CN104602940B - 用于混合动力驱动式机动车辆的驱动装置 - Google Patents

用于混合动力驱动式机动车辆的驱动装置 Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104602940B
CN104602940B CN201380045005.XA CN201380045005A CN104602940B CN 104602940 B CN104602940 B CN 104602940B CN 201380045005 A CN201380045005 A CN 201380045005A CN 104602940 B CN104602940 B CN 104602940B
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China
Prior art keywords
motor
auxiliary transmission
drive
driving means
means according
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Expired - Fee Related
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CN201380045005.XA
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English (en)
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CN104602940A (zh
Inventor
R·帕伦蒂
R·迪阿尼
G·P·珀尔顿涅利
F·贝勒蒂
Y·图森特
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GREEN PROPULSION SA
Automobili Lamborghini SpA
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GREEN PROPULSION SA
Automobili Lamborghini SpA
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Priority to IT001463A priority Critical patent/ITMI20121463A1/it
Priority to ITMI2012A001463 priority
Application filed by GREEN PROPULSION SA, Automobili Lamborghini SpA filed Critical GREEN PROPULSION SA
Priority to PCT/IB2013/056458 priority patent/WO2014033569A1/en
Publication of CN104602940A publication Critical patent/CN104602940A/zh
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/42Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by the architecture of the hybrid electric vehicle
    • B60K6/44Series-parallel type
    • B60K6/445Differential gearing distribution type
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    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/22Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs
    • B60K6/38Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs characterised by the driveline clutches
    • B60K6/387Actuated clutches, i.e. clutches engaged or disengaged by electric, hydraulic or mechanical actuating means
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    • B60K6/22Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs
    • B60K6/36Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs characterised by the transmission gearings
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/22Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs
    • B60K6/36Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs characterised by the transmission gearings
