CN104537939B - Method and apparatus for a virtual pedicle screw implanted - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for a virtual pedicle screw implanted Download PDF

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CN104537939B
CN104537939B CN201410856472.7A CN201410856472A CN104537939B CN 104537939 B CN104537939 B CN 104537939B CN 201410856472 A CN201410856472 A CN 201410856472A CN 104537939 B CN104537939 B CN 104537939B
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virtual
pedicle screw
surgical
operation
force feedback
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CN201410856472.7A
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CN104537939A (en
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刘效仿
李建英
王琼
孙寅紫
秦璟
刘礼初
王平安
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佛山市中医院
中国科学院深圳先进技术研究院
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Abstract

本发明适用于计算机辅助医学领域,提供了一种椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法:获取包含脊柱图像的CT数据;对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成Mesh模型;构建手术工具;将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中;接收通过力反馈装置绘制的手术场景变化;其中,所述力反馈装置用于跟随拖动操作运动,并生成运动状态,并反馈运动效果;对绘制的手术场景变化进行立体显示处理,并输出处理后的立体图像。 The present invention is applicable to computer-assisted medical field, there is provided a method of virtual pedicle screw implanted: acquiring CT image data containing the spine; spinal region of the region of interest for segmentation and 3D reconstruction, generating Mesh Model; Construction surgery tool; Mesh model and the introduction of the surgical tool virtual surgical environment; rendering means receiving surgical scene change by force feedback; wherein said force feedback means for following the movement of the drag operation, and generates a motion state, and athletic performance feedback; scene change of stereoscopic rendering operation display process, and outputs the processed stereo image. 本发明能使受训者更直观和详细地了解手术区域的解剖关系,可以从多个视角了解置钉位置是否准确,是否有邻近结构的损伤,从而提高了教学质量,以及能让使用者得到操作过程中的触觉感受。 The present invention enables the trainee more intuitive understanding of anatomy and surgical area in detail, the staples can understand the set position accuracy from multiple angles, whether there is damage to the adjacent structure, thereby improving the quality of teaching, operation, and allows the user to give tactile sensations process.

Description

一种椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法及装置 Method and apparatus for a virtual pedicle screw implanted

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明属于计算机辅助医学领域,尤其涉及一种椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法及装置。 [0001] The present invention belongs to the field of computer-aided medical, more particularly to a method and apparatus for virtual pedicle screw implant.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 在医学界,椎弓根手术技术要求在横径5-10mm的椎弓根内准确植入直径4_7mm的椎弓根螺钉,而不能损伤比邻的神经根、硬膜囊等重要结构,因此,这对初学者是一个巨大的挑战,徒手将椎弓根螺钉植入椎弓根内是临床上开放手术最为常见的手术方式,在后路开放切口下,通过解剖标志点的识别、通过钉道探子的触觉感受,依据医生的手术经验及术前患者的X线、CT图像进行螺钉的植入。 [0002] In the medical community, surgical techniques require accurate pedicle pedicle screw diameter 4_7mm 5-10mm in diameter pedicle, but not damage the nerve roots near the dural sac and other important structures, So this is a huge challenge for beginners, will hand pedicle screw implanted into the pedicle is the most common surgical procedures in clinical open, open in the posterior incision, identified by anatomical landmarks, by tactile feel of the screw channel probe, based on the doctor's surgery and patients before surgery experience X-ray, CT images screw insertion.

[0003] 为了让初学者的临床经验更加成熟,现有技术提供一种脊柱椎弓根螺钉置入虚拟手术系统,用于帮助初学者学习及训练,该系统是根据患者的个性化CT图像重建脊柱三维结构和脊柱正侧位投影图像,其不仅能够培训手术医生在术中透视引导下微创置入椎弓根螺钉,也能指导手术医生通过解剖标志点在开放条件下置入椎弓根螺钉,提高手术医生椎弓根螺钉置入的准确性,其在脊柱椎弓根螺钉置入解剖教学上具有非常重要的作用。 [0003] In order for beginners clinical experience is more mature, the prior art to provide a spinal pedicle screw virtual surgery system, and training to help beginners learn the system is according to individual patient's CT image reconstruction three-dimensional structure of the spine and the spine is lateral projection image, which is not only capable of training surgeons perspective during surgery guided minimally invasive pedicle screw, the surgeon can guide the anatomical landmarks through the pedicle under the opened condition screw, improve the accuracy of the surgeon pedicle screw placement, which has a very important role in teaching anatomy placed on the spinal pedicle screw.

[0004] 此系统利用真实病人的CT图像重建出脊柱的模型用于虚拟手术,设计了穿刺针和椎弓根螺钉等虚拟手术工具。 [0004] This system uses real patient CT images reconstructed spine model for virtual surgery designed needle and pedicle screws and other virtual surgical tools. 受训者以将克氏针在正侧位投影图像上的位置与进钉平面横断面图像上克氏针的位置联系在一起,观察两者的对应关系,为术中在透视引导下经皮植入椎弓根螺钉进行个性化的术前培训,同时可以在三维立体模型上通过距离测量和角度测量计算术中所需植入螺钉的直径和长度。 Connections to the trainee on the K-wire and lateral position of the projected image position into a staple on a plane cross-sectional images of the Kirschner wire together, the corresponding relationship between the two was observed, the percutaneous surgery is implanted under fluoroscopic guidance training the pedicle screw preoperative personalized, and can calculate the surgery required to implant measuring diameter and length of the screw by measuring the distance and angle in the three-dimensional model.

