CN104593576B - Journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing - Google Patents

Journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104593576B
CN104593576B CN201410836049.0A CN201410836049A CN104593576B CN 104593576 B CN104593576 B CN 104593576B CN 201410836049 A CN201410836049 A CN 201410836049A CN 104593576 B CN104593576 B CN 104593576B
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China
Prior art keywords
cover
journal box
shelf
heating processing
temperature
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CN201410836049.0A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104593576A (en
Inventor
孙士俊
熊四平
易峰
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常州南车铁马科技实业有限公司
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Publication of CN104593576A publication Critical patent/CN104593576A/en
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Abstract

The present invention provides the Technology for Heating Processing that a kind of rail vehicle is the journal box rear cover of material in order to 5083, the method that have employed stepped annelaing, product is heated in chamber type electric resistance furnace 250 DEG C~300 DEG C successively and is incubated 1~2 hour;Then less than 100 DEG C are cooled to the furnace;Product is placed under ambient temperature holding more than 8 hours again;Finally product is put in chamber type electric resistance furnace again, be heated to 150 DEG C~200 DEG C and be incubated 2~3 hours;Then room temperature is cooled to the furnace.Journal box rear cover product after the Technology for Heating Processing of the present invention processes, after material internal distortion is carried out recovering cooling by the first stage with higher temperature, use short period, standing a period of time treats that transformation for stress completes, product macro-stress is eliminated again with lower temperature and long period, avoid internal grain to merge and the problem of secondary stress, make rough forging more stable, after efficiently avoid processing, deformation brings puzzlement, can effectively meet product requirement.