    • B60K6/365Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs characterised by the transmission gearings with the gears having orbital motion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
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    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/50Architecture of the driveline characterised by arrangement or kind of transmission units
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
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    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
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    • F16H37/06Combinations of mechanical gearings, not provided for in groups F16H1/00 - F16H35/00 comprising essentially only toothed or friction gearings with a plurality of driving or driven shafts; with arrangements for dividing torque between two or more intermediate shafts
    • F16H37/08Combinations of mechanical gearings, not provided for in groups F16H1/00 - F16H35/00 comprising essentially only toothed or friction gearings with a plurality of driving or driven shafts; with arrangements for dividing torque between two or more intermediate shafts with differential gearing
    • F16H37/0833Combinations of mechanical gearings, not provided for in groups F16H1/00 - F16H35/00 comprising essentially only toothed or friction gearings with a plurality of driving or driven shafts; with arrangements for dividing torque between two or more intermediate shafts with differential gearing with arrangements for dividing torque between two or more intermediate shafts, i.e. with two or more internal power paths
    • F16H37/084Combinations of mechanical gearings, not provided for in groups F16H1/00 - F16H35/00 comprising essentially only toothed or friction gearings with a plurality of driving or driven shafts; with arrangements for dividing torque between two or more intermediate shafts with differential gearing with arrangements for dividing torque between two or more intermediate shafts, i.e. with two or more internal power paths at least one power path being a continuously variable transmission, i.e. CVT
    • F16H2037/0866Power split variators with distributing differentials, with the output of the CVT connected or connectable to the output shaft
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
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    • F16H2200/0052Transmissions for multiple ratios characterised by the number of forward speeds the gear ratios comprising six forward speeds