[0005]上述系统有效解决了开放脊柱椎弓根螺钉植入手术经验不足的问题,对刚刚开展经皮椎弓根螺钉植入的手术医生来说,如何确定经皮椎弓根螺钉的进钉点和进钉轨迹是个非常重要的解剖教学内容。 [0005] The system effectively solves the problem of open pedicle screw spinal implant surgery insufficient experience, just carry on percutaneous pedicle screw implantation surgery doctors, how to determine the nail into the percutaneous pedicle screw screw entry point and trajectory is a very important anatomical teaching content. 利用虚拟手术系统进行椎弓根螺钉的植入可以激发手术医生的学习兴趣,增强手术医生学习的自主性和参与性,促进手术医生对知识的理解和掌握。 The use of virtual surgery system pedicle screw implant surgeon can stimulate interest in learning, to enhance the autonomy and participative learning surgeon, surgeon promote understanding and mastery of knowledge.

[0006] 然而,现有技术提供的脊柱椎弓根螺钉置入虚拟手术系统,只能从解剖结构上来解决椎弓根螺钉植入手术中的困难,而没有针对受训者的手感的训练,真实感不强,训练效果不佳。 [0006] However, the prior art provides a virtual surgical spinal pedicle screw system can only come from the anatomical structure to solve the difficulties of pedicle screws implantation surgery, but not for training the trainees feel real not strong, poor training effect.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0007] 鉴于此,本发明提供一种椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法及装置,旨在解决现有技术提供的脊柱椎弓根螺钉置入虚拟手术系统,只能从解剖结构上来解决椎弓根螺钉植入手术中的困难,而没有针对受训者的手感的训练,真实感不强,训练效果不佳的问题。 [0007] In view of this, the present invention provides a method and apparatus for virtual pedicle screw implanted, to solve the prior art to provide the spinal pedicle screw is placed into a virtual surgery system, can only come from the solution vertebral anatomy pedicle screw placement difficult surgery, but did not feel for the training of trainees, realism is not strong, the problem of poor training effect.

[0008] 第一方面,本发明提供了一种椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法,所述方法包括以下步骤: [0008] In a first aspect, the present invention provides a method of virtual pedicle screw implantation, said method comprising the steps of:

[0009] 获取包含脊柱图像的CT数据; [0009] acquired CT data comprising an image of the spine;

[0010] 对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成Mesh模型; [0010] The region of the spinal column dividing the region of interest and the three-dimensional reconstruction, generating a Mesh Model;

[0011] 构建手术工具; [0011] Construction of the surgical tool;

[0012] 将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中; [0012] Mesh Model and the introduction of the surgical tool virtual surgical environment;

[0013] 接收通过力反馈装置绘制的手术场景变化;其中,所述力反馈装置用于跟随拖动操作运动,并生成运动状态,并反馈运动效果; [0013] change in the reception apparatus through the scene rendering operation force feedback; wherein said force feedback means for following the movement of the drag operation, and generates a motion, and motion effect feedback;

[0014] 对绘制的手术场景变化进行立体显示处理,并输出处理后的立体图像。 [0014] The scene change of stereoscopic rendering operation display process, and outputs the processed stereo image.

[0015] 优选的,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括以下步骤: [0015] Preferably, the pedicle screw implanted virtual method further comprising the steps of:

[0016] 对绘制的手术场景变化进行运算处理,得到最终手术效果图,并显示所述手术效果图。 [0016] The scene change rendering arithmetic processing procedure to obtain the final results of operations in FIG., And displaying the results of operations of FIG.

[0017] 优选的,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括以下步骤: [0017] Preferably, the pedicle screw implanted virtual method further comprising the steps of:

[0018] 计算通过力反馈装置绘制手术场景变化的完成时间; [0018] is calculated by drawing a force feedback device operation completion time of a scene change;

[0019]判断所述完成时间落在哪一等级范围内; [0019] Analyzing the completion time falls within a level range which;

[°02°] 根据判断结果,确定等级。 [° 02 °] according to the judgment result, determine the grade.

[0021] 优选的,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括以下步骤: [0021] Preferably, the pedicle screw implanted virtual method further comprising the steps of:

[0022] 在手术模拟中显示入钉点的提示信息。 [0022] Display of the anchor point a message in surgery simulation.

[0023] 优选的,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括以下步骤: [0023] Preferably, the pedicle screw implanted virtual method further comprising the steps of:

[0024] 对虚拟手术环境中的手术对象设置不同的宽度和硬度。 [0024] set different widths and the hardness of the virtual surgical environment surgical object.

[0025] 第二方面,本发明提供了一种椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置,所述装置包括: [0025] a second aspect, the present invention provides a virtual pedicle screw implantation apparatus, the apparatus comprising:

[0026] 获取模块,用于获取包含脊柱图像的CT数据; [0026] The acquiring module, for acquiring CT image data containing the spine;

[0027] 三维重建模块,用于对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成Mesh模型; [0027] The three-dimensional reconstruction module for performing segmentation and 3D reconstruction of a region of interest of the spinal region, generating a Mesh Model;

[0028] 手术工具构建模块,用于构建手术工具; [0028] The surgical tool building blocks for constructing a surgical tool;

[0029] 导入模块,用于将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中; [0029] import module, for the Mesh Model and the surgical tool insert virtual surgical environment;

[0030] 接收模块,用于接收通过力反馈装置绘制的手术场景变化;其中,所述力反馈装置用于跟随拖动操作运动,并生成运动状态,并反馈运动效果; [0030] a receiving module, for receiving a surgical device to draw a scene change by force feedback; wherein said force feedback means for following the movement of the drag operation, and generates a motion, and motion effect feedback;

[0031] 立体显示处理模块,用于对绘制的手术场景变化进行立体显示处理,并输出处理后的立体图像。 [0031] The stereoscopic display processing module for rendering the scene change operation in the stereoscopic display processing, and outputs the processed stereo image.

