CN104593022A - Process and device for gasifying combustibles from construction wastes - Google Patents

Process and device for gasifying combustibles from construction wastes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104593022A
CN104593022A CN201510036751.3A CN201510036751A CN104593022A CN 104593022 A CN104593022 A CN 104593022A CN 201510036751 A CN201510036751 A CN 201510036751A CN 104593022 A CN104593022 A CN 104593022A
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technique
pyrolyzer
gas
purification
combustiblematerials
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CN201510036751.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104593022B (en
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王以峰
葛海卿
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北京元泰达环保建材科技有限责任公司
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B5/00Operations not covered by single other subclass or by a single other group in this subclass
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/02Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of cellulose-containing material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B53/00Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form
    • C10B53/07Destructive distillation, specially adapted for particular solid raw materials or solid raw materials in special form of solid raw materials consisting of synthetic polymeric materials, e.g. tyres
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10BDESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF CARBONAGEOUS MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF GAS, COKE, TAR, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
    • C10B57/00Other processes not covered before; Features of destructive distillation processes in general
    • C10B57/04Other processes not covered before; Features of destructive distillation processes in general using charges of special composition
    • C10B57/06Other processes not covered before; Features of destructive distillation processes in general using charges of special composition containing additives
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10KPURIFYING OR MODIFYING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE
    • C10K1/00Purifying combustible gases containing carbon monoxide
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10KPURIFYING OR MODIFYING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE
    • C10K1/00Purifying combustible gases containing carbon monoxide
    • C10K1/002Removal of contaminants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10KPURIFYING OR MODIFYING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE
    • C10K1/00Purifying combustible gases containing carbon monoxide
    • C10K1/02Dust removal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10KPURIFYING OR MODIFYING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE
    • C10K1/00Purifying combustible gases containing carbon monoxide
    • C10K1/08Purifying combustible gases containing carbon monoxide by washing with liquids; Reviving the used wash liquors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/141Feedstock
    • Y02P20/143Feedstock the feedstock being recycled material, e.g. plastics
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/50Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies
    • Y02W30/58Construction or demolition [C&D] waste

Abstract

The invention discloses a process and a device for gasifying combustibles from construction wastes. The process comprises the following steps: cracking and gasifying the combustibles recycled from the construction wastes in a cracking furnace, performing primary purification and secondary purification, performing primary separation and secondary separation, and leading out the tail gas for performing third-level purification by using a fan after the secondary separation. The invention also discloses equipment for gasifying combustibles from construction wastes. The process and equipment disclosed by the invention have high pertinence on the combustibles from construction wastes, the tar content is low, and the content of harmful substances in the tail gas is low.

Description

Combustiblematerials from building waste is carried out the technique that gasifies and device

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of by the technique of carrying out gasifying from the combustiblematerials of building waste, especially biomass and device.

Technical background

In recent years, along with the continuous increase of city size and deepening continuously of Urbanization Construction process, increasingly the increase of refuse production, and the many unvanquishable problem adopting traditional treatment method to come out, make refuse pyrolysis treatment technology more and more be subject to people to pay close attention to, especially for more than kitchen, plastics, domestic waste that rubber equal size is higher, its pyrolytic gasification process more can show value.Because municipal solid waste classification is various, pyrolytic gasification process is quite complicated, and in pyrolytic gasification process, existing macromolecular cleavage becomes small molecules, there is again small molecules and aggregates into more macromolecular possibility.

Domestic waste is except compost, landfill disposal, and incineration technology subtracts the advantage of appearance feature and heat energy recycle because of its significant decrement, and is widely adopted. but produce sour gas, heavy metal and two problems in burning process and can not be ignored.Refuse gasification treatment technology, subtracts capacitive owing to having low, the significant decrement of pollutant emission and produces the advantages such as inflammable gas, becoming new study hotspot gradually.In domestic garbage gasification, Chinese scholars, by gasification domestic wastes such as ebullated bed, fluidized-bed, fixed beds, systematically have studied.