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T74/00Machine element or mechanism
    • Y10T74/19Gearing
    • Y10T74/19014Plural prime movers selectively coupled to common output

Abstract

本发明涉及一种用于混合动力驱动式机动车辆的驱动装置,其包括经由具有多个传动比的变速齿轮箱交替地或一起向机动车辆的至少一个车桥差速器提供输出驱动的内燃发动机和至少一个电机,内燃发动机能借助分断离合器脱开。为了能获得具有简单结构和良好效率的驱动装置,提出了将变速箱分割成优选地各自具有至少两个传动比的两个副变速箱(3,4),其中内燃发动机(2)用于驱动地与第一副变速箱(3)连接,也就是以不能脱开的方式连接。电机(6)还在力所传递的路径中设置在设于第一副变速箱(3)的输出部(8)处的分断离合器(5)的下游但设置在第二副变速箱(4)的上游,并且第二副变速箱(4)的输出部(11)向车桥差速器(7)提供输出驱动。

Description

用于混合动力驱动式机动车辆的驱动装置
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及用于混合动力驱动式机动车辆的驱动装置,包括经由具有多个传动比的变速齿轮箱交替地或一起向所述机动车辆的至少一个车桥差速器提供输出驱动的内燃发动机和至少一个电机,所述内燃发动机能借助分断离合器脱开。
背景技术
[0002] 在采用内燃发动机作为第一驱动源并采用电机作为第二驱动源的通常的混合动力驱动装置中,内燃发动机经由具有覆盖机动车辆的速度范围的各传动比(例如六或七个)的变速齿轮箱作用于一个车桥差速器(以提供前轮或后轮驱动)或两个车桥差速器(以提供全轮驱动)。电机能直接或通过经由变速(齿轮)箱与车桥差速器连结来向车桥差速器之一提供驱动输出。如果机动车辆具有相对较宽的速度范围并且该范围要由重量合适(但转矩较低)的电机覆盖,则在该电机处需要具有例如两个传动比的另一变速箱。
[0003] 例如,DE 10 2008 023 732 Al记载了一种混合动力驱动装置,其中第一电机介设在内燃发动机和变速箱之间且第二电机经由行星齿轮机构向与内燃发动机相同的车桥差速器提供输出驱动以允许匹配各速度。
[0004] 此外,WO 2011/014513描述了一种混合动力驱动装置,其中第一电机与用法兰安装在内燃发动机上的变速齿轮箱连结并且此外还能向一个车桥差速器提供驱动输出,而第二电机用于驱动地与第二车桥差速器直接连接以提供全轮驱动。
[0005]电机能以通常的方式连接以用作驱动电动机而自由旋转或在回收模式下用作发电机。
发明内容
[0006] 本发明的一个目的是提出一种通用类型的混合动力驱动装置,其具有降低的结构成本和复杂性,能覆盖高车速范围,内燃发动机和至少一个电机能在对效率而言有利的速度范围内运转。
[0007] 借助于在下文中给出的特征来实现该目的。本发明的有利细化方案在下文中阐述。
[0008] 根据本发明提出,将变速箱分割成两个副变速箱,其各自具有至少两个传动比,其中内燃发动机用于驱动地与第一副变速箱连接,也就是以不能脱开的方式连接。此外,电机在力所传递的路径中设置在设于第一副变速箱的输出部处的分断离合器的下游但设置在第二副变速箱的上游,并且第二副变速箱的输出部向车桥差速器提供输出驱动。当例如机动车辆处于内燃发动机驱动模式时,所提出的变速箱分割使得内燃发动机作用于两个副变速箱,这种情况下两个副变速箱的传动比倍增(相乘),而电机经由一个副变速箱提供输出驱动。借助分断离合器,内燃发动机和第一副变速箱能在电动机驱动模式下停止并因此不引起任何拖阻损失或摩擦损失。
[0009] 两个副变速箱的传动比能与内燃发动机的较低速度和电机的高得多的速度匹配;特别是两个副变速箱的传动比可设计成使得内燃发动机和所述至少一个电机在车辆的规定最终速度下达到它们的预设最高速度。
[0010]作为特定优选方案,第二副变速箱可从1:1传动(在较高速度范围内)切换到与之不同且优选地更低的传动比。尤其是该副变速箱可为行星式变速箱,其具有良好的效率并且可在负荷下切换,也就是能在不使用另外的离合器的情况下例如以电液方式操作。
[0011] 此外,第一副变速箱可具有倒档以使得机动车辆即使在处于它完全由内燃发动机驱动的模式时(例如当牵引电池放电时)也能倒退移动。
[0012]作为特定优选方案,第一副变速箱可具有所提供的前进档的至少一半或所提供的前进档的刚好一半和/或三个以上的前进档,并且可协同第二副变速箱获得或预设规定的传动比跨度(spread),以获得例如>4且通常约为6的跨度。两个副变速箱因此可靠地覆盖适合内燃发动机的转换范围并且还确保为电机做出最佳匹配。
[0013] 从控制的观点看,特别有益的是第二副变速箱能在由内燃发动机驱动时和在进行混合动力驱动时尤其根据第一副变速箱所处的档位来换档,并且在由电动机驱动时,它能尤其根据机动车辆的速度来换档。
[0014] 在内燃发动机驱动模式下,第二副变速箱的换档取决于诸如机动车辆的速度、经由加速器踏板传输的负荷需求、传动比的布局等通常的参数;这意味着,可能有所替换地,第一副变速箱中的传动比有变化并且在第二副变速箱中进行换档以切换至下一个(完整)传动比,等等。在电动机驱动模式下,速度限值和可能地负荷信号对换档而言也可能很重要。
[0015] 在本发明的一个有利细化方案中,机动车辆的第二车桥差速器也可由第二电机驱动,以获得至少暂时的全轮驱动,该电机例如经由副变速箱与车桥差速器连接,所述副变速箱在结构上优选地与第一电机相同且具有能切换的多个传动比,例如相似的两个传动比。这样,能为车桥差速器、为相应的副变速箱和可能地为电机实现零部件的同一性,这种零部件的同一性从制造的观点来看是有益的。