[0032] 优选的,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: [0032] Preferably, the virtual device implanted screw pedicle further comprising:

[0033] 效果图处理模块,用于对绘制的手术场景变化进行运算处理,得到最终手术效果图,并显示所述手术效果图。 [0033] FIG effect processing module for rendering the scene change operation performs arithmetic processing to obtain the final results of operations in FIG., And displaying the results of operations of FIG.

[0034] 优选的,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: [0034] Preferably, the virtual device implanted screw pedicle further comprising:

[0035]时间计算模块,用于计算通过力反馈装置绘制手术场景变化的完成时间; [0035] The time calculation module, means for calculating a rendering operation completion time of the scene change by force feedback;

[0036] 等级判断模块,用于判断所述完成时间落在哪一等级范围内; [0036] The level determination means for determining the class to which the completion time falls within a range;

[0037] 等级确定模块,用于根据判断结果,确定等级。 [0037] The rank determination module, according to the judgment result, determine the grade.

[0038] 优选的,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: [0038] Preferably, the virtual device implanted screw pedicle further comprising:

[0039] 入点提示模块,用于通过在手术模拟中显示入钉点的提示信息。 [0039] point prompt module for displaying by the anchor point in the surgery simulation message.

[0040] 优选的,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: [0040] Preferably, the virtual device implanted screw pedicle further comprising:

[0041] 设置模块,用于对虚拟手术环境中的手术对象设置不同的宽度和硬度。 [0041] The setting module configured to set a different width and hardness of the virtual surgical environment surgical object.

[0042] 在本发明中,通过对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成Mesh模型;构建手术工具;将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中;接收通过力反馈装置绘制的手术场景变化;其中,所述力反馈装置用于跟随拖动操作运动,并生成运动状态,并反馈运动效果。 [0042] In the present invention, the spinal region by dividing the region of interest and the three-dimensional reconstruction, generating Mesh Model; Construction surgical tool; Mesh Model and the introduction of the surgical tool virtual surgical environment; force feedback received via rendering a scene change operation apparatus; wherein said force feedback means for following the movement of the drag operation, and generates a motion, and motion feedback effect. 本发明能使受训者更直观和详细地了解手术区域的解剖关系,可以从多个视角了解置钉位置是否准确,是否有邻近结构的损伤,从而提高了教学质量,缩短了教学周期,以及能让使用者得到操作过程中的触觉感受。 The present invention enables the trainee more intuitive understanding of anatomy and surgical area in detail, the staples can understand the set position accuracy from multiple angles, whether there is damage to the adjacent structure, thereby improving the quality of teaching, teaching to shorten the cycle, and can allowing users to get the tactile feel during operation. 同时,加入了评分机制,使受训者更能融入到训练之中,有效帮助受训者由浅入深的练习,最终扎实的掌握解剖结构和手术技能。 At the same time, he joined the scoring mechanism, so that trainees feel more involved in the training, progressive approach to effectively help trainees practice, and ultimately a solid grasp of the anatomy and surgical skills. 立体显示技术的使用,模拟真实椎弓根置钉手术过程,增加了系统的沉浸感,具有较强的易用性和实用性。 Stereoscopic display technology used to simulate the real pedicle screw placement procedure, increasing the immersion system, ease of use and having strong practicability.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0043] 为了更清楚地说明本发明实施例中的技术方案,下面将对实施例或现有技术描述中所需要使用的附图作简单地介绍,显而易见地,下面描述中的附图仅仅是本发明的一些实施例,对于本领域普通技术人员来讲,在不付出创造性劳动性的前提下,还可以根据这些附图获得其他的附图。 [0043] In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention, the accompanying drawings briefly described embodiments or the prior art needed to be used in describing the embodiments. Apparently, the drawings described below are merely Some embodiments of the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art is concerned, without any creative effort, and may also obtain other drawings based on these drawings.

[0044]图1是本发明实施例提供的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法的实现流程示意图; [0044] FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the implementation flow of virtual methods provided pedicle screw implant of the present invention;

[0045]图2是本发明实施例提供的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置的结构示意图。 [0045] FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a virtual device according to an embodiment of the pedicle screw implant of the present invention.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0046] 为了使本发明的目的、技术方案及有益效果更加清楚明白,以下结合附图及实施例,对本发明进行进一步详细说明。 [0046] In order to make the object of the present invention, technical solutions and beneficial effects clearer, the accompanying drawings and the following embodiments, the present invention will be further described in detail. 应当理解,此处所描述的具体实施例仅仅用以解释本发明,并不用于限定本发明。 It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are only intended to illustrate the present invention and are not intended to limit the present invention.

[0047] 为了说明本发明所述的技术方案,下面通过具体实施例来进行说明。 [0047] In order to describe the technical solutions of the present invention will be illustrated by specific examples.

[0048] 请参阅图1,是本发明实施例提供的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法的实现流程,其包括以下步骤: [0048] Please refer to FIG. 1, it is an implementation flow of a virtual method provided pedicle screw implant of the present invention, which comprises the steps of:

[0049] 在步骤SlOl中,获取包含脊柱图像的CT数据; [0049] In step SlOl, the acquired CT data comprising an image of the spine;

[0050] 在本发明实施例中,将二维序列dicom格式的CT数据读入计算机。 [0050] In an embodiment of the present invention, the sequence of two-dimensional CT data format dicom read into the computer.

[0051] 在步骤S102中,对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成Mesh模型; [0051] In step S102, the region of interest of the spinal region segmentation and reconstruction, generating a Mesh Model;

[0052] 在本发明实施例中,对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成obj格式的Mesh模型; [0052] In an embodiment of the present invention, the region of interest of the spinal region segmentation and reconstruction, the model generating Mesh obj format;

[0053] 在步骤S103中,构建手术工具; [0053] In step S103, the surgical tool constructed;

[0054] 在本发明实施例中,根据实际的牵开器、骨钻、骨钉等按照实际大小在Maya软件里构建手术工具。 [0054] In an embodiment of the present invention, the retractor according to the actual, bone drill, a bone nail according to the actual size of the surgical tool constructed in the software Maya.