Pyrolytic gasification method (or being called for short pyrolysis method or evaporating method) has multiple advantage, is mainly reflected in as follows: (1) efficiency of combustion is high.Belong to gas, solid inhomogeneous reaction because rubbish directly burns, rubbish as solid matter, the non-constant of diffustivity, Combination, thus efficiency of combustion is lower, easily produces hazardous and noxious substances in combustion processes simultaneously; And the gaseous product that pyrolysis produces and tar, belong to homogeneous combustion, sufficient combustion, efficiency are high; (2) combustion processes easily controls, and rubbish composition is complicated, and between each component, physicochemical property differs greatly, if directly burn, point of ignition, the speed of response of each component differ greatly, and are difficult to stability contorting; And product combustion processes homogeneous stability after refuse pyrolysis, be convenient to control; (3) pollute low, without the need to secondary treatment.If rubbish simply burns and controls not in place, except very easily producing violent in toxicity " dioxin ", also can discharge a large amount of flying dust containing toxic substance and residue, need secondary treatment.Pyrolysis owing to being homogeneous phase, anaerobic decomposition, final product mainly CO after pyrolysis product burns again 2and H 2o, subtract capacity large, remaining breeze is less, is conducive to alleviating the secondary pollution to atmospheric environment simultaneously.

Biomass, also can the byproduct such as association tar and carbon residue while pyrolysis aerogenesis.The existence of tar can reduce factor of created gase and thermo-efficiency, more seriously when low temperature, tar also can be condensed into liquid state, being easy to combines with water and dust blocks and etching apparatus, equipment is caused normally to work time serious, therefore require the output of tar to be reduced to minimum, to improve the quality of pyrolysis gas.In various measure, the catalytic pyrolysis of tar is considered to the most efficient a kind of technological process, and this technique is that tar conversion is become micromolecular permanent gases, is utilized together with combustible gas.

CN101565647A discloses the pretreatment process that fuel utilization made by one way of life rubbish, comprise the sorting technology of garbage fuel, domestic refuse is it is characterized in that to pass through primary election, fragmentation or broken bag, screening, pneumatic floating selection by winnowing and air-dry operation, reach the moisture content and inorganic content that reduce garbage fuel, improve the calorific value of garbage fuel, domestic refuse is utilized as the gasified raw material of vapourizing furnace, or make domestic refuse not need interpolation conventional fuel for combustion supporting just can realize stable burning in incinerator, wherein: the domestic refuse of complicated component is separated into Bulky Waste in primary election operation, smallclothes rubbish, bulk building waste, Bulky Waste is carried out fragmentation by crusher, sub-elects waste wood particle as fuel utilization, smallclothes rubbish by the laggard row filter of broken bag operation, removing silt particle, sends the composting on sieve into pneumatic floating air float separator and carries out selection by winnowing separation, working air current in pneumatic floating air float separator from bottom to top moves, composting rolls at selection by winnowing functional compartments inner suspension, reach loose condition (of surface), rubbish material is by density stratification, form light material suspension zone and middle heavier feeds suspension zone, low-moisture lightweight organism is drawn by the lightweight organic outlet of side, light material suspension zone, high-moisture, middle heavy organics are exported by heavy organics in side, middle heavier feeds suspension zone and draw, and heavy inorganics is discharged from the outlet bottom pneumatic floating air float separator, send into air dryer from pneumatic floating air float separator isolated low moisture lightweight organism and carry out air-dry process, become garbage fuel, from pneumatic floating air float separator isolated high-moisture, heavy organics feeding squeezing dehydration device carries out processed, and the organic solid waste material after dehydration is sent into air dryer and removed moisture further, becomes garbage fuel, the wherein one of following manner is adopted to utilize through pretreated garbage fuel: a. sends garbage fuel into vapourizing furnace and is converted into synthetic gas by gasification reaction, b. garbage fuel feeding incinerator or Industrial Boiler are carried out burning disposal, be converted into heat energy, c. garbage fuel is pulverized, add additive, produce highdensity shaped fuel with compressed moulding equipment.