[0016] 就控制而言,具有附加的电驱动装置的车桥差速器的副变速箱可仅根据机动车辆的速度和/或与属于另一车桥差速器的第二副变速箱同步地进行切换。
[0017] 此外,当机动车辆处于全轮驱动模式并且牵引电池处于临界的(marginal)充电状态(也就是已关于充电状态实现了预定的水平/阈值)时,与内燃发动机连接的电机可作为供给用于第二电机的驱动能量的发电机被连接,以允许维持全轮驱动。
[0018] 最后,在机动车辆的第二电动驱动桥的替换性实施例中,能设置两个电机,这两个电机分别且不利用差速器地直接或间接地向与驱动桥的车轮连接的驱动轴提供驱动输出。这两个电机不仅容许转弯时所需的车轮之间的速度补偿,而且容许提高机动车辆的驱动动态特性的转矩导向(torquevectoring)。
附图说明
[0019]下面结合更多细节一起详细说明本发明的三个实施例。在示意图中:
[0020]图1是用于后轮驱动式机动车辆的第一混合动力驱动装置的线路框图,所述驱动装置具有内燃发动机、分断离合器和两个协作的副变速箱并且电机可工作地结合在其中。
[0021]图2是如图1所示的驱动装置的另一个线路框图,但具有第二电机以允许机动车辆获得全轮驱动。
[0022]图3是具有两个电机的第二驱动桥的替换性布置的线路框图。
具体实施方式
[0023]图1是示出机动车辆中的混合动力驱动装置I的线路框图,该混合动力驱动装置I大体上具有内燃发动机2,由两个副变速箱3、4形成的变速齿轮箱,分断离合器5,和向机动车辆的后车桥差速器7提供输出驱动的电机6。车桥差速器7经由仅部分示出的半轴12驱动机动车辆的后轮。
[0024]例如作为中置发动机设置在机动车辆中的内燃发动机2用于驱动地与位于其下游的第一副变速箱3连接。不必一定要设置能中断驱动动力流的分断离合器。然而,旋转振荡式阻尼器(例如双质量飞轮)或在使用自动变速箱作为副变速箱3的情况下变矩器可介设在变速箱3的输入轴和内燃发动机2的输出轴(曲轴)之间的连接中。
[0025]副变速箱3优选是设置有至少两个且在本实施例中为四个前进档和一个倒档的具有已知设计的手动或自动变速箱。
[0026] 分断离合器5 (例如常规的干式摩擦离合器)介设在副变速箱3的输出轴8和电机6的连续驱动轴9之间。
[0027]电机6例如是对于混合动力驱动装置而言已知的三相电机(未示出),其具有位于连续驱动轴9上的转子和固定在其壳体上的定子,并且经由电控装置(未示出),它能作为驱动电动机连接成自由旋转或不被驱动,或者用作发电机以向机动车辆的牵引电池供电。
[0028] 连续驱动轴9也用于驱动地与第二副变速箱4的输入轴10连接,所述第二副变速箱的输出轴11驱动机动车辆的后车桥差速器7。车桥差速器7例如可以是具有常规设计的锥齿轮式差速器。
[0029] 第二副变速箱4呈行星式变速箱(未示出)的形式,其输入部件(例如齿圈)能被锁定于输入轴10,其行星架能作为输出部件被锁定于输出轴11,且其太阳轮能作为反作用部件被锁定,所述锁定全部借助制动器实现(传动比I)。
[0030] 此外,经由内置的多片式离合器,输入部件或齿圈和输出部件或行星架能被连接在一起以获得I: I传动(传动比II)。
[0031] 第二副变速箱4也可以是能在两个传动比I和II之间切换的挂载式变速箱(变速箱挂载,gearboxmount)或任意其它类型的手动或自动变速器。
[0032] 通过由下游副变速箱4提供的两个传动比I和II,当机动车辆处于内燃发动机驱动模式时副变速箱3的四个前进档能倍增或扩展至八个前进档,变速箱3和4的整体传动产生约为6的跨度。
[0033]副变速箱4的传动比I和II还设计成使得,在机动车辆的整个速度范围(例如O至300km/h)内,获得电机6的最佳速度状态,所述状态确保在传动比I具有足够高的起动转矩但在传动比II不会引起机动车辆的最终速度的任何超速。
[0034]副变速箱3的四个前进档的传动比和副变速箱4的两个传动比也设计成使得,当机动车辆在混合动力驱动(由内燃发动机2和电机6驱动)中处于其最终速度时,两个驱动源达到它们的由它们的设计所预设的速度临界值或最高速度。
[0035]当分断离合器5接合时,机动车辆能通过内燃发动机2向前或倒退地移动或被驱动。电机6在这种情况下能自由旋转,或在混合动力驱动(例如在增强运转中)时能共享驱动。在必要时,它也能作为发电机被连接并且能给牵引电池供给能量。
[0036]由机动车辆的速度并且根据负荷要求,两个副变速箱3和4的传动比能自动地改变,或副变速箱3的四个前进档能手动地改变(在它是手动变速箱的情况下)且副变速箱4(在它是行星式变速箱的情况下,否则也能手动地改变)能由电液装置按规定的改变模式自动地改变。
[0037] 在电动机驱动模式下,分断离合器5脱开。内燃发动机2和副变速箱3由此即使在机动车辆正在移动也停止且因此不产生任何拖阻损失或摩擦损失。电机6经由副变速箱4以两个传动比I和II驱动机动车辆;这种情况下传动比I可足以覆盖车辆在电驱动下能达到的速度。
[0038]图2示出用于为机动车辆获得至少暂时的全轮驱动的本发明的另一实施例。履行相同功能的部分被给予相同的附图标记。描述仅限于相对于图1的主要变化。
[0039] 在图2中,机动车辆的混合动力驱动装置I’还具有前车桥差速器13,其能经由仅部分示出的半轴14驱动机动车辆的前轮。
[0040]车桥差速器13在动力传递的方向上连接有第二电机6和行星式变速箱或副变速箱4,所述副变速箱的结构可与图1所示的后驱动组件的副变速箱4相似且其同样具有两个传动比I和II。
[0041] 机动车辆的全轮驱动能借助该前驱动组件13、6、4来控制,这种情况下机动车辆的前轮能被电气地驱动且后轮被电气地、通过内燃发动机或通过两者的结合驱动。
[0042] 此外,后电机6在内燃发动机驱动模式下能作为发电机被连接以供给用于前电机6的驱动能量,从而使得能维持全轮驱动。