[0055] 在步骤S104中,将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中; [0055] In step S104, the Mesh Model and the surgical tool insert virtual surgical environment;

[0056] 在本发明实施例中,按照同比例缩放将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中。 [0056] In an embodiment of the present invention, in accordance with the scale model and the surgical tool Mesh introducing virtual surgical environment.

[0057] 在步骤S105中,接收通过力反馈装置绘制的手术场景变化;其中,所述力反馈装置用于跟随拖动操作运动,并生成运动状态,并反馈运动效果; [0057] In step S105, the receiving apparatus to draw surgical scene change by force feedback; wherein said force feedback means for following the movement of the drag operation, and generates a motion, and motion effect feedback;

[0058] 在本发明实施例中,使用者拖动力反馈装置的操作手柄,使力反馈装置的操作手柄沿任意方向移动,进而向使用者反馈运动效果,以便于让使用者得到操作过程中的触觉感受。 [0058] In an embodiment of the present invention, a user drag force feedback control lever unit of the control lever in either direction the force feedback device is moved, and thus the effect of the movement feedback to the user, so as to allow a user during operation to give tactile sensations. 力反馈装置的运动状态记录了力反馈装置的手柄位置以及使用者施加于手柄上的力。 Motion force feedback device handle position and force recorded user force applied to the feedback means of the handle.

[0059] 在本发明实施例中,利用OpenGL绘制手术场景的每一步变化,实时的计算绘制速度,其有利于受训者把握手术进度,并且可以缩放、旋转从各个角度观察虚拟手术场景。 [0059] In an embodiment of the present invention, each step using the OpenGL rendering operation scene changes, rendering speed in real time calculations, which facilitate the operation to grasp the progress of the trainee, and may be scaled, rotated, virtual surgical scene observed from various angles.

[0060] 在步骤S106中,对绘制的手术场景变化进行立体显示处理,并输出处理后的立体图像。 [0060] In step S106, the scene change of stereoscopic rendering operation display process, and outputs the processed stereo image.

[0061] 在本发明实施例中,通过3D眼镜来查看输出的处理后的立体图像。 [0061] In an embodiment of the present invention, the stereoscopic image after processing by the 3D glasses to view the output.

[0062]作为本发明一优选实施例,为了受训者能够了解到手术结果,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括以下步骤: [0062] As a preferred embodiment of the invention, the trainee can understand the operation result to the pedicle screw implanted virtual method further comprising the steps of:

[0063] 对绘制的手术场景变化进行运算处理,得到最终手术效果图,并显示所述手术效果图。 [0063] The scene change rendering arithmetic processing procedure to obtain the final results of operations in FIG., And displaying the results of operations of FIG.

[0064]作为本发明另一优选实施例,为了增加受训者的学习兴趣,设置了不同的评分机制来增加受训者的学习兴趣,其实现方案如下: [0064] As another preferred embodiment of the invention, in order to increase interest in learning the trainee, different scoring mechanisms are provided to increase the interest in learning the trainee, implementation thereof is as follows:

[0065] 计算通过力反馈装置绘制手术场景变化的完成时间; [0065] is calculated by drawing a force feedback device operation completion time of a scene change;

[0066]判断所述完成时间落在哪一等级范围内; [0066] Analyzing the completion time falls within a level range which;

[0067] 根据判断结果,确定等级。 [0067] According to the judgment result, determine the grade.

[0068] 例如,在15秒内完成,则确定为尚级;在25秒内完成,则确定为中级;在35秒内完成,则确定为低级。 [0068] For example, completed within 15 seconds, it is determined yet stage; completed in 25 seconds, is determined for the intermediate; completed within 35 seconds, it is determined as low.

[0069]作为本发明另一优选实施例,为了让初学者在对椎弓根置钉手术有一个系统的把握之后,对要进行手术的区域有一个直观的认识,保证无经验的训练者可以从有入点提示平缓过度到无入点提示状态,因此,本发明实施例通过在手术模拟中显示入钉点的提示信息。 [0069] As another preferred embodiment of the invention, in order to make sure beginners a system for pedicle screw placement after surgery, there is an intuitive understanding of the area of ​​surgery to be performed to ensure that no trainer can experience from there gently over the hint hint to the free state, illustrated by the anchor point in the display of presentation information surgical simulation embodiment of the present invention.

[0070] 作为本发明另一优选实施例,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括:对虚拟手术环境中的手术对象设置不同的宽度和硬度,让受训者在一步步提高手术难度的同时,能够熟悉各种手术对象的脊柱骨特性,从而无形中完成了对椎弓根置钉手术中不同手术对象的学习过程。 [0070] As another preferred embodiment of the invention, the pedicle screw implanted virtual method further comprising: setting different widths and the hardness of the virtual surgical environment surgical objects, so that the trainee to improve the difficulty of operation in a step at the same time, to become familiar with a variety of surgical objects spinal bone characteristics, thus virtually completed the learning process for pedicle screw placement surgery in different surgical object.

[0071]作为本发明另一优选实施例,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括:在虚拟手术环境中给出椎弓根手术用骨钻末端在手术中的理想范围,配合力反馈算法和力反馈装置,确保受训者在训练过程中能够对手术过程形成肌肉记忆力,为在手术模拟系统中准确的完成钻骨过程提供了保障。 [0071] As another preferred embodiment of the invention, the pedicle screw implanted virtual method further comprises: a pedicle surgery given virtual surgical environment over the ends of the range in the surgery with bone drill, mating force feedback algorithm and force feedback device to ensure that the trainees can build muscle memory for the procedure in the training process, provided a guarantee for the completion of the process of accurate drilling of bone in surgical simulation system.

