex or concave side surface.
  16. 16.权利要求15的钻头,其中,所述多个非平面切割元件包括多个圆锥形切割元件。 16. The drill bit of claim 15, wherein said plurality of non-planar cutting elements comprises a plurality of conical cutting elements.
  17. 17.权利要求14的切割工具,其中,所述至少一个旋转切割元件和所述至少一个非平面切割元件位于相同的刀翼上。 17. The cutting tool as claimed in claim 14, wherein said at least one rotating cutting member and said at least one non-planar cutting elements located on the same blade wing.
  18. 18.权利要求14的切割工具,其中,所述至少一个旋转切割元件设置在与非平面切割元件区域相邻的旋转切割元件区域中。 18. A cutting tool as claimed in claim 14, wherein said at least a rotating cutting element disposed in a non-planar region of the cutting element adjacent rotary cutting element region.
  19. 19.权利要求14的切割工具,其中,当在旋转轮廓视图中观察时,所述至少一个旋转切割元件设置在与非平面切割元件区域重叠的旋转切割元件区域中。 19. A cutting tool as claimed in claim 14, wherein, when viewed in profile view in rotation, said at least a rotating cutting element disposed in a non-planar overlap with the rotary cutting element in the region of the cutting element region.
  20. 20.权利要求14的切割工具,其中,切割工具为双心钻头,其包括引导段和与引导段在纵向上偏离的铰刀扩孔器段,其中,所述多个刀翼包括从工具本体的引导段延伸的引导刀翼以及从工具本体的铰刀扩孔器段延伸的铰刀扩孔器刀翼。 20. The cutting tool as claimed in claim 14, wherein the cutting tool is a bi-center drill bit comprising a guide section and the guide section in the longitudinal direction offset reamer reamer segments, wherein the plurality of wings comprising a knife from the tool body a guide section extending guide wing knife blade reamer and reamer wings extending from the reamer of the reamer section of the tool body.
  21. 21.权利要求20的切割工具,其中,所述至少一个非平面切割元件设置在引导刀翼上,所述至少一个旋转切割元件设置在铰刀扩孔器刀翼上。 21. The cutting tool of claim 20, wherein said at least one non-planar cutting element disposed on the guide blade wing, said at least a rotating cutting element disposed on the reamer blade reamer wings.
  22. 22.权利要求20的切割工具,其中,至少一个非平面切割元件设置在铰刀扩孔器刀翼上与切割端最接近的非平面切割元件区域中,至少一个旋转切割元件设置在与非平面切割元件区域相邻的旋转切割元件区域中。 22. The cutting tool as claimed in claim 20, wherein the at least one non-planar cutting element disposed on the reamer and reamer wing blade cutting end closest to the non-planar region of the cutting element, at least a rotating cutting element disposed in a non-planar region adjacent to the cutting element rotary cutting element region.
  23. 23.权利要求14的切割工具,其中,切割工具为扩孔工具。 23. A cutting tool as claimed in claim 14, wherein the cutting tool is a reamer tool.
  24. 24.权利要求14的切割工具,其中,至少一个非平面切割元件可旋转地保持在刀翼上。 24. A cutting tool as claimed in claim 14, wherein the at least one non-planar cutting element is rotatably held on the blade wing.
  25. 25.权利要求14的切割工具,其中,所述多个刀翼中的至少一个仅包括设置在其上的非平面切割元件。 25. The cutting tool as claimed in claim 14, wherein said plurality of cutter wing comprises at least one non-planar only disposed thereon cutting elements.
  26. 26.权利要求14的切割工具,其中,所述多个刀翼中的至少一个仅包括设置在其上的旋转切割元件。 26. The cutting tool as claimed in claim 14, wherein said plurality of blade airfoil includes only at least one of which is provided a rotary cutting element.
CN 201380046979 2012-08-17 2013-07-15 Downhole cutting tools having hybrid cutting structures CN104619946A (en)

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US13836172 US20140262536A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2013-03-15 Downhole cutting tools having hybrid cutting structures
PCT/US2013/050509 WO2014028152A1 (en) 2012-08-17 2013-07-15 Downhole cutting tools having hybrid cutting structures

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CN205135429U (en) * 2015-07-24 2016-04-06 四川深远石油钻井工具股份有限公司 PDC drill bit with reinforcing orientation is nature controlled easily

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