CN104542236A - Artificial reproduction method for wild kelps - Google Patents

Artificial reproduction method for wild kelps Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104542236A
CN104542236A CN201510001367.XA CN201510001367A CN104542236A CN 104542236 A CN104542236 A CN 104542236A CN 201510001367 A CN201510001367 A CN 201510001367A CN 104542236 A CN104542236 A CN 104542236A
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seedling
tangle
sea
seabed
frame
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CN201510001367.XA
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CN104542236B (en
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刘玮
詹冬梅
吴海一
王翔宇
徐智广
吕芳
丁刚
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Shandong Marine Biology Institute
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Shandong Marine Biology Institute
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Abstract

The invention provides an artificial reproduction method for wild kelps. The artificial reproduction method particularly includes the steps: (1) selecting a proper wild kelp reproduction site; (2) preparing parent kelps; (3) preparing spore fluid; (4) preparing a seedling collection box and a transplantation network; (5) collecting seedlings; (6) temporarily rearing the seedlings in a workshop; (7) temporarily rearing the seedlings on the sea; (8) separating the seedlings; (9) cultivating artificial seedlings; (10) transplanting the seedlings on a seabed. The seedlings are collected and intermediately cultured by the aid of the seedling collection box and the transplantation network in special design, rapid reproduction of artificial reproduction seedlings is realized, the influence of variable seabed terrains is overcome, and large-area seabed reproduction is realized.

Description

A kind of wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method
Technical field
The invention belongs to marine ecology Conservative restoration field, particularly relate to a kind of wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method.
Background technology
Sea-tangle is the brown alga kind that a class has economic worth, propagate artificially through long-term, propagate sea-tangle kind at present artificially and wild sea-tangle kind exists notable difference in proterties, although the area that cultivates kelp is increasing trend, wild sea-tangle natural distribution area but presents decline trend.Wild sea-tangle anchors under the tide line of coastal waters on the dark reef of 2-5 rice usually, often forms large area kelp bed, and the place can perched, look for food, lay eggs for seabed benthon and nekton provide, thus has important ecological significance.But in the last few years along with paralic environment is subject to artificial destruction (as artificial cofferdam, port engineering etc.); original wild sea-tangle colony day by day reduces; and wild sea-tangle colony natural rate of growth is slow; for maintaining the continuity of wild sea-tangle population; the bio-diversity of protection sea-tangle, the manual reversion of wild sea-tangle colonial need.
Current sea-tangle propagate artificially pattern be generally sea raft support, culture-cycle is short, fast growth, but the sea-tangle kind propagated artificially is different from wild sea-tangle kind, and the bio-diversity level of the sea-tangle colony propagated artificially is usually less than wild sea-tangle colony, thus directly utilizes the sea-tangle colony propagated artificially to carry out ecological recovery and there is limitation.Wild sea-tangle due to slow, the ripe individual body of its self-sow speed long little; there is no the precedent of artificial large-scale cultivation at present; but adopt wild sea-tangle to carry out artificial fecundation; can suitably accelerate its growth rate; extensive seed can be obtained again and be applied to ocean Benthic ecology reparation, there is positive restoration of the ecosystem meaning.
When the sea-tangle population of propagation is carried out seabed ecological recovery, due to the limitation of traditional cultural method, seabed input can only be carried out Kelp seeding rope and artificial algal reef to be bundled fixing mode.Adopt this kind of method to carry out its marine alga of restoration of the ecosystem propagation area and be subject to reefs size, reefs restricted number, repaired area is limited and cost is higher.Therefore be badly in need of a kind of effective ways that sea-tangle artificial fecundation and marine alga seabed Stationary liquid can be combined, to protect and to supplement wild sea-tangle resource, promote the improvement of seabed ecotope.