[0072] 请参阅图2,是本发明实施例提供的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置的结构示意图。 [0072] Please refer to FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a virtual device provided in the embodiment of the pedicle screw implant of the present invention. 为了便于说明,仅示出了与本发明实施例相关的部分。 For ease of description, only the parts related to the embodiment of the present invention.

[0073] 所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置包括:获取模块101、三维重建模块102、手术工具构建模块103、导入模块104、接收模块105、以及立体显示处理模块106。 [0073] The pedicle screw implanted virtual device includes: an obtaining module 101, reconstruction module 102, building blocks 103 of the surgical tool, import module 104, a receiving module 105, processing module 106 and the stereoscopic display. 所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置可以是软件单元、硬件单元或者是软硬件结合的单元。 The implantation of pedicle screw means may be a virtual device software unit, a hardware unit or a combination of hardware and software.

[0074] 获取模块101,用于获取包含脊柱图像的CT数据; [0074] The obtaining module 101, configured to obtain data comprising a CT image of the spine;

[0075] 在本发明实施例中,将二维序列dicom格式的CT数据读入计算机。 [0075] In an embodiment of the present invention, the sequence of two-dimensional CT data format dicom read into the computer.

[0076] 三维重建模块102,用于对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成Mesh丰旲型; [0076] The reconstruction module 102 for performing segmentation and 3D reconstruction of a region of interest of the region of the spine, Dae abundance Mesh generation type;

[0077] 在本发明实施例中,对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成obj格式的Mesh模型; [0077] In an embodiment of the present invention, the region of interest of the spinal region segmentation and reconstruction, the model generating Mesh obj format;

[0078] 手术工具构建模块103,用于构建手术工具; [0078] The building blocks of the surgical tool 103, the surgical tool used to build;

[0079] 在本发明实施例中,根据实际的牵开器、骨钻、骨钉等按照实际大小构建手术工具。 [0079] In an embodiment of the present invention, the retractor according to the actual, bone drill, a bone nail surgical tool constructed in accordance with the actual size.

[0080] 导入模块104,用于将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中; [0080] import module 104, for the Mesh Model and the surgical tool insert virtual surgical environment;

[0081] 在本发明实施例中,按照同比例缩放将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中。 [0081] In an embodiment of the present invention, in accordance with the scale model and the surgical tool Mesh introducing virtual surgical environment.

[0082] 接收模块105,用于接收通过力反馈装置绘制的手术场景变化;其中,所述力反馈装置用于跟随拖动操作运动,并生成运动状态,并反馈运动效果; [0082] The receiving module 105 for receiving a surgical device to draw a scene change by force feedback; wherein said force feedback means for following the movement of the drag operation, and generates a motion, and motion effect feedback;

[0083] 在本发明实施例中,使用者拖动力反馈装置的操作手柄,使力反馈装置的操作手柄沿任意方向移动,进而向使用者反馈运动效果,以便于让使用者得到操作过程中的触觉感受。 [0083] In an embodiment of the present invention, a user drag force feedback control lever unit of the control lever in either direction the force feedback device is moved, and thus the effect of the movement feedback to the user, so as to allow a user during operation to give tactile sensations. 力反馈装置的运动状态记录了力反馈装置的手柄位置以及使用者施加于手柄上的力。 Motion force feedback device handle position and force recorded user force applied to the feedback means of the handle.

[0084] 在本发明实施例中,利用OpenGL绘制手术场景的每一步变化,实时的计算绘制速度,其有利于受训者把握手术进度,并且可以缩放、旋转从各个角度观察虚拟手术场景。 [0084] In an embodiment of the present invention, each step using the OpenGL rendering operation scene changes, rendering speed in real time calculations, which facilitate the operation to grasp the progress of the trainee, and may be scaled, rotated, virtual surgical scene observed from various angles.

[0085] 立体显示处理模块106,用于对绘制的手术场景变化进行立体显示处理,并输出处理后的立体图像。 [0085] The stereoscopic display processing module 106, a scene change of stereoscopic rendering operation display process, and outputs the processed stereo image.

[0086]作为本发明一优选实施例,为了受训者能够了解到手术结果,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: [0086] As a preferred embodiment of the invention, the trainee can understand the operation result to the pedicle screw implanted in the virtual device further comprises:

[0087] 效果图处理模块,用于对绘制的手术场景变化进行运算处理,得到最终手术效果图,并显示所述手术效果图。 [0087] FIG effect processing module for rendering the scene change operation performs arithmetic processing to obtain the final results of operations in FIG., And displaying the results of operations of FIG.

[0088]作为本发明另一优选实施例,为了增加受训者的学习兴趣,设置了不同的评分机制来增加受训者的学习兴趣,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: [0088] As another preferred embodiment of the invention, in order to increase interest in learning the trainee, different scoring mechanisms are provided to increase the interest in learning the trainee, the pedicle screw implanted in the virtual device further comprises:

[0089]时间计算模块,用于计算通过力反馈装置绘制手术场景变化的完成时间; [0089] The time calculation module, means for calculating a rendering operation completion time of the scene change by force feedback;

[0090] 等级判断模块,用于判断所述完成时间落在哪一等级范围内; [0090] The level determination means for determining the class to which the completion time falls within a range;

[0091] 等级确定模块,用于根据判断结果,确定等级。 [0091] The rank determination module, according to the judgment result, determine the grade.