Description

Journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing
Technical field
The present invention relates to the Technology for Heating Processing of metal material, the heat treatment work of a kind of journal box rear cover used for rail vehicle Skill.
Background technology
It is right that the axle shaft end of rail vehicle is provided with axle box device, axle box device connection body and wheel, and its inner is provided with axle Case bonnet.Journal box rear cover is for protection and spring bearing, and has sealings, fastening, dust-proof etc. acts on.Journal box rear cover is split type Structure, is assembled by upper and lower rear cover body.It is assembled on axle box device for convenience of journal box rear cover, and ensures making of journal box rear cover By performance, it is desirable to journal box rear cover deflection after polish is the least, the deformation size of the most upper and lower rear cover body need to be at the model of regulation In enclosing.
Current track axle for vehicle case apparatus journal box rear cover generally uses precision aluminium-alloy forging molding technology, and material is 5083-O(AlMg4.5Mn0.7).5083 is a kind of conventional rust-preventing aluminum alloy, and O is the annealed condition of material.Due to 5083 materials Other alloy content limited, be not enough to form supersaturated solid solution and second-phase strength phase, be not available for heat treatment reinforcement, and The existence of magnesium alloy makes its difficult forming, and therefore this material is applied less in terms of precision forging molding, both at home and abroad to this material The heat treatment reference data of separate components is less, and limited by practical.Owing to forging molding needs higher temperature that material is added Heat is to softened zone, and the temperature difference of cooling can be brought a lot of residual internal stress to interior tissue, cause product after machining because of interior Stress Release and be deformed, and affect the assembling of product.If going de-stress according to conventional annealing of metal materials technique, the hottest Treatment temperature 390~420 DEG C, heat time heating time 30min, air cooling or water-cooled.The heating-up temperature of this kind of annealing process is higher, and the time Short, 5083 internal crystal framework dislocation stability restoring be can be carried out, the distortional stress in macrostructure, and heat treatment but cannot be removed Rear crystal grain is grown up, and can bring the problems such as mechanical property reduction and heat treatment stress residual.If the way using high/low temperature circulation disappears De-stress, owing to the combination properties such as aluminium alloy intensity at low temperatures, plasticity are preferable, molecule activity ability is low, therefore under low temperature Removal stress effect inconspicuous.Method according to natrual ageing eliminates stress, then need the longer time, the most all several Individual month the most several years, the production efficiency of product will be affected, not be suitable for mass production.The method of vibrations destressing is then the suitableeest Fit long-pending relatively big, the product of frame clsss structure, and product surface can be produced certain damage.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, it is provided that one can eliminate internal stress significantly, effectively controls essence Deflection after processing, and can guarantee that the journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing of journal box rear cover comprehensive mechanical property.
In order to realize its purpose, the technical solution used in the present invention is, a kind of journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing, journal box rear cover Including upper rear cover body and lower rear cover body, its innovation is: described journal box rear cover have employed the method for stepped annelaing, and concrete steps are such as Under:
First paragraph: by journal box rear cover when without superposition and without contact with each other pile up on shelf, shelf is put into In chamber type electric resistance furnace, it is heated to 250 DEG C~300 DEG C and is incubated 1~2 hour;Then less than 100 DEG C are cooled to the furnace;
Second segment: shelf is taken out together with the journal box rear cover piled up on shelf in chamber type electric resistance furnace, is placed in ring Keep more than 8 hours at a temperature of border;
3rd section: shelf is put in chamber type electric resistance furnace again together with the journal box rear cover piled up on shelf, is heated to 150 DEG C~200 DEG C be incubated 2~3 hours;Then room temperature is cooled to the furnace.
Described chamber type electric resistance furnace includes resistive heating device, air circulation device, temperature measuring equipment and electronic temperature control system System.
Shelf used is tower structure, and including framework and interlayer, described interlayer is network.
Described journal box rear cover is placed on shelf, and journal box rear cover keeps the distance of more than 50mm each other.
Described journal box rear cover is placed on shelf, keeps 100mm space above distance above journal box rear cover.
Described journal box rear cover material is 5083.
The journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing of the present invention uses the method for stepped annelaing, by different temperature ranges and difference Temperature retention time, can significantly eliminate the internal stress of rear cover body, after effectively controlling to cause rear cover body polish because of residualinternal stress Deflection, make the size of the rear cover body after polish meet follow-up assembling requirement, and ensure the serviceability of journal box rear cover Requirement.Heat treatment stages is divided into 2 heat treated, and heating-up temperature and temperature retention time are optimized design, reduces because of temperature Rapid Variable Design and the secondary stress residue problem brought, eliminate the planted agent that rear cover body produces in forging and heat treatment process significantly Power.Owing to heating-up temperature avoids high-temperature region, and heating-up temperature relatively alternate manner decreases, and material can be prevented because of heat treatment temperature Degradation problem under the coarse grains of spending height and bring, rustless property, it is ensured that the comprehensive mechanical property of material.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing flow chart of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of journal box rear cover of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of upper rear cover body in Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is A-A profile in Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is the structural representation of lower rear cover body in Fig. 2;
Fig. 6 is B-B profile in Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is the structural representation using shelf in the present invention;
Fig. 8 is magnesium dissolubility picture in aluminum in the material of journal box rear cover in the present invention;
Fig. 9 is journal box rear cover horizontal organization (before the 500 times of corrosion) figure after using Technology for Heating Processing of the present invention to process;
Figure 10 is journal box rear cover horizontal organization (after the 500 times of corrosion) figure after using Technology for Heating Processing of the present invention to process;
Figure 11 is journal box rear cover longitudinal tissue (after the 500 times of corrosion) figure after using Technology for Heating Processing of the present invention to process.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail.
Embodiment: as a example by using 5083 journal box rear covers by precision forging molding as material, the present invention is made into One step describes in detail.