Prior art is compared, and advantage of the present invention and good effect are:
1, collect seedling frame and the transplanting net of the present invention's employing, be applicable to traditional cultivating workshop to collect seedling pond, and it is more late for the wild sea-tangle maturing stage, growth rate is feature comparatively slowly, adopt the mode that collecting seedling in workshop, emerges in sea, seabed is bred, shorten wild sea-tangle and cultivate the time in workshop, reduce production cost, and it is simple to operate to adopt the present invention to carry out point seedling to kelp seedling, saving manpower reduces labour cost.
2, the artificial fecundation method that the present invention adopts can adapt to seabed Variable Terrain, is that inclined-plane or rough landform all can adopt the present invention to carry out artificial fecundation, overcome conventional method throw in reefs seabed cannot the shortcoming of firm attachment.
3, the present invention both introduced artificial seed in seabed, farthest remained original sea-floor relief again, after artificial fecundation seed maturation in the coming year, diffused spore and can pass through transplanting net, realize apposition growth in seabed, finally realize the natural increase of wild sea-tangle population.Running cost is low, can realize large area propagation needs.Adopt the present invention to carry out seabed propagation to wild sea-tangle, cost is low, can area coverage wide, overcoming tradition, to throw reef cost high, the shortcoming that area coverage is limited.
Summary of the invention
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the invention provides one and can adapt to seabed Variable Terrain, and use cost is low, the wild sea-tangle enrichment procedure that propagation area is wide.
A kind of wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method, is specially
(1) suitable wild sea-tangle propagation place is selected: select the edge zone impaired sea-tangle population, or the reef matter seabed that current are unobstructed, illumination is suitable, in advance at layout seabed, seabed spud pile;
(2) main laminaria is prepared: wild sea-tangle is collected seedling when the wild sea-tangle in the mid or late October north a large amount of maturation, chooses the many wild sea-tangles of blade sporangium as main laminaria;
(3) spore fluid is prepared: main laminaria moves in pond of collecting seedling and diffuses after process of drying in the shade, and the imbibition of main laminaria spore cyst wall is broken to discharge and swum spore in a large number, and stopping removes main laminaria after diffusing;
(4) prepare collect seedling frame and transplant net;
(5) collect seedling: the spore fluid of collecting seedling in pond is stirred, the frame tiling of collecting seedling being fixed with transplanting net is immersed in spore fluid and collects seedling in pond;
(6) workshop is supported temporarily: be placed in the frame of collecting seedling transplanting net the workshop storage pond, holding pond that the depth of water is no more than 30cm after collecting seedling, and flowing water supports 3-5 days temporarily;
(7) sea is supported temporarily: will be fixed on mariculture district raft frame with the frame of collecting seedling transplanting net;
(8) dividing seedling: when transplanting net growth of seedling to 2-5cm, taken off from frame of collecting seedling by transplanting net, after flattening, being hung on continuation cultivation between the raft frame of culture zone by transplanting net snap close;
(9) hatchery juveniles is formed: hang nitrogenous fertilizer from above in transplanting net corner, promote growth of seedling, and online assorted algae and mud scum are transplanted in removing in regularly 5-10 days, ensure that seedling illumination is abundant; Transplanting net can be taken off from laminaria culture float raft district to during 10-15cm until growth of seedling, move into seabed;
(10) seabed is transplanted: transplanting net corner is separately fixed at seabed and transplants in stake, transplant net combination by multiple, realizes seabed large area propagation; Can pass through transplanting net after artificial fecundation sea-tangle Second Year maturation and diffuse spore set seabed, realize the natural increase of wild sea-tangle population.
Further, in described step (1), seabed spud pile is point-like matrix arrangement in seabed, and pile body top is provided with buttonhole.
Further, be 2-3h to main laminaria processing time of drying in the shade in described step (3), temperature is 12-18 DEG C.
Further, trip spore quantity can be observed in described step (3) when reaching 10-20 under 10 × 10 powered microscope fields, stop diffusing.
Further, in described step (5) in spore fluid collects seedling pond lay collect seedling frame time, slide is placed in advance at the bottom of nursery pond, the described spatfall time is 1-2h, stop attachment when can observe 7-10 spore on slide under 10 × 10 powered microscope fields, when collecting seedling, illumination is no more than 5000lx.