[0092]作为本发明另一优选实施例,为了让初学者在对椎弓根置钉手术有一个系统的把握之后,对要进行手术的区域有一个直观的认识,保证无经验的训练者可以从有入点提示平缓过度到无入点提示状态,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: [0092] As another preferred embodiment of the invention, in order to make sure beginners a system for pedicle screw placement after surgery, there is an intuitive understanding of the area of ​​surgery to be performed to ensure that no trainer can experience from there the no clues to smooth over the hint state, the pedicle screw implanted in the virtual device further comprises:

[0093] 入点提示模块,用于通过在手术模拟中显示入钉点的提示信息。 [0093] point prompt module for displaying by the anchor point in the surgery simulation message.

[0094]作为本发明另一优选实施例,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括:设置模块,用于对虚拟手术环境中的手术对象设置不同的宽度和硬度。 Virtual device [0094] As another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the pedicle screw implant further comprising: setting means for setting different widths and the hardness of the virtual surgical environment surgical object. 让受训者在一步步提高手术难度的同时,能够熟悉各种手术对象的脊柱骨特性,从而无形中完成了对椎弓根置钉手术中不同手术对象的学习过程。 Let trainees at the same time increase the difficulty of operation of a step by step, to become familiar with various surgical spinal bone characteristics of the object, thereby virtually completed the learning process for pedicle screw placement surgery in different surgical object.

[0095]作为本发明另一优选实施例,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括:目标点提示模块,用于在虚拟手术环境中给出椎弓根手术用骨钻末端在手术中的理想范围,配合力反馈算法和力反馈装置,确保受训者在训练过程中能够对手术过程形成肌肉记忆力,为在手术模拟系统中准确的完成钻骨过程提供了保障。 [0095] As another preferred embodiment of the invention, the pedicle screw implanted in the virtual device further comprising: a target point prompt module configured in a virtual surgical environment given pedicle surgical bone drill tip in operation the ideal range, with force feedback algorithm and force feedback device to ensure that the trainees can build muscle memory for the procedure in the training process, provided a guarantee for the completion of the process of accurate drilling of bone in surgical simulation system.

[0096] 所属领域的技术人员可以清楚地了解到,为了描述的方便和简洁,仅以上述各功能模块的划分进行举例说明,实际应用中,可以根据需要而将上述功能分配由不同的功能模块完成,即将所述装置的内部结构划分成不同的功能单元或模块,以完成以上描述的全部或者部分功能。 [0096] Those skilled in the art may clearly understand that, for convenience and brevity of description, only the division of the functional modules is illustrated, in practice, according to the necessity foregoing functions by different functional modules is completed, the internal structure of the apparatus is divided into different functional units or modules to complete all or part of the functions described above. 实施例中的各功能模块可以集成在一个处理模块中,也可以是各个模块单独物理存在,也可以两个或两个以上模块集成在一个单元中,上述集成的模块既可以采用硬件的形式实现,也可以采用软件功能模块的形式实现。 Example of functional modules may be integrated into one processing module, each module may be a separate physical presence may be two or more modules are integrated into one unit, the above integrated module may take the form of hardware implemented form, the software can also be used to achieve functional modules. 另外,各功能模块的具体名称也只是为了便于相互区分,并不用于限制本申请的保护范围。 In addition, the specific names of the functional modules is also distinguished from each other for convenience only, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure. 上述装置中模块的具体工作过程,可以参考前述方法实施例中的对应过程,在此不再赘述。 Specific operation of the above device, the module may refer to the corresponding process in the method embodiment, which is not repeated herein.

[0097] 综上所述,本发明实施例通过对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成Mesh模型;构建手术工具;将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中;接收通过力反馈装置绘制的手术场景变化;其中,所述力反馈装置用于跟随拖动操作运动,并生成运动状态,并反馈运动效果。 [0097] In summary, embodiments of the present invention the spinal region by dividing the region of interest and the three-dimensional reconstruction, generating Mesh Model; Construction surgical tool; Mesh Model and the introduction of the surgical tool virtual surgical environment; receiving means operative to draw a scene change by force feedback; wherein said force feedback means for following the movement of the drag operation, and generates a motion, and motion feedback effect. 本发明能使受训者更直观和详细地了解手术区域的解剖关系,可以从多个视角了解置钉位置是否准确,是否有邻近结构的损伤,从而提高了教学质量,缩短了教学周期,以及能让使用者得到操作过程中的触觉感受。 The present invention enables the trainee more intuitive understanding of anatomy and surgical area in detail, the staples can understand the set position accuracy from multiple angles, whether there is damage to the adjacent structure, thereby improving the quality of teaching, teaching to shorten the cycle, and can allowing users to get the tactile feel during operation. 同时,加入了评分机制,使受训者更能融入到训练之中,有效帮助受训者由浅入深的练习,最终扎实的掌握解剖结构和手术技能。 At the same time, he joined the scoring mechanism, so that trainees feel more involved in the training, progressive approach to effectively help trainees practice, and ultimately a solid grasp of the anatomy and surgical skills. 立体显示技术的使用,模拟真实椎弓根置钉手术过程,增加了系统的沉浸感,具有较强的易用性和实用性。 Stereoscopic display technology used to simulate the real pedicle screw placement procedure, increasing the immersion system, ease of use and having strong practicability.

[0098] 本领域普通技术人员可以意识到,结合本文中所公开的实施例描述的各示例的模块及算法步骤,能够以电子硬件、或者计算机软件和电子硬件的结合来实现。 [0098] Those of ordinary skill in the art may be aware, in conjunction with modules, and algorithm steps described in the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, can be combined with electronic hardware, computer software and electronic hardware, or be implemented. 这些功能究竟以硬件还是软件方式来执行,取决于技术方案的特定应用和设计约束条件。 Whether these functions are performed by hardware or software depends upon the particular application and design constraints of the technical solutions. 专业技术人员可以对每个特定的应用来使用不同方法来实现所描述的功能,但是这种实现不应认为超出本发明的范围。 Professional technical staff may use different methods for each specific application to implement the described functionality, but such implementation should not be considered outside the scope of the present invention.