See shown in Fig. 1~7, a kind of EMU with split type journal box rear cover 1 by upper rear cover body 1-1 and lower rear cover body 1-2 assembles, and journal box rear cover 1 material is aluminium alloy 5083, and upper rear cover body 1-1 is become by precision forging with lower rear cover body 1-2 The Technology for Heating Processing of the journal box rear cover 1 that type assembles comprises the steps:
First paragraph: by the journal box rear cover 1 of precision forging molding when without superposition and without contact with each other pile up dry On frame 2, shelf 2 is put in chamber type electric resistance furnace, be heated to 280 DEG C from room temperature and be incubated 1 hour, then cool to 100 DEG C with the furnace Below.For ensure rear axle casing bonnet 1 in insulating process will not because external force impact and deform, by journal box rear cover 1 without superposition with Pile up on shelf 2 under the free state of contact.This process can eliminate the internal stress that major part produces because of forging, and heating-up temperature is kept away Open high-temperature region, the problems such as coarse grains, rustless property variation that material brings because of high-temperature heating can be prevented effectively from, and can Ensure the comprehensive mechanical property of material, and the secondary stress formed because of temperature Rapid Variable Design can be reduced by furnace cooling.
Second segment: shelf 2 is taken out together with the journal box rear cover 1 piled up on shelf 2 in chamber type electric resistance furnace, is placed in Keep under ambient temperature more than 8 hours, i.e. place more than 8 hours under ambient temperature;This process makes rear cover body interior tissue crystal grain The most stable.
3rd section: shelf 2 is put in chamber type electric resistance furnace again together with the journal box rear cover 1 piled up on shelf 2, is heated to 150 DEG C are incubated 2 hours;Then room temperature is cooled to the furnace.This process can eliminate significantly in forging and front and continued heat treatment process The remaining macroscopic view internal stress produced, can effectively control the deflection causing because of residualinternal stress rear cover body after polish, make The size of rear cover body meets follow-up assembling requirement.
In journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing of the present invention, in order to ensure the accurate of heating-up temperature and make product be heated evenly, make With chamber type electric resistance furnace, described chamber type electric resistance furnace includes resistive heating device, air circulation device, temperature measuring equipment and electronics Temperature control system.And chamber type electric resistance furnace has bigger burner hearth and is easy to place shelf 2, shelf 2 used is tower structure, such as Fig. 7 institute Show, be network including framework 2-1 and interlayer 2-2, described interlayer 2-2;Journal box rear cover 1 is placed on the interlayer of shelf 2, and axle Case bonnet 1 keeps the distance of more than 50mm each other, keeps 100mm space above distance, it is ensured that heating above journal box rear cover 1 Uniform, in heating process ambient air circulation smooth and easy.
Journal box rear cover of the present invention uses aluminium alloy 5083(degeneration aluminium alloy) material, alloying element main in material is Magnesium.It is while eliminating internal stress that the present invention carries out the main purpose of heat treatment to journal box rear cover, controls magnesium in aluminium alloy Existence form, it is ensured that the comprehensive mechanical property of journal box rear cover.As shown in Figure 8, the recrystallization temperature of 5083 more than 250 DEG C, Heating more than 255 DEG C, material composition is αsolidsolution;During less than 230 DEG C, material is divided into as alpha+beta phase, but due to forming core and Separate out difficulty, so β phase is few.Major part magnesium is also dissolved in aluminum, forms supersaturated solid solution under low temperature.After heat treatment Metallograph in, oval or bar shaped be Mg5Al8 and Mg2Si mutually, is (FeMn) 3Si2Al15 and (FeCr) mutually 4Si4Al13.Here Mn and Cr of non-solid solution state reduces the ferrum adverse effect to aluminium alloy.Due to Mg5Al8 and Mg2Si shape Core difficulty, and coarse grains, so invigoration effect is inconspicuous, this is also 5083 cannot the reason of heat treatment reinforcement.Mg5Al8 It is more or less the same with αsolidsolution with the potential difference of Mg2Si, also ensure that the ability of the cathodic protection of material.So in theory As long as the heat treatment requirements for 5083 can eliminate internal stress, avoid recrystallization overlong time to cause coarse grains and shadow simultaneously Ring material property.In the position of a little higher than recrystallization temperature, 280 DEG C are incubated 1 hour, if the time is short or temperature is low, Aluminium alloy, still in Deformation structure's feature, presents the β phase (Mg5Al8) of continuous distribution in local deformation district, and alloy has stronger stress Corrosion susceptibility and more weak corrosion-resistant ability;If the time is long, or temperature is high, then for perfect recrystallization tissue, β phase after annealing Tending to again continuous distribution, Alloy Anti stress corrosion and corrosion-resistant ability die down.Heating and thermal insulation at 280 DEG C, local starts to occur again Crystallization, but tissue still comprises by born of the same parents' shape substructure of dislocation tangle, spherical β phase is discontinuously arranged at intracrystalline and crystal boundary, Alloy has high stress corrosion resistant and corrosion-resistant ability.After 280 DEG C are incubated 1 hour, then through 150 DEG C of insulations annealing in 2 hours, Can significantly eliminate the internal stress of journal box rear cover 1, effectively control to cause because of residual stress the journal box rear cover 1 change after polish Shape amount, also can make journal box rear cover have good comprehensive mechanical property.
See shown in Fig. 9,10,11, use the journal box rear cover 1 after Technology for Heating Processing of the present invention through horizontal and vertical along deform To 500 times of Metallographic Analysis it can be seen that crystal grain in kind is fine and closely woven, have no coarse grains or remelting phenomenon.Visible heat treatment is to forging Thinning effect do not have a negative impact, the journal box rear cover blank that the upper rear cover body 1-1 and lower rear cover body 1-2 of forging molding assemble Stable, grain size reach 9 and more than, average out to 10 grades, 11 grades can be reached individually.
Seeing Fig. 2~6, journal box rear cover 1 includes rear cover body 1-1 and lower rear cover body 1-2, when polish, is by upper and lower Rear cover body is processed after being assembled integrally again, and the size recording journal box rear cover 1 after polish is L;By the axle after polish Separately, the size recording upper and lower rear cover body respectively is L1 and L2 to case bonnet 1.Subordinate list 1 is to formulate according to conventional relevant criterion Annealing process, design heat treatment temperature 390~420 DEG C, heat time heating time 30min, air cooling or water-cooled process after journal box rear cover essence Deflection statistics after processing, subordinate list 2 is deflection after journal box rear cover 1 polish after using the Technology for Heating Processing of the present invention to process Statistics, can be evident that from two table statistics: use the journal box rear cover 1 of Technology for Heating Processing of the present invention after polish Deflection be far smaller than the journal box rear cover 1 deflection after polish using conventional annealing technique.
Table 1 uses deflection statistics after the rear cover body polish of conventional annealing technique
Table 2 uses deflection statistics after the rear cover body polish of Technology for Heating Processing of the present invention