Further, in described step (6), illumination is supported temporarily in workshop is 1000-4000lx, nutritive element NO 3-N content is 2-4g/m 3, PO 4-P content is 0.2-0.4g/m 3.
Further, described step (7) is marine collects seedling that frame is flat is hung on 40-60cm depth of water place under sea when supporting temporarily, and controlled light is no more than 5000lx, and cultivate and can to promote 20-30cm under water layer to sea after 5-10 days gradually, enhancing illumination is to promote growth of seedling.
Further, described in frame main body of collecting seedling be plastic frame structure, described in frame of collecting seedling be rectangular mesh structure, its central authorities and surrounding with frame snap close of collecting seedling for fixing transplanting net.
Further, described transplanting net comprises main body and snap close, and described main body is diamond-shaped meshes structure, and mesh diameter is 7-10cm
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1. the structural representation of frame of collecting seedling of the present invention
Fig. 2. the structural representation of transplanting net of the present invention
Fig. 3. seabed layout schematic diagram of the present invention
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, technical scheme of the present invention is described in further detail.
Wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method of the present invention, specifically adopts following steps:
(1) suitable wild sea-tangle propagation place is selected:
Be typically chosen in the edge zone of impaired sea-tangle population, or the reef matter seabed that current are unobstructed, illumination is suitable, in advance at layout seabed, seabed spud pile.Described seabed spud pile is point-like matrix arrangement in seabed, and pile body top is provided with buttonhole, and the seabed that can be used for transplanting net is fixed.
(2) main laminaria is prepared:
Wild sea-tangle is collected seedling generally when the wild sea-tangle in the mid or late October north is ripe in a large number, and choose the many wild sea-tangles of blade sporangium as main laminaria, need removing mud scum and assorted algae before using main laminaria, dry in the shade process 2-3h, and temperature when processing that dries in the shade controls at 12-18 DEG C.
(3) spore fluid is prepared:
Main laminaria moves into collect seedling in pond and diffuses after process of drying in the shade, described in pond of collecting seedling to wash in advance, the husky seawater filtered of perfusion.Break to discharge in main laminaria spore cyst wall imbibition in pond of collecting seedling and swim spore in a large number, attachment density reaches to observe 10-20 when swimming spore under 10 × 10 powered microscope fields, can stop diffusing, remove main laminaria, and mucus when pulling that in pond, sea-tangle is diffused out with gauze net.
(4) prepare collect seedling frame and transplant net:
The present invention's frame 1 main body of collecting seedling used is plastic frame structure, its central authorities and surrounding with frame snap close of collecting seedling for fixing transplanting net.As shown in Figure 1, described in the collect seedling structure of frame comprise snap close 12 on four edges frame 11, frame and intermediate mesh 13, mesh spacing is 8-12cm.Because plastics transplanting net is softer, described intermediate mesh can play support effect, transplanting net can be laid in when collecting seedling at the bottom of pond and be convenient to collect seedling.
As shown in Figure 2, described transplanting net 2 comprises main body 21 and snap close 22, and described size of main body is 2m × 2m, and be diamond-shaped meshes structure, mesh diameter is 7-10cm; Described snap close is positioned at four drift angles of main body; Described main body is polyester fiber and Fypro blended material.Use the terylene hawser that diameter is 3-4cm to reinforce and sizing in described net both sides of transplanting, described hawser is connected with transplanting net snap close, keeps hanging fixing, and be fixedly connected with the buttonhole on the spud pile of seabed for sea after dividing seedling.
The rectangle of net folding growth 2m × 1m will be transplanted, 2-4 is opened folding after transplanting Netcom cross hawser layering and be fixed on and collect seedling on the snap close of frame, then collect seedling.