[0099] 在本发明所提供的实施例中,应该理解到,所揭露的装置和方法,可以通过其它的方式实现。 [0099] In an embodiment of the present invention is provided, it is understood that the apparatus and methods disclosed may be implemented in other manners. 例如,以上所描述的装置实施例仅仅是示意性的,例如,所述模块的划分,仅仅为一种逻辑功能划分,实际实现时可以有另外的划分方式,例如多个模块或组件可以结合或者可以集成到另一个装置,或一些特征可以忽略,或不执行。 For example, the described apparatus embodiments are merely illustrative of, for example, the module division is merely logical function division, there may be other division in actual implementation, for example, a plurality of modules or components may be combined or It may be integrated into another device, or some features may be ignored or not performed. 另一点,所显示或讨论的相互之间的耦合或直接耦合或通讯连接可以是通过一些接口,装置或模块的间接耦合或通讯连接,可以是电性,机械或其它的形式。 Another point, displayed or coupled or directly coupled or connected to the communication between each question may be through some interface, device, or indirect coupling or communication module connections may be electrical, mechanical, or other forms.

[0100] 所述作为分离部件说明的模块可以是或者也可以不是物理上分开的,作为模块显示的部件可以是或者也可以不是物理模块,即可以位于一个地方,或者也可以分布到多个网络单元上。 [0100] The modules described as separate components may be or may not be physically separated, as a component of the display module may or may not be physical modules may be located in one place, or may be distributed to a plurality of networks unit. 可以根据实际的需要选择其中的部分或者全部模块来实现本实施例方案的目的。 You can select some or all of the modules according to actual needs to achieve the object of the solutions of the embodiments.

[0101]另外,在本发明各个实施例中的各功能模块可以集成在一个处理模块中,也可以是各个模块单独物理存在,也可以两个或两个以上模块集成在一个模块中。 [0101] Further, in various embodiments of the present invention the functional modules may be integrated into one processing module, each module may be a separate physical presence may be two or more modules are integrated into one module. 上述集成的模块既可以采用硬件的形式实现,也可以采用软件功能模块的形式实现。 The integrated module may be implemented in the form of hardware, software functional modules may also be implemented.

[0102] 所述集成的模块如果以软件功能模块的形式实现并作为独立的产品销售或使用时,可以存储在一个计算机可读取存储介质中。 [0102] If the integrated module implemented as a separate product sold or used in the form of functional software modules may be stored in a computer-readable storage medium. 基于这样的理解,本发明实施例的技术方案本质上或者说对现有技术做出贡献的部分或者该技术方案的全部或部分可以以软件产品的形式体现出来,该计算机软件产品存储在一个存储介质中,包括若干指令用以使得一台计算机设备(可以是个人计算机,服务器,或者网络设备等)或处理器(processor)执行本发明实施例各个实施例所述方法的全部或部分步骤。 Based on such understanding, the solution of the embodiment of the present invention or the technical embodiment of all contributing to the prior art or part of the technical solutions or the part may be embodied in a software product stored in a computer software product is stored medium and includes several instructions for instructing a computer device (may be a personal computer, a server, or network device) or (processor) to perform all or part of the steps of the methods of the various embodiments of the present invention. 而前述的存储介质包括:U盘、移动硬盘、只读存储器(ROM,Read_Only Memory)、随机存取存储器(RAM,Random Access Memory)、磁碟或者光盘等各种可以存储程序代码的介质。 The storage medium includes: U disk, mobile hard disk, a read-only memory (ROM, Read_Only Memory), a random access various memories (RAM, Random Access Memory), a magnetic disk, or an optical medium can store program codes.

[0103]以上所述实施例仅用以说明本发明的技术方案,而非对其限制;尽管参照前述实施例对本发明进行了详细的说明,本领域的普通技术人员应当理解:其依然可以对前述各实施例所记载的技术方案进行修改,或者对其中部分技术特征进行等同替换;而这些修改或者替换,并不使相应技术方案的本质脱离本发明实施例各实施例技术方案的精神和范围。 Example only [0103] In the above embodiments describe the technical solutions of the present invention, rather than limiting;. Although the present invention has been described in detail embodiments, those of ordinary skill in the art should be understood: it can still technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments to modify, or to some technical features equivalents; as such modifications or replacements do not cause the essence of corresponding technical solutions to depart from the respective embodiments of the present invention the spirit and scope of the technical solutions .

Claims (10)

