CN104585098B - Mixed ecological culture method of Penaeus vannamei Boone - Google Patents

Mixed ecological culture method of Penaeus vannamei Boone Download PDF

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CN104585098B
CN104585098B CN201510058106.1A CN201510058106A CN104585098B CN 104585098 B CN104585098 B CN 104585098B CN 201510058106 A CN201510058106 A CN 201510058106A CN 104585098 B CN104585098 B CN 104585098B
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water
stage
salinity
wall
penaeus vannamei
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CN104585098A (en
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沈荣虎
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Zhejiang Jitian Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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Zhejiang Jitian Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • Y02A40/818Alternative feeds for fish, e.g. in aquacultures
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/80Food processing, e.g. use of renewable energies or variable speed drives in handling, conveying or stacking
    • Y02P60/87Re-use of by-products of food processing for fodder production

Abstract

The invention discloses a mixed ecological culture method of Penaeus vannamei Boone. In the method, Penaeus vannamei Boone is cultured in a culture pond and a fish culture pond is arranged beside the culture pond for culturing fish. The culture method of Penaeus vannamei Boone is characterized in that the method comprises the steps of A) Penaeus vannamei Boone larva selection and treatment; B) Penaeus vannamei Boone larva culture at a first stage: culturing the Penaeus vannamei Boone larvae for 10 days in the culture pond at the first stage, wherein the salinity of pond water on the first day is controlled to be 1.2 percent, fresh water is added every day thereafter to decrease the salinity of pond water every day, the decrease extent of the salinity of pond water on the day is higher than the decrease extent of the salinity of pond water on the day before and finally the salinity of pond water is kept at 0.3 percent; C) young Penaeus vannamei Boone culture at a second stage, wherein the salinity of pond water is controlled to be 0.2 percent; D) Penaeus vannamei Boone culture at a third stage, wherein the salinity of pond water is controlled to be 0.15 percent. Since the culture period of Penaeus vannamei Boone is divided into three stages of Penaeus vannamei Boone larvae, young Penaeus vannamei Boone and large Penaeus vannamei Boone and control of different salinities is adopted for each stage, more reasonable desalting culture is realized and the survival rate can be effectively improved.

Description

A kind of mixing ecological cultivation method of Penaeus Vannmei
Technical field
The present invention relates to the mixing ecological cultivation method of a kind of aquaculture method, especially a kind of Penaeus Vannmei.
Background technology
Penaeus Vannmei is one of big shrimps of world today cultured output highest three.Penaeus Vannmei delicious meat, plus Work dressing percentage may be up to 67%, and suitable temperature range is wide, can be also wide in 18-32 DEG C of growth, proper salinity level, can be in the condition of salinity 1-40 ‰ Lower growth, is a kind of excellent desalination cultivation kind.Penaeus Vannmei has that individual big, growth is fast, nutritional need is low, premunition Strong the advantages of, to forage protein content requirement low, out-of-water survival time length etc. stronger to the adaptability of water environment factors Advantage, is the improved seeds of intensive high yielding culture, and Penaeus Vannmei is the main breeding species of our company, and existing South America is right in vain The control of water salinity is unreasonable in shrimp freshwater aquiculture, affects survival rate, such due to there are problems that, it is therefore necessary to existing Culture of Penaeus vannamei method be improved.
The content of the invention
The invention aims to the south of a kind of reasonable control water salinity for solving the not enough of above-mentioned technology and designing The mixing ecological cultivation method of penaeus vannamei.
The mixing ecological cultivation method of the Penaeus Vannmei designed by the present invention, it is right in vain that the method carries out South America in culturing pool Shrimp aquaculture simultaneously arranges crawl by culturing pool and is breeded fish, and breeds fish earlier than foster shrimp 3 months, it is characterised in that the South America is white The cultivation of prawn is comprised the following steps:
A, shrimp seedling select process step;
B, first stage shrimp seedling cultivation step:Cultivate in the first stage pool cultivated 10 days, the first Tianchi salinity water control exists 12 ‰, add fresh water that water salinity is declined daily daily later, the amplitude that one day after water salinity declines is more than the previous day, Most at last water salinity keeps 3 ‰, and in the process the daily feeding number of times of shrimp seedling is in totally reduction trend, and each feeding amount is total Body is in increase trend;
C, second stage juvenile prawn cultivation step;It is pool cultivated until shrimp body grows to 3.5 ± 0.6cm, pond in second stage cultivation Salinity water is controlled 2 ‰;
D, phase III prawn culturing step;Pool cultivated until ripe using phase III cultivation, the control of water salinity exists 1.5‰。
Further improve as such scheme:Following measure is included in step A:Select uniform in size, dynamic, Health young shrimp of the Individual Size in 0.55 ± 0.1cm;Shrimp seedling in shipping bags is put in bolting silk fishing net, and utilizes formal Woods solution soaks, wherein the milli liter/m of formalin solution concentration 200, and soak time is 30 seconds, takes out after the completion of immersion and uses Water is rinsed well.