Claims (5)

1. a journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing, journal box rear cover (1) includes rear cover body (1-1) and lower rear cover body (1-2), and it is special Levy and be: described journal box rear cover (1) material is 5083, the method that described journal box rear cover (1) have employed stepped annelaing, concrete steps As follows:
First paragraph: by journal box rear cover (1) when without superposition and without contact with each other pile up on shelf (2), by shelf (2) Put in chamber type electric resistance furnace, be heated to 250 DEG C~300 DEG C and be incubated 1~2 hour;Then less than 100 DEG C are cooled to the furnace;
Second segment: shelf (2) is taken out together with the journal box rear cover (1) piled up on shelf (2) in chamber type electric resistance furnace, puts Keep more than 8 hours under ambient temperature;
3rd section: shelf (2) is put in chamber type electric resistance furnace again together with the journal box rear cover (1) piled up on shelf (2), heating It is incubated 2~3 hours to 150 DEG C~200 DEG C;Then room temperature is cooled to the furnace.
Journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described chamber type electric resistance furnace includes resistance Heater, air circulation device, temperature measuring equipment and electronic temperature control system.
Journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described shelf (2) is frame-type knot Structure, including framework (2-1) and interlayer (2-2), described interlayer (2-2) is network.
Journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described journal box rear cover (1) is placed in baking On frame (2), journal box rear cover (1) keeps the distance of more than 50mm each other.
Journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described journal box rear cover (1) is placed in baking On frame (2), journal box rear cover (1) top keeps 100mm space above distance.
CN201410836049.0A 2014-12-30 2014-12-30 Journal box rear cover Technology for Heating Processing CN104593576B (en)

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Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4078712A (en) * 1975-01-21 1978-03-14 Alforge Metals Corporation Limited Welding of aluminum and magnesium alloys
CN101318198A (en) * 2008-07-11 2008-12-10 镇江鼎胜铝业有限公司 Process for manufacturing casting and rolling 3004 alloy deep punching material
CN101880802A (en) * 2010-07-30 2010-11-10 浙江巨科铝业有限公司 Al-Mg high magnesium alloys for automobile body sheets and manufacturing method thereof

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4078712A (en) * 1975-01-21 1978-03-14 Alforge Metals Corporation Limited Welding of aluminum and magnesium alloys
CN101318198A (en) * 2008-07-11 2008-12-10 镇江鼎胜铝业有限公司 Process for manufacturing casting and rolling 3004 alloy deep punching material
CN101880802A (en) * 2010-07-30 2010-11-10 浙江巨科铝业有限公司 Al-Mg high magnesium alloys for automobile body sheets and manufacturing method thereof

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
铝合金轴箱后盖加工变形原因分析及对策;冯晓等;《冷热工艺》;20110831(第4期);第15-16页 *

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Address after: 213125 Jiangsu province Changzhou City New District Xue Shun Road No. 19

Patentee after: CRRC CHANGZHOU TECH-MARK INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD.

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