(5) collect seedling:
The spore fluid of collecting seedling in pond is stirred, the frame tiling of collecting seedling being fixed with transplanting net is immersed in spore fluid and collects seedling in pond.Laying collect seedling frame time, slide is placed to check spatfall density between the transplanting net of upper, middle and lower different water depth, the spatfall time, general control was at 1-2h, and attachment density reaches to be observed 7-10 and namely stop attachment under 10 × 10 powered microscope fields, and when collecting seedling, illumination is no more than 4000lx.
(6) workshop is supported temporarily:
Be placed in the frame of collecting seedling transplanting net the workshop storage pond, holding pond that the depth of water is no more than 30cm after collecting seedling, flowing water supports 3-5 days temporarily, and supporting illumination is temporarily 1000-4000lx, nutritive element NO when supporting temporarily 3-N content is 2-4g/m 3, PO 4-P content is 0.2-0.4g/m 3, examine under a microscope can be transferred to when growing to 5-10 μm and marinely to support temporarily.
(7) sea is supported temporarily:
Support temporarily from workshop and transfer to marine process of supporting temporarily, that transplanting net is taken out from the storage pond, holding pond of workshop, after felt parcel, seawater that felt is splashed can carry out the transhipment of transplanting net after felt complete wetting, transhipment time controling was advisable in 1-2 hour, and a small amount of seawater of can splashing again in right amount in transit keeps moistening.
To be fixed on mariculture district raft frame with the frame of collecting seedling transplanting net, frame of collecting seedling is flat is hung on 40-60cm depth of water place under sea, controlled light is no more than 5000lx, cultivate after 5-10 days, examine under a microscope and grow to 10-25 μm, along with frond grow up its tolerance strengthen and growth needs, need to strengthen illumination gradually, 20-30cm under water layer to sea can be promoted gradually, strengthen illumination to promote growth of seedling.
(8) seedling is divided:
When transplanting net growth of seedling to 2-5cm, transplanting net being taken off from frame of collecting seedling, after flattening, being hung on continuation cultivation between the raft frame of culture zone by transplanting net snap close.
(9) hatchery juveniles is formed:
Hang nitrogenous fertilizer from above in transplanting net corner, promote growth of seedling, and online assorted algae and mud scum are transplanted in removing in regularly 5-10 days, ensure that seedling illumination is abundant.Transplanting net can be taken off from laminaria culture float raft district to during 10-15cm until growth of seedling, move into seabed.(10) seabed is transplanted:
Transplanting net corner is separately fixed at seabed transplants in stake, transplants net combination by multiple, can realize seabed large area propagation.Can pass through transplanting net after artificial fecundation sea-tangle Second Year maturation and diffuse spore set seabed, realize the natural increase of wild sea-tangle population.
Wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method of the present invention can shorten workshop and cultivate the time, cultivates (3-5 days) and namely can be transferred to marine continuation cultivation, reduce the cost that workshop is cultivated after collecting seedling through short-term workshop.Adopt frame and the transplanting net of collecting seedling of the present invention, collect seedling, divide seedling easy to operate, mariculture and seabed are fixed also more for convenience, reduce labour intensity, low cost can realize large area sea-tangle propagation.Compared with bundling the method for lapidation with traditional seedling rope, because traditional method artificial fecundation area relies on reefs size and the cover degree of reefs in seabed, the present invention is good to seabed Variable Terrain adaptability, and substantially do not change sea-floor relief, diffuse after wild sea-tangle maturation in the coming year after propagation spore can pass through transplant net adhere to self-sow in seabed, there is good cultivation effect.
Above embodiment is only several in the several preferred embodiment of the present invention, it should be pointed out that and the invention is not restricted to above-described embodiment; For the person of ordinary skill of the art, still the technical scheme described in previous embodiment can be modified, or equivalent replacement is carried out to wherein portion of techniques feature; And these amendments or replacement, do not make the essence of appropriate technical solution depart from the spirit and scope of the present invention's technical scheme required for protection.