Further improve as such scheme:Following measure is included in step B:The the first culturing pool specification for being adopted For 20 square metres of area, pond is deep 1 meter, cement pit;Shrimp seedling launch process is:Being injected into the first stage after first water sterilization is filtered supports In growing pond, disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate and chitin, and oxygenation are added in water, water salinity when throwing in is adjusted to into 12 ‰, pond 28 ± 3 DEG C of water temperature, throws in water lev el control at 60-80 centimetre, puts into appropriate algae and keeps water quality, will process what is obtained in step A Shrimp seedling is rendered in first stage culturing pool, the tail of injected volume 60,000/every cube of water, and controls the following pH value 8 ± 0.2 of water parameter, The mg/litre of dissolved oxygen 4.2 ± 0.2, total ammonia nitrogen is less than 4.8 g/l, and cultured water is less than 0.8 g/l, and water transparency is stable In 31 ± 2cm;
Water salinity is controlled respectively on the 1st to 10 day:12‰、11.5‰、10.8‰、10‰、9.1‰、8‰、7.8‰、 6.5‰、5‰、3‰;
The feeding method of shrimp seedling is:Feeds as 6 times/day for 1-3 days, every time 2.0 grams/cubic metre, and feeds as 5 for 4-6 days Times/day, 3.0 gram/cubic metre every time;Feeds as 4 times/day for 7-10 days, every time 4.0 gram/cubic metre;The throwing in water daily simultaneously Hello tri- kinds of vitamins of Ve, Vc, Vb, gram/cubic metre of Ve feeding volumes 0.5, gram/cubic metre of Vc feeding volumes 0.5,0.1 gram of Vb feeding volumes/ Cubic meter.
Further improve as such scheme:Following measure is included in step C:The second stage culturing pool for being adopted 600 square metres of area, pond depth is 1.5 meters of cement pit;Launch process is:First to water body through sterilizing, rich water adds into pond body Enter fresh water, adjustment water salinity is 2 ‰, and pond water temperature is 27 ± 3 DEG C, water lev el control is thrown in 50cm, by first stage gained Juvenile prawn put 600,000 tails into pond;Every other day add water 10 cubes later, until the depth of water is up to 1.3 meters, and stable water salinity exists 2‰;Water state modulator:PH value 8 ± 0.2, the mg/litre of dissolved oxygen 4.5 ± 0.2, total ammonia nitrogen is less than 5 g/l, and cultured water is little In 1 g/l;Water transparency is stable in 30 ± 2cm;Feeding feed method is to throw within first 5 days feed to amount to 50 grams/ten thousand daily Tail, every 5 days the tail of forage volume 10 grams/ten thousand was increased.
Further improve as such scheme:Following measure is included in D steps:The phase III culturing pool for being adopted It is 5 mu to grow specification for area, and the depth of water is 2.0 meters, soil property pond, and quantity is two;Launch process is:By in second stage culturing pool Juvenile prawn it is a be two, in being respectively put into two culturing pools, put the shrimp depth of water for 50cm, 20 DEG C of water temperature;Water state modulator:PH value 8.2 ± 0.2, the mg/litre of dissolved oxygen 5.0 ± 0.2, total ammonia nitrogen is less than 5 g/l, and cultured water is less than 1 g/l;Water temperature 26 in pond ±3℃;Water transparency is stable in 29 ± 2cm;Feeding feed feeds feed according to the 8% of prawn body weight daily.
Further improve as such scheme:Feed employed in step B is consisted of:Prawn slice 55-75 parts, broken wall Yeast 2-3 parts, ocean rhodotorula 2-3 parts, astaxanthin 0.1-0.5 parts, vitamine D3 0.3-0.8 parts, soluble calcium salt 2-4 parts, Adhesive 3-5 parts, disintegrant 8-10 parts and hygroscopic agent 3-5 parts, are more than all weight portion;
Feed employed in step C is consisted of:Fish meal 40-50 parts, wheat bran 30-40 parts, shellfish powder 10-20 parts, beer It is poor 3-10 parts, salt 2-5 parts, spirulina 3-6 parts, soya-bean oil 3-6 parts, reed powder 10-20 parts, ispol 5-10 parts, micro- Secondary element 2-6 parts, adhesive 5-10 parts, calcium monohydrogen phosphate 1-5 parts, eggshell 3-5 parts, dusty yeast 2-5 parts, B B-complex 2-5 parts, More than it is all weight portion;
Feed employed in D steps is consisted of:Krill meal 20-35 parts, fish meal 10-20 parts, cuttlefish powder 5-15 part, fly Maggot powder 1-5 parts, chicken meal 5-10 parts, meat meal tankage 2-6 parts, dried silkworm chrysalis meal 1-5 parts, marine animal protein zymolyte 2-6 parts, shrimp shell meal 2-5 parts, seawood meal 1-3 parts, spirulina 3-6 parts, soya-bean oil 3-6 parts, are more than all weight portion.
As the improvement of the step of such scheme one:In step C, select some length be not more than 10 centimetre fish put into Second stage culturing pool, to eat up the less shrimp of some physique and sick shrimp.
Further improve as such scheme:The first stage culturing pool, second stage culturing pool, phase III support Grow pond and all sewage and sediment are entered by filtering ponds by the sewage pipe of lower section, sewage enters after filter into cesspool Row is processed;Wherein first stage culturing pool, second stage culturing pool, the bottom surface of phase III culturing pool is all covered with section for trapezoidal Funnelform collector nozzle, all collector nozzles communicate with the sewage pipe being embedded in below culturing pool, and in each of the lower the mouth of a river is provided with It is covered with the cone-shaped hood of through hole, the cone-shaped hood is more less toward central through hole aperture;Described filtering ponds are included all for the of annular One filters wall, the second filtration wall and exterior wall, and the first filtration wall, the second filtration wall and exterior wall are in be distributed with one heart and mutual There is gap;The delivery port of the sewage pipe is located at first and filters within the walls, and outlet pipe is connected with exterior wall, and described second filters wall Wall is filtered less than first;First filters region, the first region and the second mistake filtered between wall and the second filtration wall within the walls Region between filter wall and exterior wall all communicates with a blow-off pipe;Wherein first filters its bottom surface of region within the walls is tapered in bucket Shape, and the disk for being covered with through hole is provided with above the bottom surface, the disk bottom is provided with leg;The outlet pipe with it is described Cesspool is communicated.