1.一种椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法,其特征在于,所述方法包括以下步骤: 获取包含脊柱图像的CT数据; 对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成Mesh模型; 构建手术工具; 将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中; 接收通过力反馈装置绘制的手术场景变化;其中,所述力反馈装置用于跟随拖动操作运动,并生成运动状态,并反馈运动效果;具体的,通过使用者拖动力反馈装置的操作手柄,使力反馈装置的操作手柄沿任意方向移动,进而向使用者反馈运动效果,以便于让使用者得到操作过程中的触觉感受;所述力反馈装置的运动状态记录了力反馈装置的手柄位置以及使用者施加于手柄上的力; 对绘制的手术场景变化进行立体显示处理,并输出处理后的立体图像。 A pedicle screw placement of virtual methods, characterized in that the method comprises the steps of: acquiring CT image data containing the spine; spinal region of the region of interest for segmentation and 3D reconstruction, generating Mesh Model; Construction of the surgical tool; Mesh model and the introduction of the surgical tool virtual surgical environment; change in feedback force received by a surgical scene rendering device; wherein said force feedback means for following the movement of the drag operation, and generates a motion state and feedback motion effects; specifically, the drag force feedback by a user apparatus operating handle, in either direction so that the force feedback control lever moving means, and thus the effect of feedback to the user motion so as to allow a user during operation to give tactile feel; state of motion of said force feedback device handle position and force recorded user feedback force exerted on the handle means; a scene change of stereoscopic rendering operation display process, and outputs the processed stereo image.
2.如权利要求1所述的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法,其特征在于,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括以下步骤: 对绘制的手术场景变化进行运算处理,得到最终手术效果图,并显示所述手术效果图。 2. The method of claim 1 virtual pedicle screw implant according to claim, wherein said pedicle screw implant comprising a virtual method further steps of: rendering a scene change operation performs arithmetic processing to obtain FIG final results of operations, and displaying the results of operations of FIG.
3.如权利要求1所述的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法,其特征在于,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括以下步骤: 计算通过力反馈装置绘制手术场景变化的完成时间; 判断所述完成时间落在哪一等级范围内; 根据判断结果,确定等级。 3. The method of claim 1 virtual pedicle screw implant according to claim, wherein said pedicle screw implanted virtual method further comprising the steps of: calculating by the force feedback means operative to draw a scene change is completed time; determining whether the completion time falls within a level range which; according to the determination result, determine the grade.
4.如权利要求1所述的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法,其特征在于,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括以下步骤: 在手术模拟中显示入钉点的提示信息。 4. The method of claim 1 virtual pedicle screw implant according to claim, wherein said pedicle screw implanted virtual method further comprising the step of: displaying the message in a surgical staple point simulation .
5.如权利要求1所述的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法,其特征在于,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟方法还包括以下步骤: 对虚拟手术环境中的手术对象设置不同的宽度和硬度。 5. The method of claim 1 virtual pedicle screw implant according to claim, wherein said pedicle screw implant virtual method further comprises the steps of: providing a virtual surgical environment different surgical object width and hardness.
6.一种椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置,其特征在于,所述装置包括: 获取模块,用于获取包含脊柱图像的CT数据; 三维重建模块,用于对感兴趣区域的脊柱区域进行分割和三维重建,生成Mesh模型; 手术工具构建模块,用于构建手术工具; 导入模块,用于将所述Mesh模型以及所述手术工具导入虚拟手术环境中; 接收模块,用于接收通过力反馈装置绘制的手术场景变化;其中,所述力反馈装置用于跟随拖动操作运动,并生成运动状态,并反馈运动效果;具体用于通过使用者拖动力反馈装置的操作手柄,使力反馈装置的操作手柄沿任意方向移动,进而向使用者反馈运动效果,以便于让使用者得到操作过程中的触觉感受;所述力反馈装置的运动状态记录了力反馈装置的手柄位置以及使用者施加于手柄上的力; 立体显示处理模块,用于对绘制的手术场景变化进行立 A pedicle screw implanted virtual device, wherein the apparatus comprises: an acquiring module, for acquiring CT image data containing the spine; 3D Reconstruction, for the region of interest for spinal region segmentation and reconstruction, generating a Mesh model; surgical tool building blocks for constructing a surgical tool; import module, for the Mesh model and the surgical tool insert virtual surgical environment; receiving module for receiving the force feedback rendering a scene change operation apparatus; wherein said force feedback means for following the movement of the drag operation, and generates a motion, and motion effect feedback; particularly for operation by the user handle the drag force feedback device, a force feedback mobile device operating handle in any direction, and thus the effect of the movement feedback to the user, so as to allow a user to obtain tactile sensation during operation; force feedback device of the state of motion of the handle position and recording a user applying a force feedback device force on the handle; stereoscopic display processing module for rendering the scene change operation is Li 体显示处理,并输出处理后的立体图像。 Body display processing, and outputs the processed stereo image.
7.如权利要求6所述的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置,其特征在于,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: 效果图处理模块,用于对绘制的手术场景变化进行运算处理,得到最终手术效果图,并显示所述手术效果图。 7. The apparatus of claim 6 virtual pedicle screw implant according to claim, wherein said pedicle screw implanted virtual device further comprising: rendering processing means for operation of drawing the scene change performs arithmetic processing to obtain the final results of operations in FIG., and displaying the results of operations of FIG.
8.如权利要求6所述的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置,其特征在于,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: 时间计算模块,用于计算通过力反馈装置绘制手术场景变化的完成时间; 等级判断模块,用于判断所述完成时间落在哪一等级范围内; 等级确定模块,用于根据判断结果,确定等级。 8. The apparatus of claim 6 virtual pedicle screw implant according to claim, wherein said pedicle screw implanted virtual device further comprising: a time calculation module configured to calculate the rendering operation by the force feedback device scene change completion time; level determination means for determining which of the completion time falls within a level range; level determination module, according to the judgment result, determine the grade.
9.如权利要求6所述的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置,其特征在于,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: 入点提示模块,用于通过在手术模拟中显示入钉点的提示信息。 9. The apparatus of claim 6 virtual pedicle screw implant according to claim, wherein said pedicle screw implanted virtual device further comprising: a point prompting module for surgery by displaying the simulation the point of the nail tips.
10.如权利要求6所述的椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置,其特征在于,所述椎弓根螺钉植入的虚拟装置还包括: 设置模块,用于对虚拟手术环境中的手术对象设置不同的宽度和硬度。 10. The apparatus of claim 6 virtual pedicle screw implant according to claim, wherein said pedicle screw implant virtual device further comprises: a setting module, to the operation target for the virtual surgical environment setting different widths and hardness.
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