CN103727542A discloses a kind of garbage pyrolysis furnace, it is characterized in that comprising depression bar, gripping unit, taper bell, opening for feed, gas-liquid mixture collection channel, pipeline, holding pad, furnace shell, automatic firing mechanism, oxygen supply, production well, divider, air is responsible for, stove pin, solid discharge, taper bell is arranged on body of heater top, conical furnace covers and is provided with opening for feed, gripping unit is arranged on depression bar, depression bar is through taper bell, depression bar bottom is connected with holding pad, upper of furnace body is provided with gas-liquid mixture collection channel and pipeline, lower portion of furnace body is provided with solid discharge, oxygen supply and automatic firing mechanism are evenly distributed on bottom of furnace body, oxygen supply is the pipeline of upper end closed, duct wall has evenly downward-sloping production well.

CN1554893A discloses a kind of refuse pyrolysis vapourizing furnace, mainly comprises the body of heater that upper end has dog-house, is provided with thermal insulation layer, is provided with water-cooled layer between thermal insulation layer and the inwall of body of heater in the inner chamber of body of heater; In the inner chamber of thermal insulation layer, be provided with distributor near dog-house place, distributor is connected with the first follower gear, the first motor by transmission shaft; The lower ending opening place of body of heater is provided with skim gate, and skim gate is connected with the second motor by the second follower gear; Be provided with airway, one end of airway is through skim gate and body of heater, and its mouth of pipe end is at the air guide entrance of bottom place formation one umbrella of body of heater, and the other end terminates in bottom it through ash separator.

CN1903457A discloses a kind of pyrolysis charring method of municipal wastes, it is characterized in that the charring process of rubbish at least comprises following process, the pyrolysis charring process of rubbish, the pyrolysis gas produced in pyrolysis charring process except acid gas process, the combustion processes of pyrolysis gas, pyrolysis gas burning after High Temperature Gas in pyrolysis oven to the process of rubbish transferring heat; And the arbitrary temp of pyrolysis between 250 DEG C to 650 DEG C carries out.

CN104006389A discloses a kind of refuse pyrolysis method for gasifying and incinerating, and described refuse pyrolysis method for gasifying and incinerating comprises the following steps: (A1) rubbish enters in pyrolytic gasification stove after predrying; Air enters in stove from the top of described pyrolytic gasification stove and bottom; (A2) rubbish pyrolysis in decline process, gasification in described pyrolytic gasification stove, the inflammable gas of generation is drawn in the middle part of vapourizing furnace; (A3) residual carbon continues to move down in vapourizing furnace, and reacts with the air generating gasification that bottom enters, and the inflammable gas of generation is drawn in the middle part of vapourizing furnace, and the ashes of generation are discharged from the ash discharging hole bottom vapourizing furnace.

CN103357411A discloses one and carries out waste and coal, mainly comprises calcium based catalysts of the material pyrolysis aerogenic composition regulation and control such as domestic refuse, agriculture and forestry organic waste material, municipal sludge, mud, waste rubber, plastic waste, tail coal and preparation method thereof.Use this catalyzer, the inflammable gas productive rate in material pyrolytic process can be improved, and make partial CO 2 convert carbon monoxide to, thus implement the regulation and control of gaseous constituent.This catalyzer is with carbonate mineral (comprising mine tailing) for raw material, by broken, sieve, calcine, be processed into the catalyzer with different shapes and globule size.

WO2011/000513A1 discloses a kind of comprehensive waste treatment system and method, it comprises the use in combustiblerefuse source, for being separated the separator of described combustiblerefuse from recyclable material, for by dry for described combustiblerefuse to produce the vacuum drier of pyrolysis feed and to be used for described pyrolysis feed pyrolytic decomposition to generate the pyrolyzer of coke and pyrolysis gas.For the system and method generated electricity, comprise according to refuse disposal system of the present invention or method, also comprise oxidizer, for the heat that the synthetic gas high temperature oxidation produced from described pyrolysis feed is used for generation generating electricity.

EP1121691A2 discloses a decomposition device of organic waste and method, and this device comprises two reactors of series connection, and each reactor employs the superheated vapour of oxygen enhancing to decompose various organic compound to reduce quality and volume.When steam/oxygen mixture injects the fluidized-bed of ceramic bead, decompose rapidly.The speed of fluidization gas mixture stirreds ceramic bead, helps solid waste cracked, and oxygen makes some oxidizing reaction carry out compensating drying, pyrolysis and steam to reform to the demand of heat again.Most of pyrolysis occurs in the first step, sets up the second stage for making pyrolysis complete, and by using coreagent change the oxidation state of inorganics and use the temperature of energy separating metal refuse, thus adjustment or gasification waste form.