Further improve as such scheme:Culturing pool, second stage culturing pool, phase III cultivation in the first stage Probiotics is put in pond carries out regulating and controlling water quality.
Further improve as such scheme:Cesspool carries out processing includes following measure:
Arranging screen cloth in cesspool water inlet carries out physical filtering;
Biological cleaning is carried out, indigenous microorganism and complex microorganism preparations are put into in sewage purifier, it is micro- by original inhabitants Multiple-microorganism in biological and complex microorganism preparations decomposes to the organic matter in cesspool or other pollutants, to release Release the nutritive salt containing nitrogen, P elements;
Plant purification is carried out, dish, flowers, fruit, algae, plant are planted on the water surface for the treatment of tank or in water The nutritive salt decomposed by indigenous microorganism and complex microorganism preparations is absorbed, organic matter is manufactured, and discharges oxygen;
Animal reparation is carried out, the dynamic of absorbable organic matter and edible planktonic algae plant is thrown in treatment tank Thing.
The mixing ecological cultivation method of the Penaeus Vannmei designed by the present invention, its beneficial effect is:South America is right in vain The cultivation of shrimp is divided into shrimp seedling, juvenile prawn, prawn three phases, and the salinity for taking each stage different is controlled, in the shrimp seedling stage first Tianchi salinity water control adds daily fresh water that water salinity is declined daily later 12 ‰, and one day after water salinity declines Amplitude be more than the previous day, most at last water salinity keeps 3 ‰, and is a gradual change because early stage water salinity altercation is less Process, make the weaker shrimp seedling of adaptability have an adaptation process progressively to water salinity, in the same of progressively adaptation pool salinity water When no-float Feeding way, make the daily feeding number of times of shrimp seedling totally in reduction trend, each feeding amount is totally in increasing Trend, shrimp seedling is cultivated to juvenile prawn breeding way a good transition;Juvenile prawn and prawn cultivation stages, tend to water salinity Stable, juvenile prawn experienced the desalination adaptation process in shrimp seedling period, can preferably adapt to set water salinity, prawn cultivation stages Water salinity further declines, and realizes more rational desalination cultivation, and such breeding way can effectively improve survival rate;It is another Aspect, it is simultaneous while supporting shrimp to breed fish, company's aquatic products kind can be enriched, increase economic efficiency.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of culturing pool described in embodiment 4;
Fig. 2 is the enlarged drawing in Fig. 1 at A;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of the filtering ponds of embodiment 4;
Fig. 4 is the enlarged drawing in Fig. 3 at B;
Fig. 5 is the top view of embodiment 4;
In figure:Collector nozzle 1, sewage pipe 2, cone-shaped hood 3, filtering ponds 4, first filter wall 5, second and filter wall 6, exterior wall 7, row Dirty pipe 8, disk 9, leg 10, pole 11, aerator 12, outlet pipe 13, pump 14.
Specific embodiment
The invention will be further described to combine accompanying drawing below by embodiment.
Embodiment 1:
The mixing ecological cultivation method of the Penaeus Vannmei described by the present embodiment, it is white that the method carries out South America in culturing pool Prawn culturing simultaneously arranges crawl by culturing pool and is breeded fish, and breeds fish earlier than foster shrimp 3 months, it is characterised in that the South America The cultivation of white shrimp is comprised the following steps:
A, shrimp seedling select process step;
B, first stage shrimp seedling cultivation step:Cultivate in the first stage pool cultivated 10 days, the first Tianchi salinity water control exists 12 ‰, add fresh water that water salinity is declined daily daily later, the amplitude that one day after water salinity declines is more than the previous day, Most at last water salinity keeps 3 ‰, and in the process the daily feeding number of times of shrimp seedling is in totally reduction trend, and each feeding amount is total Body is in increase trend;
C, second stage juvenile prawn cultivation step;It is pool cultivated until shrimp body grows to 3.5 ± 0.6cm, pond in second stage cultivation Salinity water is controlled 2 ‰;
D, phase III prawn culturing step;Pool cultivated until ripe using phase III cultivation, the control of water salinity exists 1.5‰。
In the present embodiment, involved culturing pool is using conventional flat pond, or has acclive wedged bottom pond;Water body is respectively joined Numerical control system adopts following parameter, i.e. pH value 8 ± 0.2, the mg/litre of dissolved oxygen 4.2 ± 0.2, total ammonia nitrogen to be less than compared with technology, such as 4.8 g/l, cultured water is less than 0.8 g/l, and water transparency is stable in 30 ± 2cm;The feed art technology of institute's feeding Select in the feed that personnel can be commercially available, the same traditional approach of aquaculture wastewater process;
In order to improve the quality of juvenile prawn, the prawn for entering the phase III is set to have good competitiveness, in step C, choose Select some length be not more than 10 centimetre fish put into second stage culturing pool, to eat up the less shrimp of some physique and disease Shrimp, certainly this step can not also be done, and pass through artificial screening;
The mixing ecological cultivation method of the Penaeus Vannmei described by the present embodiment, its beneficial effect is:South America is white The cultivation of prawn is divided into shrimp seedling, juvenile prawn, prawn three phases, and takes the different salinity control of each stage, in the shrimp seedling stage the One Tianchi salinity water control adds daily fresh water that water salinity is declined daily, one day after under water salinity later 12 ‰ The amplitude of drop be more than the previous day, most at last water salinity keep 3 ‰, due to early stage water salinity altercation it is less, and be one gradually The process of change, makes the weaker shrimp seedling of adaptability have individual adaptation process progressively to water salinity, in progressively adaptation pool salinity water While the Feeding way of no-float, shrimp work(survival rate is typically more than 93%, hence it is evident that improves, makes the feeding number of times that shrimp seedling is daily Overall is in reduction trend, and each feeding amount is in totally increase trend, and shrimp seedling is cultivated to juvenile prawn breeding way a good mistake Cross;Juvenile prawn and prawn cultivation stages, make water salinity tend towards stability, and juvenile prawn experienced the desalination adaptation process in shrimp seedling period, energy Enough preferably to adapt to set water salinity, prawn cultivation stages water salinity further declines, and realizes that more rational desalination is supported Grow, such breeding way can effectively improve survival rate;On the other hand, it is simultaneous while supporting shrimp to breed fish, company's aquatic products can be enriched Kind, increase economic efficiency.