Claims (9)

1. a wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method, is characterized in that: be specially
(1) suitable wild sea-tangle propagation place is selected: select the edge zone impaired sea-tangle population, or the reef matter seabed that current are unobstructed, illumination is suitable, in advance at layout seabed, seabed spud pile;
(2) main laminaria is prepared: wild sea-tangle is collected seedling when the wild sea-tangle in the mid or late October north a large amount of maturation, chooses the many wild sea-tangles of blade sporangium as main laminaria;
(3) spore fluid is prepared: main laminaria moves in pond of collecting seedling and diffuses after process of drying in the shade, and the imbibition of main laminaria spore cyst wall is broken to discharge and swum spore in a large number, and stopping removes main laminaria after diffusing;
(4) prepare collect seedling frame and transplant net;
(5) collect seedling: the spore fluid of collecting seedling in pond is stirred, the frame tiling of collecting seedling being fixed with transplanting net is immersed in spore fluid and collects seedling in pond;
(6) workshop is supported temporarily: be placed in the frame of collecting seedling transplanting net the workshop storage pond, holding pond that the depth of water is no more than 30cm after collecting seedling, and flowing water supports 3-5 days temporarily;
(7) sea is supported temporarily: will be fixed on mariculture district raft frame with the frame of collecting seedling transplanting net;
(8) dividing seedling: when transplanting net growth of seedling to 2-5cm, taken off from frame of collecting seedling by transplanting net, after flattening, being hung on continuation cultivation between the raft frame of culture zone by transplanting net snap close;
(9) hatchery juveniles is formed: hang nitrogenous fertilizer from above in transplanting net corner, promote growth of seedling, and online assorted algae and mud scum are transplanted in removing in regularly 5-10 days, ensure that seedling illumination is abundant; Transplanting net can be taken off from laminaria culture float raft district to during 10-15cm until growth of seedling, move into seabed;
(10) seabed is transplanted: transplanting net corner is separately fixed at seabed and transplants in stake, transplant net combination by multiple, realizes seabed large area propagation; Can pass through transplanting net after artificial fecundation sea-tangle Second Year maturation and diffuse spore set seabed, realize the natural increase of wild sea-tangle population.
2. one according to claim 1 wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method, is characterized in that: in described step (1), seabed spud pile is point-like matrix arrangement in seabed, and pile body top is provided with buttonhole.
3. one according to claim 1 wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method, is characterized in that: be 2-3h to main laminaria processing time of drying in the shade in described step (3), temperature is 12-18 DEG C.
4. one according to claim 1 wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method, is characterized in that: can observe trip spore quantity in described step (3) when reaching 10-20 under 10 × 10 powered microscope fields, stop diffusing.
5. one according to claim 1 wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method, it is characterized in that: in described step (5) in spore fluid collects seedling pond lay collect seedling frame time, slide is placed in advance at the bottom of nursery pond, the described spatfall time is 1-2h, stop attachment when can observe 7-10 spore on slide under 10 × 10 powered microscope fields, when collecting seedling, illumination is no more than 5000lx.
6. one according to claim 1 wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method, is characterized in that: in described step (6), illumination is supported temporarily in workshop is 1000-4000lx, nutritive element NO 3-N content is 2-4 g/m 3, PO 4-P content is 0.2-0.4 g/m 3.
7. one according to claim 1 wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method, it is characterized in that: collecting seedling when described step (7) sea is supported temporarily, frame is flat is hung on 40-60cm depth of water place under sea, controlled light is no more than 5000lx, cultivate and 20-30cm under water layer to sea after 5-10 days, can be promoted gradually, strengthen illumination to promote growth of seedling.
8. one according to claim 1 wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method, is characterized in that: described in frame main body of collecting seedling be plastic frame structure, described in frame of collecting seedling be rectangular mesh structure, its central authorities and surrounding with frame snap close of collecting seedling for fixing transplanting net.
9. one according to claim 1 wild sea-tangle artificial fecundation method, is characterized in that: described transplanting net comprises main body and snap close, and described main body is diamond-shaped meshes structure, and mesh diameter is 7-10cm.
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CN109220768A (en) * 2018-10-25 2019-01-18 青岛农业大学 A kind of mussel attachment base kelp seedling intermediate breeding method

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