CN104529573A - Multi-effect ferment fertilizer prepared from agricultural wastes - Google Patents

Multi-effect ferment fertilizer prepared from agricultural wastes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104529573A
CN104529573A CN201410840322.7A CN201410840322A CN104529573A CN 104529573 A CN104529573 A CN 104529573A CN 201410840322 A CN201410840322 A CN 201410840322A CN 104529573 A CN104529573 A CN 104529573A
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fermentation
ferment
fertilizer
crop
days
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CN201410840322.7A
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CN104529573B (en
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朱玉珍
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Zijin Mountain Liang Feng Ecological Agriculture Co., Ltd.
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BEIHAI WANWUSHENG BIOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F17/00Preparation of fertilisers characterised by biological or biochemical treatment steps, e.g. composting or fermentation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention relates to a multi-effect ferment fertilizer prepared from agricultural wastes and belongs to the technical field of fertilizer processing and utilization. The preparation method of the multi-effect ferment fertilizer comprises the following steps: adding raw materials which comprise animal dung, crop straws and blackstrap into a fermentation pool and uniformly mixing, and adding water to immerse all raw materials; inoculating an activated EM strain and sealing to ferment; unclosing the fermentation pool at least 15 days before application, adding a proper amount of water and stirring and leaving to stand for 1-3 days; then inoculating the activated EM strain, stirring and sealing to ferment 3-5 days before application; and adding a proper amount of tea bran and fermenting till being applied. The multi-effect ferment fertilizer obtained comprehensively utilizes agricultural wastes, provides sufficient nutrients to crops and enhances the anti-disaster capacity of the crops, so that the soil fertility is improved and the economical benefit is increased; meanwhile, the multi-effect ferment fertilizer has an effect of eliminating insect pests and preventing straw turnover to generate insect pest, thereby providing an optimal scheme for straw turnover.

Description

Many effects ferment that a kind of agricultural wastes make is fertile
Technical field
The present invention relates to many effects ferment fertilizer that a kind of agricultural wastes make, belong to fertilizer process and utilization technology field.
Background technology
Produce a large amount of straw refuse during crop harvesting, crop material utility value is not high, and affects the crop farming of lower season.Often by centralized burning after a large amount of crop material waste produces, cause serious atmospheric pollution, bring potential safety hazard again simultaneously.
" also field " and " compost " are comprised to crop material Application way.Along with the lifting of production technology and the popularization of agro-farming mechanize, there is the novel method of " returning total stalks into fields ", directly bury in ground after crushed stalk, be converted into fertilizer.But this method is difficult to produce actual effect, and reason is: Mierocrystalline cellulose effectively can not decompose and incorporate in soil, and stalk is difficult to absorb.And a large amount of stalks simply imbedded in soil, if cannot be utilized in the short period of time, grow a large amount of insect on the contrary, as " grub " etc., serious harm is caused to farm crop.
On the other hand, intensive livestock and poultry breeding industry development, modernization breeding scale, while boosting productivity, also brings the reluctant problem of ight soil of a large amount of livestock and poultry.Animal manure loss is serious, and its process amount of labour used is large, cost is high, and plant and surrounding enviroment pollution problem become increasingly conspicuous.
Therefore, in conjunction with the feature of rural area kind cultural technique, effective utilization of exploitation crop material and fowl and animal excrement has very important significance.