Embodiment 2:
The mixing ecological cultivation method of the Penaeus Vannmei described by the present embodiment, as different from Example 1:Using this The special process parameter control of company, i.e.,:
Following measure is included in step A:Select uniform in size, dynamic, Individual Size is in the strong of 0.55 ± 0.1cm Health shrimp seedling;Shrimp seedling in shipping bags is put in bolting silk fishing net, and is soaked using formalin solution, wherein formalin is molten The milli liter/m of liquid concentration 200, soak time is 30 seconds, and taking-up after the completion of immersion is rinsed well with water.
Following measure is included in step B:, for 20 square metres of area, pond is deep 1 meter, water for the first culturing pool specification for being adopted Mud sump;Shrimp seedling launch process is:It is injected into after first water sterilization is filtered in first stage culturing pool, in water ethylenediamine tetraacetic is added Acetic acid disodium and chitin, and oxygenation, by water salinity when throwing in 12 ‰ are adjusted to, and 28 ± 3 DEG C of water temperature is thrown in water lev el control and existed 60-80 centimetre, put into appropriate algae and keep water quality, the shrimp seedling that acquisition is processed in step A is rendered in first stage culturing pool, The tail of injected volume 60,000/every cube of water, and control the following pH value 8 ± 0.2 of water parameter, the mg/litre of dissolved oxygen 4.2 ± 0.2, total ammonia Nitrogen is less than 4.8 g/l, and cultured water is less than 0.8 g/l, and water transparency is stable in 31 ± 2cm;
Water salinity is controlled respectively on the 1st to 10 day:12‰、11.5‰、10.8‰、10‰、9.1‰、8‰、7.8‰、 6.5‰、5‰、3‰;
The feeding method of shrimp seedling is:Feeds as 6 times/day for 1-3 days, every time 2.0 grams/cubic metre, and feeds as 5 for 4-6 days Times/day, 3.0 gram/cubic metre every time;Feeds as 4 times/day for 7-10 days, every time 4.0 gram/cubic metre;The throwing in water daily simultaneously Hello tri- kinds of vitamins of Ve, Vc, Vb, gram/cubic metre of Ve feeding volumes 0.5, gram/cubic metre of Vc feeding volumes 0.5,0.1 gram of Vb feeding volumes/ Cubic meter.
Following measure is included in step C:Second stage 600 square metres of the pool area of cultivation for being adopted, pond depth is 1.5 meters Cement pit;Launch process is:First to water body through sterilizing, rich water adds fresh water into pond body, and adjustment water salinity is 2 ‰, Pond water temperature is 27 ± 3 DEG C, throws in water lev el control in 50cm, and the juvenile prawn obtained by the first stage is put into 600,000 tails into pond;After Every other day add water 10 cubes, until the depth of water is up to 1.3 meters, and stable water salinity is 2 ‰;Water state modulator:PH value 8 ± 0.2, the mg/litre of dissolved oxygen 4.5 ± 0.2, total ammonia nitrogen is less than 5 g/l, and cultured water is less than 1 g/l;Water transparency is stablized In 30 ± 2cm;Feeding feed method is to throw within first 5 days feed to amount to 50 grams/ten thousand tails daily, and every 5 days forage volume 10 was increased Gram/ten thousand tails.
Following measure is included in D steps:It is 5 mu that the phase III culturing pool for being adopted grows specification for area, and the depth of water is 2.0 meters, soil property pond, quantity is two;Launch process is:It is two by the juvenile prawn portion in second stage culturing pool, is respectively put into In two culturing pools, the shrimp depth of water is put for 50cm, 20 DEG C of water temperature;Water state modulator:PH value 8.2 ± 0.2, dissolved oxygen 5.0 ± 0.2 Mg/litre, total ammonia nitrogen is less than 5 g/l, and cultured water is less than 1 g/l;26 ± 3 DEG C of water temperature in pond;Water transparency is stablized 29±2cm;Feeding feed feeds feed according to the 8% of prawn body weight daily.
With embodiment 1, in order to improve the quality of juvenile prawn, make the prawn for entering the phase III that there is good competitiveness, in C In step, select some length be not more than 10 centimetre fish put into second stage culturing pool, it is less to eat up some physique Shrimp and sick shrimp, certainly this step can not also be done, and pass through artificial screening.