US20110048915A1 discloses and a kind ofly processes refuse and obtain the method for hydrocarbon polymer from daily life and industrial organic waste through pyrolysis.The method of process refuse comprises: carry out the pyrolysis of the first and second stages; Separation pyrolyzing product becomes several part; Process every part and obtain useful product.While implementing subordinate phase pyrolysis, electromagnetic action is carried out to pyrolysis product.Have a pyrolysis reactor in the device of implementation method, it is made up of two portions.At the second section of reactor, the former of electromagnetic action is installed.The outlet of second section is connected with the steam gas product separation system of pyrolysis.Technical result is: improve the effect of process refuse and obtain product that is solid-state, liquid and gaseous state fuel element form.In pyrolysis, use soda as catalyzer.

" biomass supercritical water gasification hydrogen production Research advance in catalysts for production ", Wang Yixue etc., chemical research and application, 25th volume the 1st phase, in January, 2013,7-11 page plucks the domestic and international progress reviewing biomass gasification hydrogen-producing used catalyst in supercritical water, the five class catalyzer such as alkali catalyst, metal-based catalysts, metal oxide catalyst, carbon class catalyzer, ore class all can improve vaporization rate and hydrogen yield in various degree, selected by the ratio of catalyzer, propose effective catalyzer and support of the catalyst.

But, as described above, in the above prior art, mainly for be domestic refuse, the technique that the building waste combustiblematerials of shortage to the larger component difference of existence gasifies and device, in existing treatment process, remain in the problem generating a large amount of tar, poor and the catalyzed reaction temperature drift of conventional tar destruction catalyst effect adopted, the harmful substance contents in addition in common process in tail gas is higher.This area needs a kind ofly the combustiblematerials from building waste to be carried out gasify and solve gasifying process and the device of tar Generating Problems and pollution problem.

Summary of the invention

For solving the above-mentioned problems in the prior art, the present inventor, through further investigation and great many of experiments, proposes following technical scheme:

In one aspect of the invention, provide a kind of technique of the combustiblematerials from building waste being carried out gasify, this technique comprises carries out pyrolysis gasification by the combustiblematerials reclaimed from building waste in pyrolyzer, then first class purification and secondary purification is carried out, carry out flash trapping stage and the second-order separation again, after the second-order separation, use blower fan to be drawn by tail gas and carry out three grades of purifications.

Preferably, first class purification is used for except tar removing.The existence of tar can reduce factor of created gase and thermo-efficiency, more seriously when low temperature, tar also can be condensed into liquid state, being easy to combines with water and dust blocks and etching apparatus, the equipment tar that cannot normally work is caused to have larger toughness time serious, therefore should remove in time, otherwise can subsequent technique be affected.In addition, the tar just having left pyrolyzer still has higher temperature, and usually in gaseous state, thus now easily purifies removing.

Preferably, secondary purification is for removing lime-ash, carbon residue material.Lime-ash and carbon residue are also the materials often produced in gasification, and it can carry out purification by such as cyclonic separation and remove.

Preferably, flash trapping stage is for separating of going out H 2, CO, CO 2, CH 4, C 2h 4and/or C 2h 6gas.These gases can use as comprehensive combustion gas, thus improve the added value of whole technique.

Preferably, the second-order separation is for separating of going out fine ash.In the aforementioned purification of experience and separating step, remain at some very thin ash contents in tail gas, such as particle diameter is the ash particles of 10-100 μm, needs are isolated, on the one hand to be conducive to the carrying out of three grades, downstream purification, lime-ash in these fine ash and secondary purification, carbon residue can be merged on the other hand, the carrier as pyrolysis gasification catalyzer uses.

Preferably, three grades of purifications are for removing dioxin and/or furans.Dioxin and these objectionable impuritiess of furans before discharging, must decompose by tail gas completely.Its purifying treatment can comprise the thermolysis 2 seconds-8 seconds at the temperature of 1200 DEG C-2000 DEG C of the gas from the second-order separation, then by tail gas quenching to 70 DEG C-100 DEG C, thus described objectionable impurities resolves into small-molecule substance completely, such as atom level (as carbon and inorganic components), and the material such as carbon that decomposition can be made under the effect of quenching to produce settles down.