Summary of the invention
The present invention discloses many effects ferment fertilizer that a kind of agricultural wastes make, and the application process of the many effects ferment fertilizer obtained.The present invention fully utilizes the agricultural waste such as crop material and fowl and animal excrement, improves rural environment; And adequate nutrients is provided, ensure crop quality, strengthen the anti-harmful ability of crop; And field can be avoided to harden, improve soil fertility; Meanwhile, ferment fertilizer of the present invention has the effect eliminating insect pest, can provide more excellent scheme in conjunction with straw-returning technology.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention is as follows:
The preparation method of many effects ferment fertilizer that agricultural wastes make, raw materials usedly comprises fowl and animal excrement, crop material, waste molasses, and preparation process comprises the following steps:
Step (1): crop material after crushed, to add in fermentation vat and to mix, adding water to and flood all raw materials together with fowl and animal excrement, waste molasses;
Step (2): by 150-200g/m 3amount inoculate activated EM bacterial classification, after stirring, sealing and fermenting more than 30 days obtains one time fermentation thing;
Step (3): at least 15 days Kaifeng fermentation vats before using, and in described one time fermentation thing, add 0.3-0.5 water doubly, leave standstill 1-3 days after stirring and obtain one time fermentation handled thing;
Step (4): by 100-150g/m 3amount in described one time fermentation handled thing, inoculate activated EM bacterial classification, after stirring, non-tight fermentation obtains Secondary Fermentation thing at least 10 days;
Step (5): use front 3-5 days, by 15-20kg/m 3amount in described Secondary Fermentation thing, add tea bran, every day stirs at least 1 time, ferments to before using, obtains final fermentation materials as crop fertilizer.
Further, the amount of waste molasses described in raw material is the 10-15% of raw material gross weight; The amount of described crop material is the 30-50% of raw material gross weight; Surplus is described fowl and animal excrement.
Further, crop material described in step (1) pulverizes the segment for 1-5cm.
Further, bottom fermentation vat, air is passed in the fermenting process of step (4).
Further, the activation of EM bacterial classification is specially: get EM bacterial classification 1 part, brown sugar 8-10 part, salt 0.1-0.2 part, urea 0.5-1 part, 10-20 part water, the red pool will be added after water boil, constantly boiling 5-10min, be cooled to add EM bacterial classification, salt, urea during 40-50 DEG C, under room temperature, sealed fermenting 3-5 days obtains activated EM bacterial classification.
The many effects ferment preparing gained is fertile, and when using, gained fermentation materials is carried out solid-liquid separation, gained liquids is done crop foliage fertilizer and used, and gained solids makees base manure or topdresses and uses.
Further, make base manure when using, use after described solids is mixed with crop material siccative; The moisture of crop material siccative is less than 35%, and pulverizes the segment for 1-3cm; The part by weight of crop material siccative is less than 40%.
It is fertile that the present invention adopts zymotechnique that agricultural wastes are processed as many effects ferment, and fertilizer itself, containing a large amount of useful viable bacteria, is the bio-fertilizer that a class contains vitality, can be absorbed by crops as nutrient in being manured into soil, and can not form residue in the ground.Viable bacteria colony amount reproduction in soil simultaneously, the residual body of various animal and plant in fast decoupled soil, produces a large amount of soil ulmin again, dissolves the element be fixed in soil, improves soil supplying nutrient capability, and can control various disease spread.The present invention through anaerobically fermenting, aerobic fermentation, and adds in fertilizer, and maximum limit promotes fertilizer efficiency, makes fertilizer have multiple efficacies and reach synergism simultaneously.
In anaerobic fermentation process, taking lactobacillus inoculation as the leading factor with Lactobacterium acidophilum relies on carbohydrate to form the weak acid such as lactic acid, lactic acid has very strong sterilizing ability, harmful microorganism can be suppressed active, and efficient-decomposition not labile xylogen and Mierocrystalline cellulose under normal conditions, make the nutrient that organic substance decomposing transform crop easily absorbs.The pathogenic bacterium propagation that lactobacillus inoculation can also suppress continuous cropping obstacle to produce.Pathogenic bacterium are active easily causes harmful nematode sharply to increase, and milk-acid bacteria suppresses pathogenic bacterium, avoids nematode evil.
In aerobic fermentation process, each probiotics is bred in a large number, promotes active.And aerobic fermentation process produces ammonia, can in and excess acid in anaerobic fermentation process, avoid N to run off, and the product small molecules feeble-acid-ammonium salt that easily absorbs of crop not yet simultaneously.And thus avoid in fermenting process and produce foreign odor.Aerobic fermentation produces various antibiotics, VITAMIN and enzyme simultaneously, directly can suppress pathogenic bacteria, and creates the living environment of other beneficial microorganism propagation.Photosynthetic bacteria group in aerobic fermentation process belongs to autotrophy microorganism, and thalline itself contains the protein of more than 60%, and is rich in multivitamin, antiviral substance and somatomedin; And with the secretory product of plant root, obnoxious flavour (hydrogen sulfide etc.) etc. for matrix, synthesis carbohydrate, amino acids, vitamins, nitrogen compound, antiviral substance and physiologically active substance etc. are rich soil and the main power promoting plant growth.