It is with the obvious advantage compared with prior art using the cultural method of the present embodiment, table specific as follows;
Index Existing cultural method The present embodiment cultural method
Shrimp seedling survival rate 89%-92.4% 93%-96.6%
Juvenile prawn survival rate 90%-92% 93.1%-95.2%
Into shrimp survival rate Less than 93% 93%-96.7%
Go out pond into shrimp body weight 13g-17g 15g-20g
Shrimp is seen in vitro Shrimp body surface face is smooth, vigor foot Shrimp body surface face is smooth, vigor foot
Embodiment 3:
The mixing ecological cultivation method of the Penaeus Vannmei described by the present embodiment, as different from Example 1 using feeding The difference (this improvement can also be applied in the cultural method of embodiment 2) of material, i.e.,:Feed group employed in step B Become:Prawn slice 55-75 parts, broken wall yeast 2-3 parts, ocean rhodotorula 2-3 parts, astaxanthin 0.1-0.5 parts, vitamine D3 0.5- 0.8 part, soluble calcium salt 2-4 parts, adhesive 3-5 parts, disintegrant 8-10 parts and hygroscopic agent 3-5 parts, are more than all weight portion;Institute The adhesive stated be hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose or sodium carboxymethylcellulose,;Described disintegrant is sodium carboxymethyl starch, does Starch or PVPP;Described hygroscopic agent is one in calcium oxide, magnesia, aluminum oxide, anhydrous cupric sulfate Plant or several;Broken wall yeast is rich in the nutrient contents such as nucleotides, nutrition small peptide, glutathione, yeast cell wall polysaccharide, prawn tool There are splendid attractant, immunity and growth promotion;Ocean rhodotorula is a kind of unicellular yeast product of naturally occurring in ocean System is conducive to taking the photograph for Penaeus Vannmei rich in nutriments such as astaxanthin, unrighted acid, crude protein and various growth factors Food and purification of water quality;Astaxanthin is natural most strong in the world, and the oxygen radical in effective scavenger-cell strengthens thin Born of the same parents' power of regeneration, maintains organism balance and reduces the accumulation of senile cell, protects cell and DNA healthy from inside to outside, so as to can To increase the speed of growth of Penaeus Vannmei, enhance immunity;Soluble calcium salt may insure Penaeus Vannmei seedling in shell Demand of the phase to calcium ion, vitamine D3 can promote the absorption of calcium ion;The feed can fully meet Penaeus Vannmei seedling In the nutritional need of shell phase, the survival rate of Penaeus Vannmei seedling can be greatly improved, be easy to taking the photograph for Penaeus Vannmei seedling Food.
Feed employed in step C is consisted of:Fish meal 40-50 parts, wheat bran 30-40 parts, shellfish powder 10-20 parts, beer It is poor 3-10 parts, salt 2-5 parts, spirulina 3-6 parts, soya-bean oil 3-6 parts, reed powder 10-20 parts, ispol 5-10 parts, micro- Secondary element 2-6 parts, adhesive 5-10 parts, calcium monohydrogen phosphate 1-5 parts, eggshell 3-5 parts, dusty yeast 2-5 parts, B B-complex 2-5 parts, More than it is all weight portion;The trace element is iron, manganese, selenium, copper, the mixture of five kinds of elements of molybdenum;The ispol Mix for lysine, arginine, methionine and threonine;It is vitamin D, dimension life that the B B-complex is mass ratio The mixture of plain B1 and vitamin A;Growth and physiology digestion characteristics of this kind of feed for Penaeus Vannmei, to Penaeus Vannmei There is provided nutrition comprehensively, sufficient, it is easy to quickly ingested and effectively digested, absorb and utilize by Penaeus Vannmei, can promote Penaeus Vannmei fast-growth, and survival rate is high.
Feed employed in D steps is consisted of:Krill meal 20-35 parts, fish meal 10-20 parts, cuttlefish powder 5-15 part, fly Maggot powder 1-5 parts, chicken meal 5-10 parts, meat meal tankage 2-6 parts, high protein bean pulp 5-15 parts, dried silkworm chrysalis meal 1-5 parts, marine animal albumen Zymolyte 2-6 parts, shrimp shell meal 2-5 parts, seawood meal 1-3 parts, spirulina 3-6 parts, soya-bean oil 3-6 parts, are more than all weight portion;Feeding The Penaeus Vannmei of this feed, good palatability, Feeding Velocity is fast, digests, fast growth, and it is short to go out the pool time, resistance against diseases By force, survival rate is high, and culture benefit is notable.
It is with the obvious advantage compared with prior art using the cultural method of the present embodiment, table specific as follows;
Index Existing cultural method The present embodiment cultural method
Shrimp seedling survival rate 89%-92.4% 96.6%
Juvenile prawn survival rate 90%-92% 94%
Into shrimp survival rate Less than 93% 95%
Go out pond into shrimp body weight 13g-17g 17g-20g
Processing dressing percentage 62%-67% 65%-68%
Embodiment 4:
The mixing ecological cultivation method of the Penaeus Vannmei described by the present embodiment, and unlike embodiments described above Special aquaculture wastewater processing mode is employed, it is specific as follows:The first stage culturing pool, second stage culturing pool, the 3rd Sewage and sediment are all entered filtering ponds 4 by stage breeding pond by the sewage pipe 2 of lower section, and sewage filters laggard through filter tank 4 Enter cesspool to be processed;As illustrated in fig. 1 and 2, wherein first stage culturing pool, second stage culturing pool, phase III cultivation It is trapezoidal funnelform collector nozzle 1, all collector nozzles 1 and the sewage being embedded in below culturing pool that the bottom surface in pond is all covered with section Pipe 2 is communicated, and in each of the lower the mouth of a river 1 is provided with the cone-shaped hood 3 for being covered with through hole, the shape of through hole can be clear opening, or Sediment can be made to be easier the flared hole (opening for up big and down small tubaeform) for falling, the Yue Wang centers of the cone-shaped hood 3 lead to Hole aperture is less;Using the culturing pool of this structure, the bottom surface of culturing pool is made up of the collector nozzle 1 with some sections for Y shape, And cone-shaped hood 3 is provided with collector nozzle 1, such design allows the sewage and deposit of shrimp ponds bottom to be collected in cone In the space of the lower section of shape cover 3, when water is changed, deposit is subject to the stop of cone-shaped hood 3 to be difficult to kick up, on the other hand in sewage When pipe 2 works, suction is concentrated mainly on the region of the lower section of cone-shaped hood 3, and suction is higher, can effectively by the sewage of shrimp ponds bottom And deposit is discharged, contaminant removal effectiveness is significantly high, it is possible to reduce the burst of illness, is more beneficial for the cultivation of Penaeus Vannmei, institute State that cone-shaped hood 3 is more less toward central through hole aperture, the sediment of the marginal portion of collector nozzle 1 of being so more convenient for can effectively suck sewage Pipe 2,