In a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention, before the combustiblematerials will reclaimed from building waste sends into pyrolyzer, it is fully mixed with catalyzer.As mentioned before, the existence of tar can reduce factor of created gase and thermo-efficiency, more seriously, when low temperature, tar also can be condensed into liquid state, and being easy to combines with water and dust blocks and etching apparatus, causes equipment normally to work time serious, therefore require the output of tar to be reduced to minimum, to improve the quality of pyrolysis gas.In various measure, the catalytic pyrolysis of tar is considered to the most efficient a kind of technological process, and this technique is that tar conversion is become micromolecular permanent gases, is utilized together with combustible gas.The present inventor, through large quantity research, develops a kind of catalyzer that effectively can decompose tar, and this catalyzer comprises carrier and load activeconstituents on the carrier, and wherein carrier is flyash, and catalytic active component is NiO, CuO, Fe 2o 3the composite oxides of three kinds of oxide compounds, this catalyzer can be expressed as NiO-CuO-Fe 2o 3/ flyash, wherein the mol ratio of Ni, Cu, Fe is (5-10): (1-2): (10-20), based on overall catalyst weight gauge, NiO-CuO-Fe 2o 3the content of composite oxides is 2-10%.Preferably, described NiO-CuO-Fe 2o 3composite oxides are nano level, and its particle diameter is 5-80nm.Use flyash as support of the catalyst in this catalyzer, flyash is rapid combustion in cracking process, thus quickly can improve the problem of catalyst activity component surrounding local environment, thus catalyst active component is played a role very fast and efficiently, even if good coke tar cracking effect also can be played under lower furnace temperature, and the decomposable asymmetric choice net of flyash own, noresidue.In the preparation of catalyzer, can by purification with is separated in the lime-ash of acquisition, carbon residue, fine ash mix with flyash, to improve resource utilization.The design of described active ingredient, effectively can decompose tar, and the tar yield in whole technique is greatly reduced.Such catalyzer, previously there is not been reported, is to the present invention is directed to design targetedly from the concrete compositing characteristic of the combustiblematerials of building waste recovery, and its design process takes a large amount of work.

This catalyzer can adopt the dipping calcination method of this area routine to be prepared.Particularly, a certain amount of NiCl is taken according to the above ratio 26H 2o, Cu (NO 3) 23H 2o, Fe (NO 3) 39H 2o and citric acid, add deionized water dissolving, stir, be made into the solution that concentration is 0.5-1.5mol/L, take a certain amount of flyash and put into bottom three-necked bottle, the solution prepared is poured in three-necked bottle, be placed in constant-temperature heating magnetic stirring apparatus oil bath heating, at 60-120 DEG C of temperature, stir 1h-10h, then put into loft drier 100 DEG C of-150 DEG C of dry 12h, subsequently the catalyst precursor obtained is placed in retort furnace 500 DEG C-800 DEG C calcining 1h-6h, namely obtains the NiO-CuO-Fe of chocolate 2o 3/ flyash catalyzer.

In the process, can by described catalyzer with from the combustiblematerials of building waste with 1:(100-10000), the weight ratio mixing of such as 1:1000.Agitator can be adopted to be mixed.

Described flyash is preferably past the flyash of modification, and this flyash through modification obtains by the following method: add based on flyash weighing scale 1.0-2.0%Ca (OH) to flyash 2, 0.5-1.0%CaCl 2and 0.5-1.0%CaSO 4, add the water based on flyash weighing scale 5.0-10.0% after stirring, again stir, then carry out being dried to water-content lower than 0.5 % by weight.Described containing promoting the carrying out that char Gasification reacts adding of Ca material, and formed multiple containing calcium complex at carrier surface, make the table of particle and there is polar activation position, can adsorbing hydrocarbon, c h bond is ruptured, promotes the decomposition of tar and macromolecular hydrocarbon (as flyash).

Certainly, also in pyrolyzer, combustiblematerials can be mixed with catalyzer original position.Such as, jet apparatus can be adopted to be injected in combustiblematerials by catalyst fines.