The follow-up tea bran that adds ferments, and tea bran, except providing multiple organic composition and mineral substance, wherein contains the tea saponin of 12-18%.Tea saponin is slightly acidic, and after aerobic fermentation, fertilizer basicity promotes, and can increase tea saponin and dissolve.Tea saponin is a kind of sugared formula compound, and is a kind of natural nonionic surface active agent, itself is also a kind of botanical pesticide, to grub, nematode, aphid, moth class etc., all has obvious toxic action.And tea saponin can be degraded automatically, toxicological harmless.Tea saponin can improve wet performance and the suspensibility of each material in foliage fertilizer as wetting agent, increases foliage fertilizer nutritive ingredient, improves foliage fertilizer physico-chemical property, improves sticking power, makes it to be beneficial to fertilizer efficiency and plays, have synergism.
Meanwhile, many effects ferment fertilizer has a fertile multiplex effect.Gained liquids makes foliage fertilizer, and it has various active sugar, organic acid ammonium salt, VITAMIN and enzyme, is directly absorbed after sprinkling by blade face, participates in metabolism, strengthens crop resistance, resistance.Gained solids makes base manure containing multiple organic nutrient and useful thalline, has hormesis to crop growth and body physiological metabolism.
Base manure made by gained solids mixing crop material siccative, and crop material siccative is soft, has inspiratory, effectively nurses one's health the proterties of the soil water, gas, heat, avoids soil property to worsen and nutrient loss.And decomposition and inversion under the effect of stalk a large amount of thalline in many effects ferment fertilizer, becomes the nutritive substance being beneficial to Crop, improve the utilization ratio of crop material.And because many effects ferment is fertile, there is the effect eliminating insect pest, avoid straw-returning to produce insect pest, provide more excellent scheme for straw-returning utilizes.Proceeding to produce heat in the process of fermenting, heat of fermentation has the effect proposing moisture in the soil soil moisture conservation, promotes plant growth, improves output and product quality.And fermenting process release of carbon dioxide, increases the carbon dioxide concentration in air, being conducive to promoting crop photosynthesis, is again well " gas is fertile ".
Adopt technique scheme, utilize crop material to do bed material, with Animal fecal pollution nitrogenous source adjustment carbon-nitrogen ratio, add tea bran and promote fertilizer effect, make probiotics hypervelocity expand numerous, each material decomposes rapidly, as the fertilizer of high-quality after fully fermenting, for organic and green ecological agriculture production, realize effective utilization of agricultural wastes, turn waste into wealth, prevent the pollution of the environment, reach the object improving rural environment, comprehensive utilization of resources, the cultivation of ecological circulation kind, promote circular agriculture Economic development.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention will be further described:
Embodiment 1
Use fowl and animal excrement, cassava stalk to make many effects ferment in conjunction with waste molasses fertile, preparation process comprises the following steps:
(1) be about 3cm segment by 30 parts of cassava crushed stalk, add together with 55 parts of fowl and animal excrements, 15 portions of waste molasses in fermentation vat and to mix, adding water to and flood all raw materials.
(2) by 150g/m 3amount inoculate activated EM bacterial classification, stir bonnet envelope fermentation vat, ferment 30 days.
The activation of EM bacterial classification: get EM bacterial classification 1 part, 8 parts, brown sugar, salt 0.1 part, 0.5 part, urea, 10 parts of water, the red pool will be added after water boil, constantly boiling 5min, is cooled to add EM bacterial classification, salt, urea when 40 DEG C, and under room temperature, sealed fermenting obtains activated EM bacterial classification in 3 days.
(3) use first 15 days, fermentation vat breaks a seal, and adds the water of 0.3 times, leaves standstill 1 day after stirring.