As shown in Fig. 3,4 and 5, described filtering ponds 4 include that the first filtration wall 5, second all for annular filters wall 6 and outer Wall 7, the first filtration wall 5, second filters wall 6 and exterior wall 7 in distribution with one heart and has gap each other;The sewage pipe 2 Delivery port be located at first and filter in wall 5, be connected with outlet pipe 13 on exterior wall 7, described second filters wall 6 less than the first filtration Wall 5;First filter wall 5 in region, first filter wall 5 and second filter wall 6 between region and second filter wall 6 with it is outer Region between wall 7 all communicates with a blow-off pipe 8;Wherein first filtration wall 5 in its bottom surface of region be tapered in it is bucket-shaped, and And the disk 9 for being covered with through hole is provided with above the bottom surface, the bottom of the disk 9 is provided with leg 10;The outlet pipe 13 and institute State cesspool to communicate.Wherein:Wherein first filtration wall 5, second filters wall 6 and adopts prior art, i.e. Chinese patent ZL 201320001952.6 in filtration wall construction;Other first hole filtered on wall 5 can be larger than the second filtration wall 6, mistake The particle of filter sand so can be carried out twice in an orderly manner and be filtered with thicker.A kind of such filtering ponds 4, can be to from south The sewage discharged in penaeus vannamei culturing pool is fully filtered and precipitated, and effectively filters out the sediments such as shrimp excrement, food-residue, It is convenient for next step process;Because second filters wall 6 less than the first filtration wall 5, the sewage leached by the first filtration wall 5 will not Flowed back, in addition, its bottom surface of region in the first filtration wall 5 is tapered in bucket-shaped, and be provided with above the bottom surface It is covered with the disk 9 of through hole, disk 9 has gap with bottom surface, and such sediment enters bottom surface by disk 9, in the stop of disk 9 Be difficult to kick up under effect, reduce filter wall burden, and bottom surface be tapered in it is bucket-shaped, be more convenient for precipitation discharge from blow-off pipe 8, mistake Filter and arrange the in hgher efficiency of sediment.
It should be noted that:Filtering ponds 4 employed in the present embodiment also can integrally adopt prior art, i.e., using China Scheme shown in patent ZL 201320001952.6.
The step of processing for cesspool can select the mode of traditional input disinfectant powder, our company may also be employed special The processing mode of system, i.e. cesspool carry out processing includes following measure:
Arranging screen cloth in cesspool water inlet carries out physical filtering;
Biological cleaning is carried out, indigenous microorganism and complex microorganism preparations are put into in sewage purifier, it is micro- by original inhabitants Multiple-microorganism in biological and complex microorganism preparations decomposes to the organic matter in cesspool or other pollutants, to release Release the nutritive salt containing nitrogen, P elements;
Plant purification is carried out, dish, flowers, fruit, algae, plant are planted on the water surface for the treatment of tank or in water The nutritive salt decomposed by indigenous microorganism and complex microorganism preparations is absorbed, organic matter is manufactured, and discharges oxygen;
Animal reparation is carried out, the dynamic of absorbable organic matter and edible planktonic algae plant is thrown in treatment tank Thing.
The screen cloth in per foot of 60 holes of cesspool water inlet setting one, after further being filtered by screen cloth, by water body impurity Filter, carry out preliminary excessively stream purification, the subparticle impurity in cesspool in water body can sink to bottom of pond.
User can put into appropriate microorganism in treatment tank, and under conditions of aerobic or anaerobic, microorganism will have Machine thing or other pollutants are decomposed and are discharged the nutritive salt of nitrogen, phosphorus etc..Wherein, currently used for the most main of reparation aquaculture wastewater The microorganism wanted has indigenous microorganism and complex microorganism preparations.Described indigenous microorganism is referred to gathers materials on the spot, from culturing pool In isolate many plants of photosynthetic bacterias, through separation, screening, the excellent species that last seed selection is easily cultivated, concentration is high, will screening, training In indigenous microorganism input treatment tank after educating, through a period of time, the COD in cesspool can be found by detector (COD) is significantly reduced after bacterium is applied, and averagely declines 1.3mg/L, and ammonia nitrogen is applied and reduce after bacterium 0.1-0.7mg/L, bottom Matter sulfide is substantially reduced after bacterium is applied, and substrate total organic matter is significantly reduced.Separate from shrimp ponds substrate, filter out nearly 10 plants Shrimp ponds organic matter degradation bacteria.As a result show, at short notice, degradable shrimp ponds bottom organics more than 80%.These bacterial strains pair Cultured prawn does not have pathogenic effects, and the wherein 6 plants survival rates that can improve young shrimp, shows good application prospect.
And described complex microorganism preparations are made up of multiple beneficial bacterium, using the synergy of various microorganisms, it can More rapidly, comprehensively to decompose various pollutants, harmful algae in breeding water body is more effectively suppressed excessively to breed, to environment Adaptability is also higher.Calendar year 2001, a kind of successful special Tiny ecosystem active bacteria formulation of aquatic products of Qingdao Ji Jia research units cooperative research and development, its Main component is combined beneficial viable bacteria by bacillus, hay bacillus, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, sulfide-oxidizing enzyme and nitrifier etc. are various Composition, can effectively decomposition water neutralization pond bottom debirs, reduce ammonia nitrogen, nitroso nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide etc..Suitable for various light With sea-farming, it is safe and nontoxic to aquatic animal, aquatic products quality is had no adverse effects, have been achieved with great economic benefit.