[0043] 第二电机6的传动比I和II之间的切换可以是自动的,取决于机动车辆的速度;在电动机驱动模式下,可与第一电机6同步地以类似方式作出该切换。
[0044]当存在两个电机6 (图2)并且机动车辆在制动也就是处于回收模式时,仅一个(优选为前电机6)或两个电机6作为发电机被连接,由所需的制动力来决定。
[0045]图3仅大致示出代替根据图2的差速器13的、设计有两个电机6的第二电动驱动桥的一个替换性实施例。
[0046] 这种情况下,两个电机6与驱动车轮的驱动轴14共轴排布并且分别各自驱动机动车辆的驱动桥(在此为前桥)的车轮。如果两个电机6的驱动转矩足够,则能省略行星式变速箱4 0
[0047] 通过相应地致动电机6,它们能利用相应的差动功能(速度补偿)驱动两个前轮,或为了例如在转弯时产生转矩导向而向位于弯道外侧的车轮传递较高转矩且向位于弯道内侧的车轮传递较低转矩。
[0048] 本发明不限于已描述的实施例。
[0049] 特别地,驱动装置1、I’在内燃发动机驱动模式下也可呈前轮驱动形式,其中各子单元逆序排列,而不是图1所示的描述过的后轮驱动。
[0050]如果有必要,图1所示的内燃发动机2,两个副变速箱3、4,分断离合器5,电机6和车桥差速器7可组合成单个驱动单元或可通过一个或多个中间轴连接在一起。
[0051] 特别是在属于内置类型时,分断离合器5也可呈湿式离合器或多片式离合器的形式并且可电液地被致动或控制。

Claims (14)

1.用于混合动力驱动式机动车辆的驱动装置,包括经由具有多个传动比的变速齿轮箱交替地或一起向所述机动车辆的至少一个车桥差速器提供输出驱动的内燃发动机和至少一个电机,所述内燃发动机能借助分断离合器脱开,所述驱动装置的特征在于,所述变速齿轮箱被分割成两个副变速箱(3,4),其中所述内燃发动机(2)用于驱动地与第一副变速箱(3)连接,也就是以不能脱开的方式连接,其中所述至少一个电机中所包括的第一电机(6)还在力所传递的路径中设置在设于所述第一副变速箱(3)的输出部(8)处的所述分断离合器⑶的下游但设置在第二副变速箱⑷的上游,并且其中所述第二副变速箱⑷的输出部(11)向所述车桥差速器⑵提供输出驱动。
2.根据权利要求1所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,所述两个副变速箱(3,4)的传动比设计成使得所述内燃发动机(2)和所述至少一个电机(6)在所述车辆的规定最终速度下达到它们的预设最高速度。
3.根据权利要求1或2所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,所述第二副变速箱(4)能从1:1传动切换到与之不同的传动比。
4.根据权利要求3所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,所述第二副变速箱(4)是行星式变速箱。
5.根据权利要求1或2所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,所述第一副变速箱⑶具有倒档。
6.根据权利要求1或2所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,所述第一副变速箱⑶具有由所述变速齿轮箱提供的前进档的至少一半或由所述变速齿轮箱提供的前进档的刚好一半和/或三个以上的前进档,并且协同所述第二副变速箱⑷获得或预设规定的传动比跨度。
7.根据权利要求1或2所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,在由所述内燃发动机驱动时和在进行混合动力驱动时,所述第二副变速箱⑷至少根据所述第一副变速箱⑶所处的档位来换档,并且在由电动机驱动时所述第二副变速箱(4)至少根据所述机动车辆的速度来换档。
8.根据权利要求1或2所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,所述机动车辆的第二车桥差速器(13)也能至少由第二电机(6)驱动以获得全轮驱动,该电机(6)经由副变速箱⑷与该车桥差速器(13)连接。
9.根据权利要求7所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,具有附加的电驱动装置的车桥差速器(13)的副变速箱(4)根据所述机动车辆的速度和/或与属于另一车桥差速器(7)的第二副变速箱⑷同步地进行切换。
10.根据权利要求1或2所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,当所述机动车辆处于全轮驱动模式并且牵引电池处于被限定为临界的充电状态时,与所述内燃发动机⑵连接的电机(6)作为发电机被连接。
11.根据权利要求1或2所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,在所述机动车辆的第二电动驱动桥上设置有两个电机(6),所述两个电机分别且不利用差速器(13)地直接或间接地向与所述驱动桥的车轮连接的驱动轴(14)提供驱动输出。
12.根据权利要求1所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,所述两个副变速箱(3,4)各自具有至少两个传动比。
13.根据权利要求6所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,所述第一副变速箱(3)协同所述第二副变速箱(4)获得>4的跨度。
14.根据权利要求8所述的驱动装置,其特征在于,所述第二电机所对应的副变速箱(4)在结构上与所述第一电机(6)所对应的所述第二副变速箱相同且具有能切换的多个传动比。
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