(4) by 100g/m 3amount inoculate activated EM bacterial classification, stir after open wide fermentation vat carry out Secondary Fermentation, bottom fermentation vat, pass into air while fermentation.
(5) first 3 days are used, by 15kg/m 3amount add tea bran, stir 1 every day, ferment and obtain final fermentation materials as crop Term Fertilization after 3 days.
Embodiment 2
Use fowl and animal excrement, cassava stalk to make many effects ferment in conjunction with waste molasses fertile, preparation process comprises the following steps:
(1) be about 3cm segment by 40 parts of cassava crushed stalk, add together with 45 parts of fowl and animal excrements, 15 portions of waste molasses in fermentation vat and to mix, adding water to and flood all raw materials.
(2) by 180g/m 3amount inoculate activated EM bacterial classification, stir bonnet envelope fermentation vat, ferment 45 days.
The activation of EM bacterial classification: get EM bacterial classification 1 part, 9 parts, brown sugar, salt 0.15 part, 0.8 part, urea, 15 parts of water, the red pool will be added after water boil, constantly boiling 7min, is cooled to add EM bacterial classification, salt, urea when 45 DEG C, and under room temperature, sealed fermenting obtains activated EM bacterial classification in 4 days.
(3) use first 20 days, fermentation vat breaks a seal, and adds the water of 0.4 times, leaves standstill 2 days after stirring.
(4) by 120g/m 3amount inoculate activated EM bacterial classification, stir after open wide fermentation vat carry out Secondary Fermentation, bottom fermentation vat, pass into air while fermentation.
(5) first 4 days are used, by 18kg/m 3amount add tea bran, stir 1 every day, fermenting obtains final fermentation materials after 4 days and uses as crop fertilizer.
Embodiment 3
Use fowl and animal excrement, cassava stalk to make many effects ferment in conjunction with waste molasses fertile, preparation process comprises the following steps:
(1) be about 3cm segment by 50 parts of cassava crushed stalk, add together with 40 parts of fowl and animal excrements, 10 portions of waste molasses in fermentation vat and to mix, adding water to and flood all raw materials.
(2) by 200g/m 3amount inoculate activated EM bacterial classification, stir bonnet envelope fermentation vat, ferment 60 days.
The activation of EM bacterial classification: get EM bacterial classification 1 part, 10 parts, brown sugar, salt 0.2 part, 1 part, urea, 20 parts of water, the red pool will be added after water boil, constantly boiling 10min, is cooled to add EM bacterial classification, salt, urea when 50 DEG C, and under room temperature, sealed fermenting obtains activated EM bacterial classification in 5 days.
(3) use first 30 days, fermentation vat breaks a seal, and adds the water of 0.5 times, leaves standstill 3 days after stirring.
(4) by 150g/m 3amount inoculate activated EM bacterial classification, stir after open wide fermentation vat carry out Secondary Fermentation, bottom fermentation vat, pass into air while fermentation.
(5) first 5 days are used, by 20kg/m 3amount add tea bran, stir 2 every day, fermenting obtains final fermentation materials after 5 days and uses as crop fertilizer.
Embodiment 4
Preparing final fermentation materials is that many effects ferment is fertile, and when using, gained fermentation materials is carried out solid-liquid separation, liquids is done crop foliage fertilizer and used, and solids makees base manure or topdresses and uses.
Get the cassava stalk siccative that 35 parts of moisture are less than 35%, after pulverizing the segment of most about 2cm, be separated with 65 parts and make base manure after the solids obtained mixes and use.
To make the base manure that cassava plants with common mixed fertilizer use fertile for embodiment 1,2,3 gained ferment, wherein embodiment 3 gained foliage fertilizer is used simultaneously, the indices such as, cassava production, tapioca starch present thick to plant height, stem compare, and starch content records by the tapioca slice of water content 15%.Test point is South China, and practice ground is divided into 4 communities, and every plot area 0.2 mu, this soil texture is for newly to open up wasteland sandy soil, and fertility is low.