Either indigenous microorganism or complex microorganism preparations, if directly used, this microbial cell very easy quilt Current are washed away, utilization rate low, and because secondary pollution etc. easily cause in is brought into for culture medium, in cultivating pool, organic dirt The dye thing overwhelming majority is deposited on bottom, it is therefore desirable to using suitable fixation support, makes functional bacteria through the water body of culturing pool Bottom of pond and growth and breeding are reached, the purpose of degraded pond bottom organic pollution is reached.As this case preferred version described in original inhabitants Microorganism or complex microorganism preparations are immobilized indigenous microorganism or complex microorganism preparations.Wherein, presently mainly Using zeolite as fixation support, by the immobilized microorganism of zeolite to the degradation effect of bait leachate apparently higher than non-solid Surely bacterium is changed;And the survival condition of the immobilized bacterium of vacuum storage is substantially better than the aerial immobilized bacterium of preservation.Use alginic acid Sodium is by nitrifier and denitrifying bacterium joint embedding, and it is good that the oxygen concentration gradient produced inside particle using diffusional resistance is formed Oxygen area, anoxic zone and anaerobic zone, make two processes of nitrification and denitrification organically be combined together, and constitute single-stage biological nitrogen removal system System, carries out the research of nitrification and denitrification simultaneously under aerobic condition, and the ammonia nitriding speed for combining fixed system is about nitrifier 1.4 times when individually fixed, denitrification rates are that the hybrid system for fixing composition respectively obtains 2.6 times.Fixed respectively with calcium alginate Chlorella, bacterium and bacterium algae are used for the process of aquaculture wastewater, and Immobilized hyphae is better than fixation cell to the removal effect of nitrogen phosphorus Bacterium and immobilized algae, bacterium algae immobilization glueballs is best to the removal effect of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Although the superfluous organic matter being deposited in treatment tank or other pollutants can be decomposed and be released by microorganism Put the nutritive salt of nitrogen, phosphorus etc., but itself and it is not implemented into recycling in the ecosystem, and this water quality is for cultivation Animal for can not be absorbed, therefore, using the absorption of Plant To Nutrient salt, the release of oxygen, moved by plant Walk water nutrition, it is ensured that the nutritive salt being removed will not cause secondary pollution, and reenter people's circulation.In breeding water body Or artificially plant heavy water vascular plant, such as eel grass, hydrilla verticillata, model grass on the water surface;In stream, pond plant water chestnut, The aquatic vegetables such as lotus rhizome, wild rice stem, Gorgon fruit, arrowhead;Tangleweed, such as sea-tangle, river hedge, red hair are cultivated in sea pond, bay Dish etc., by materials such as N, the P in plant absorption water organic matter, and photosynthesis release oxygen and other materials are manufactured, and are improved Water quality condition.And the plant being planted on the treatment tank water surface, the nutrition in water is absorbed of its root system can be passed through and turn in inorganic salts Turn to organic matter and enter ecological circulation, purified breeding water body, at the same time can also improve aquatic products and vegetables Isoquant, formed The benign cycle of microhabitat, pollution degree is preferably minimized.
In order to ensure the effects of purification quality for the treatment of tank, there is the oxygen of abundance after the water quality degraded in treatment tank During gas, user can also put the animal that can repair water quality in a suitable place to breed in treatment tank, by the absorption by animal to organic matter And ingesting for planktonic algae is acted on reaching the purpose of repairing environment.Wherein, preferably, high density puts river crab in a suitable place to breed Waters Eutrophic Extent from that grade down can remove cultivation it is obvious that enough Filter feeding bivalves, some echinoderms can be thrown in Nutriment in waste water.In addition, throw supporting flea class, water flea can effectively remove algae with algae and organic detritus as food.Water flea is again Can be consumed as the bait of the aquatic animals such as fish;Cultivation river snail, freshwater mussel, to cut down bed mud in organic matter and nutrition Salt.Throw in and consider feeding fish, such as bighead, flower silver carp, there can be the excessive multiplication of effective control algae.
The present invention by screen cloth by the contaminant filter in culturing pool sewage, and is employed in breeding water body processing procedure Indigenous microorganism and complex microorganism to decompose breeding water body in organic matter and by ammonia nitrogen degradation, to be oxidized to toxicity relatively low Nitrate, make breeding water body obtain a certain degree of purification, while on the treatment tank water surface or in water, plantation dish, flower Grass, fruit, algae, the nutriments such as nitrogen, phosphorus in water body are absorbed by the photosynthesis of algae to synthesize having for itself Machine thing, effectively reduces the content of nitrogen and phosphorous in breeding water body, solves the suspension that traditional precipitation and filtration can only be removed in water body Thing, it is impossible to remove the problem of the dissolubility pollutant in water body, while eventually the dish of plantation, flowers, fruit can change in inorganic salts Biological cycle is again introduced into for organic matter;At the same time, when having the oxygen of abundance after the water quality degraded in treatment tank, make User can also put the animal that can repair water quality in a suitable place to breed in treatment tank, by by animal to the absorption of organic matter and to floating Ingesting for trip algae acts on reaching the purpose of repairing environment.
It is of the invention compared with traditional sewage disposal, its low cost, time-consuming short, purification thoroughly, be not likely to produce it is secondary Pollute, do not endanger breeding function, do not destroy the ecological balance, fine cycle model can be formed, not only green non-pollution, and can be real Aquatic products shows recycling for aquaculture wastewater, the development continual and steady so as to ensure aquaculture.