On the other hand, the invention provides a kind of equipment combustiblematerials from building waste being carried out gasify, comprise pyrolyzer, first class purification device, second cleaner, primary separator, second-stage separator, roots blower, three grade purifiers, it is characterized in that, described pyrolyzer outer wall is provided with spiral flue, described flue is connected with the thermosistor input terminus be arranged on pyrolyzer, described thermosistor output terminal is connected with first class purification device, termination first class purification device before second cleaner, rear end is connected with primary separator, cyclonic separator is provided with in second cleaner, described cyclonic separator is connected with the vapour outlet be located on second cleaner, roots blower is connected with second-stage separator, three grade purifiers respectively, be provided with drying machine in three grade purifiers, drying machine one end is connected with the outlet conduit of three grade purifiers, and the other end of moisture eliminator is connected with exhaust pipe, and described exhaust pipe is provided with vacuum breaker.

Preferably, be also provided with gas scrubber in described first class purification device, the bottom of described gas scrubber is provided with outlet and connects settling tank.

Preferably, described pyrolyzer end is provided with moisture eliminator, and described moisture eliminator is connected with first class purification device by gas collector, is provided with dust-filtering net in described gas collector.

In particularly preferred embodiments, comprise can the jet apparatus of jet catalyst powder for described pyrolyzer.

Described blower fan is preferably roots blower.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Accompanying drawing 1 is according to the structural representation combustiblematerials from building waste being carried out the equipment gasified of the present invention;

In figure, 1 is pyrolyzer; 2 is first class purification device; 3 is second cleaner; 4 is primary separator; 5 is second-stage separator; 6 is roots blower; 7 is three grade purifiers.

Embodiment:

Embodiment 1

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the invention will be further described.

A kind of building waste of the present invention reclaims flammable biomass gasification device, comprise pyrolyzer 1, first class purification device 2, second cleaner 3, primary separator 4, second-stage separator 5, roots blower 6, three grade purifiers 7, described pyrolyzer outer wall is provided with spiral flue, described flue is connected with the thermosistor input terminus be arranged on pyrolyzer 1, described thermosistor output terminal is connected with first class purification device 2, termination first class purification device 2 before second cleaner 3, rear end is connected with primary separator 2, cyclonic separator is provided with in second cleaner 3, described cyclonic separator is connected with the vapour outlet be located on second cleaner 3, roots blower is connected with second-stage separator 5, three grade purifier 7 respectively, be provided with drying machine in three grade purifiers 7, drying machine one end is connected with the outlet conduit of three grade purifiers 7, and the other end of moisture eliminator is connected with exhaust pipe, and described exhaust pipe is provided with vacuum breaker.Also be provided with gas scrubber in described first class purification device, the bottom of described gas scrubber is provided with outlet and connects settling tank.Described pyrolyzer end is provided with moisture eliminator, and described moisture eliminator is connected with first class purification device 2 by gas collector, is provided with dust-filtering net in described gas collector.

This device of the present invention is compared with general waste incineration treatment apparatus, owing to adopting three grades of settings purified, emission purification is effective, greatly reduces in garbage processing procedure to the pollution of environment, and can the daily building waste of fast processing, energy recovery utilization ratio is high.

Embodiment 2

The device of embodiment 1 is used to carry out the gasification of the combustiblematerials reclaimed from building waste, wherein the combustiblematerials reclaimed from building waste is carried out pyrolysis gasification in pyrolyzer, then first class purification and secondary purification is carried out, carry out flash trapping stage and the second-order separation again, after the second-order separation, use blower fan to be drawn by tail gas and carry out three grades of purifications.Described building waste is the rubbish of demolishing buildings, and its combustiblematerials comprises woodwork, plastics, yarn fabric etc.The catalyzer used in cracking process comprises carrier and load activeconstituents on the carrier, and wherein carrier is flyash, and catalytic active component is NiO, CuO, Fe 2o 3the composite oxides of three kinds of oxide compounds, this catalyzer is expressed as NiO-CuO-Fe 2o 3/ flyash, wherein the mol ratio of Ni, Cu, Fe is 5:1:15, based on overall catalyst weight gauge, NiO-CuO-Fe 2o 3the content of composite oxides is 5%.Mixed with the weight ratio of 1:2000 with combustiblematerials by this catalyzer, pyrolyzer temperature is 650 DEG C.After testing, the content leaving the tar in gas of pyrolyzer is 0.88%, does not detect dioxin and furans in emission.