Common mixed fertilizer and embodiment 1,2,3 gained rate of fertilizer are 100kg/ mu, and the foliage fertilizer amount of application in embodiment 3 is 80L, application in two dressings.Common mixed fertilizer is: carbon ammonium 50kg/ mu, calcium superphosphate 42kg/ mu, potash fertilizer 8kg/ mu.Carry out according to standard cassava cultivation management scheme in whole planting process.
Table 1 Manihot Esculenta and cassava indices cartogram
Acquired results is as shown in table 1.Result shows, uses the cassava of ferment fertilizer, no matter the indices such as, cassava production, tapioca starch present thick at plant height, stem are all good than common mixed fertilizer, volume increase is up to 30.1%.This illustrates that ferment fertilizer is a kind of fertilizer.
More than describe just the specific embodiment of the present invention, respectively illustrate that person of ordinary skill in the field makes an amendment aforesaid embodiment or is out of shape, and does not deviate from essence of the present invention not to the restriction of essence of an invention Composition of contents.

Claims (10)

1. the preparation method of many effects ferment fertilizer that makes of agricultural wastes, is characterized in that, raw materials usedly comprises fowl and animal excrement, crop material and waste molasses, and preparation process comprises the following steps:
Step (1): crop material after crushed, to add in fermentation vat and to mix, adding water to and flood all raw materials together with fowl and animal excrement, waste molasses;
Step (2): by 150-200g/m 3amount inoculate activated EM bacterial classification, after stirring, sealing and fermenting more than 30 days obtains one time fermentation thing;
Step (3): at least 15 days Kaifeng fermentation vats before using, and in described one time fermentation thing, add 0.3-0.5 water doubly, leave standstill 1-3 days after stirring and obtain one time fermentation handled thing;
Step (4): by 100-150g/m 3amount in described one time fermentation handled thing, inoculate activated EM bacterial classification, after stirring, non-tight fermentation obtains Secondary Fermentation thing at least 10 days;
Step (5): use front 3-5 days, by 15-20kg/m 3amount in described Secondary Fermentation thing, add tea bran, every day stirs at least 1 time, ferments to before using, obtains final fermentation materials as crop fertilizer.
2. the preparation method of many effects ferment fertilizer of agricultural wastes making as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, in described raw material, the amount of described waste molasses is the 10-15% of raw material gross weight; The amount of described crop material is the 30-50% of raw material gross weight; Surplus is described fowl and animal excrement.
3. the preparation method of many effects ferment fertilizer of agricultural wastes making as claimed in claim 2, it is characterized in that, crop material described in described step (1) pulverizes the segment for 1-5cm.
4. the preparation method of many effects ferment fertilizer of agricultural wastes making as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, pass into air in the fermenting process of described step (4) bottom fermentation vat.
5. the preparation method of many effects ferment fertilizer of agricultural wastes making as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the activation of described EM bacterial classification, be specially: get EM bacterial classification 1 part, brown sugar 8-10 part, salt 0.1-0.2 part, urea 0.5-1 part, 10-20 part water, the red pool will be added after water boil, constantly boiling 5-10min, is cooled to add EM bacterial classification, salt, urea during 40-50 DEG C, and the fermentation of room temperature lower seal obtains activated EM bacterial classification for 3-5 days.
6. many effects ferment of making of the preparation method any one of claim 1 to 5 described in claim is fertile.
7. the using method of many effects ferment fertilizer made of the preparation method any one of claim 1 to 5 described in claim, it is characterized in that, when using, gained fermentation materials is carried out solid-liquid separation, gained liquids is done crop foliage fertilizer and is used, and gained solids makees base manure or topdresses and uses.
8. many effects ferment as claimed in claim 7 is fertile, it is characterized in that, makees base manure when using, uses after being mixed by described solids with crop material siccative.
9. many effects ferment as claimed in claim 8 is fertile, and it is characterized in that, the moisture of described crop material siccative is less than 35%, and pulverizes the segment for 1-3cm.
10. many effects ferment as claimed in claim 9 is fertile, and it is characterized in that, the part by weight of described crop material siccative is less than 40%.
CN201410840322.7A 2014-12-30 2014-12-30 Many effect ferment fertilizer that a kind of agricultural wastes make Expired - Fee Related CN104529573B (en)

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