Additionally need courage is:The method that above several embodiments are talked about, can be carried out using means well known in the art Regulating and controlling water quality, the distinctive means of our company may also be employed carries out regulating and controlling water quality, i.e. culturing pool, second stage cultivation in the first stage Probiotics is put in pond, phase III culturing pool carries out regulating and controlling water quality.
When organic matter, ammonia and cultured water content are higher in the water quality for detecting, the micro- life for regulating and controlling water quality in water quality is put into State preparation is photosynthetic bacteria, remaining feed of the photosynthetic bacteria in water in degradable water body, the excrement of fish and other organic matters; Simultaneously, moreover it is possible to absorb the harmful substances such as ammonia, cultured water, hydrogen sulfide in water body.Photosynthetic bacteria is applied, can be prevented effectively from The accumulation of solid organic matters and harmful substance, plays a part of to purify water, in order to ensure the effect persistence of probiotics, When using, user can be according to the concrete form of photosynthetic bacteria, and such as the viable bacteria content of usual aqua photosynthetic bacteria is 3 × 109/ millis Rise, user can add aqua photosynthetic bacteria after inhibitor mixed, and input is treated in quenched water, so that its term of validity is 3-4 Individual month, and the viable bacteria content of pulvis photosynthetic bacteria is 1 × 1011/ gram, by it with inhibitor mixed after, its term of validity action period can Continue 12 months.In production, probiotics is splashed after can mixing with fertilizer or inorganic fertilizer, during regulating water quality, Tiny ecosystem system Agent interacts as adsorbent mixture and organic fertilizer or inorganic fertilizer, so as to realize the effect of rich water.
It is described when ammonia nitrogen meltage in the water quality for detecting and cultured water content are beyond national cultivation water standard Probiotics is nitrobacteria, is the master of degraded nitrogen and cultured water in water body because nitrobacteria is a kind of aerobic bacteria Want one of bacterium.And mainly have 2 monoids of nitrobacteria and nitrite bacteria at present, the formulation of current nitrobacteria have aqua and Two kinds of pulvis, 1 × 109/ milliliter of the viable bacteria content of usual aqua, and pulvis viable bacteria content is 1 × 104/ gram.The aqua term of validity is 7-10 days, and pulvis Jing after extra package the term of validity at 6-12 month.Nitrobacteria reproduction speed is slower in production, more than 20 hours A generation could be bred, therefore to be used in advance.
Above-described embodiment is only the design explanation for example to the present invention, it will be apparent that, the protection domain of this patent is not limited In above-described embodiment.
Various equivalent modifications or supplement that those skilled in the art are made to above-described embodiment, should all fall into this patent Protection domain.

Claims (2)

1. the mixing ecological cultivation method of a kind of Penaeus Vannmei, the method culturing pool carry out culture of Penaeus vannamei and Culturing pool side arranges crawl and is breeded fish, and breeds fish earlier than foster shrimp 3 months, it is characterised in that the cultivation bag of the Penaeus Vannmei Include following steps:
A, shrimp seedling select process step;
B, first stage shrimp seedling cultivation step:Cultivate in the first stage pool cultivated 10 days, the first Tianchi salinity water is controlled 12 ‰, Add fresh water that water salinity is declined daily daily later, the amplitude that one day after water salinity declines is more than the previous day, finally Water salinity is kept into 3 ‰, in the process the daily feeding number of times of shrimp seedling is in totally reduction trend, each feeding amount is in totally Increase trend;
C, second stage juvenile prawn cultivation step;It is pool cultivated until shrimp body grows to 3.5 ± 0.6cm, water salt in second stage cultivation Degree control is 2 ‰;
D, phase III prawn culturing step;Pool cultivated until ripe using phase III cultivation, the control of water salinity exists 1.5‰;
The first stage culturing pool, second stage culturing pool, phase III culturing pool are all by the sewage pipe of lower section by sewage And sediment enters filtering ponds, sewage is processed after filter into cesspool;Wherein first stage culturing pool, It is trapezoidal funnelform collector nozzle that two-stage culturing pool, the bottom surface of phase III culturing pool are all covered with section, all collector nozzles Communicate with the sewage pipe being embedded in below culturing pool, in each of the lower the mouth of a river is provided with the cone-shaped hood for being covered with through hole, the cone-shaped hood It is more less toward central through hole aperture;Described filtering ponds include all filtering wall and exterior wall, institute for the first filtration wall of annular, second The first filtration wall, the second filtration wall and exterior wall are stated in distribution with one heart and has gap each other;The delivery port position of the sewage pipe Filter within the walls in first, outlet pipe is connected with exterior wall, described second filters wall filters wall less than first;First filters within the walls Region, first filter wall and the second region filtered between wall and the second region filtered between wall and exterior wall all with one Blow-off pipe is communicated;Wherein first filters its bottom surface of region within the walls is tapered in bucket-shaped, and is provided with cloth above the bottom surface The disk of full through hole, the disk bottom is provided with leg;The outlet pipe is communicated with the cesspool.
2. the mixing ecological cultivation method of Penaeus Vannmei according to claim 1, it is characterised in that at cesspool Reason includes following measure:
Arranging screen cloth in cesspool water inlet carries out physical filtering;
Biological cleaning is carried out, indigenous microorganism and complex microorganism preparations is put into in sewage purifier, by indigenous microorganism And the multiple-microorganism in complex microorganism preparations decomposes to the organic matter in cesspool, to discharge containing nitrogen, phosphorus unit The nutritive salt of element;
Plant purification is carried out, dish, flowers, fruit, algae, plant absorption are planted on the water surface for the treatment of tank or in water The nutritive salt decomposed by indigenous microorganism and complex microorganism preparations, manufactures organic matter, and discharges oxygen;
Animal reparation is carried out, the animal of absorbable organic matter and edible planktonic algae plant is thrown in treatment tank.
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