Comparative example 1

Comparative example 1 and the difference of embodiment 1 are only to use conventional pyrolysis gasification device, wherein only have first class purification, secondary purification and flash trapping stage.The total content of emission Zhong dioxin and furans is 1.8ppm (v).

Comparative example 2

Comparative example 2 and the difference of embodiment 1 are only to use conventional nickel-base catalyst NiO/Al 2o 3.After testing, the content leaving the tar in gas of pyrolyzer is 9.11%.

As can be seen from the above results contrast clearly, when adopting " three grades of purification+two-stages are separated " of the present invention technique, effectively can eliminate dioxin and furans in tail gas, simultaneously when adopting catalyzer of the present invention, tar can be made effectively to be decomposed, and the tar in gas content leaving pyrolysis gasification stove is reduced to original less than 1/10.All these effects are all that those skilled in the art are unforeseeable.

The open the present invention of this written description use-case, comprises optimal mode, and also enables those skilled in the art manufacture and use the present invention.Of the present inventionly the scope of granted patent can be defined by the claims, and other example that those skilled in the art expect can be comprised.If other example this has the structural element of the literal language not differing from claims, if or other example this comprises and the equivalent structure element of the literal language of claims without substantial differences, then other example this is intended to be within the scope of claims.Can not cause under inconsistent degree, be incorporated herein by reference to by all references part of reference herein.

Claims (10)

1. a technique of carrying out gasifying from the combustiblematerials of building waste future, this technique comprises carries out pyrolysis gasification by the combustiblematerials reclaimed from building waste in pyrolyzer, then first class purification and secondary purification is carried out, carry out flash trapping stage and the second-order separation again, after the second-order separation, use blower fan to be drawn by tail gas and carry out three grades of purifications.
2. technique according to claim 1, wherein first class purification is used for except tar removing.
3. technique according to claim 1 and 2, wherein secondary purification is for removing lime-ash, carbon residue material.
4., according to technique in any one of the preceding claims wherein, wherein flash trapping stage is for separating of going out H 2, CO, CO 2, CH 4, C 2h 4and/or C 2h 6gas.
5., according to technique in any one of the preceding claims wherein, wherein the second-order separation is for separating of going out fine ash.
6., according to technique in any one of the preceding claims wherein, wherein three grades of purifications are for removing dioxin and/or furans.
7., according to technique in any one of the preceding claims wherein, wherein before the combustiblematerials will reclaimed from building waste sends into pyrolyzer, it is fully mixed with catalyzer.
8. the equipment carrying out gasifying from the combustiblematerials of building waste future, comprise pyrolyzer, first class purification device, second cleaner, primary separator, second-stage separator, roots blower, three grade purifiers, it is characterized in that, described pyrolyzer outer wall is provided with spiral flue, described flue is connected with the thermosistor input terminus be arranged on pyrolyzer, described thermosistor output terminal is connected with first class purification device, termination first class purification device before second cleaner, rear end is connected with primary separator, cyclonic separator is provided with in second cleaner, described cyclonic separator is connected with the vapour outlet be located on second cleaner, roots blower is connected with second-stage separator, three grade purifiers respectively, be provided with drying machine in three grade purifiers, drying machine one end is connected with the outlet conduit of three grade purifiers, and the other end of moisture eliminator is connected with exhaust pipe, and described exhaust pipe is provided with vacuum breaker.
9. device according to claim 8, is characterized in that, is also provided with gas scrubber in described first class purification device, and the bottom of described gas scrubber is provided with outlet and connects settling tank.
10. device according to claim 8 or claim 9, it is characterized in that, described pyrolyzer end is provided with moisture eliminator, and described moisture eliminator is connected with first class purification device by gas collector, is provided with dust-filtering net in described gas collector.
CN201510036751.3A 2015-01-26 2015-01-26 Process and device for gasifying combustibles from construction wastes CN104593022B (en)

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