CN1045173A - 通过精馏来分离空气的方法和装置 - Google Patents

通过精馏来分离空气的方法和装置 Download PDF

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CN1045173A
CN1045173A CN90100335A CN90100335A CN1045173A CN 1045173 A CN1045173 A CN 1045173A CN 90100335 A CN90100335 A CN 90100335A CN 90100335 A CN90100335 A CN 90100335A CN 1045173 A CN1045173 A CN 1045173A
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nitrogen
pressure
heat exchanger
air
expand
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CN1025068C (zh
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迪特里希·罗特曼
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琳德股份公司
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Priority to DE19893905521 priority patent/DE3905521A1/de
Priority to EP19890113815 priority patent/EP0383994A3/de
Priority to EP89113815.8 priority
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
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    • F25JLIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS OR LIQUEFIED GASEOUS MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT OR BY BRINGING THEM INTO THE SUPERCRITICAL STATE
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    • F25J3/04763Start-up or control of the process; Details of the apparatus used
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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Abstract

本发明描述了通过精馏来分离空气的一种方法和一种装置。将由该工艺抽出的氮16加热到一种中等温度,部分地从主换热器17中导出30并作功膨胀31。膨胀的气体32在主换热器17中将其冷量传给分离空气1,然后重新压缩33、36。

Description

本发明涉及一种通过精馏来分离空气的方法,其中对空气进行压缩、预净化、冷却并在两级精馏的压力级中分离成一种富氮馏份和一种富氧的液体,将这两种馏份至少部分地送往精馏的中压级,分离成氧和氮,在此,至少采出一种气态的氮馏份,加热并使其至少部分地作功澎胀。另外,本发明的主题还是一种实施该方法的装置。
美国专利说明书US    2,666,303已经公开了一种这样的方法。这里,来自中压级的氮为工艺制冷而减压澎胀。这比中压级在高于大气压力下操作时用压力级氮驱动冷循环要经济。然而,该已知方法的缺点是,中压级气态氮馏份已减压的部分不能再用于需要高压的用途。
本发明的目的在于改进本说明书开头所述类型的方法和装置的经济性,特别是要以特别有利的方式提供过程制冷,且并不限制气态氮馏份的继续应用。
该目的可由下述措施来实现:加热并重新压缩至少一部分作功澎胀后的氮,其中将至少一部分减压澎胀后所得的功用于压缩。
特别有利的是,在高压下操作的空气分离装置中进行再压缩的同时应用作功澎胀。这是由于澎胀透平入口处的压力还相当高,因而可以达到较高的效率。这对于与发电装置联合且共同使用煤或重油的气化来驱动的空气分离装置来说,尤为适宜。
从工艺之外输入能量作为压缩功率的一部分,这证明是有利的。由此可使减压后的氮气部分重新恢复其原有的压力(减压前的压力)或上升到更高的压力,如果需要将它以相应的参数继续使用的话。例如,在空气分离设备与气化煤发电装置的联合设备中,可将再压缩的氮气送入通常处于高压下的燃烧室。
因此,尤为有利的是按本发明进一步的特征使气态氮馏份减压的部分压缩到基本上与气态氮馏份分开时相等的压力,并接着又重新送入气态氮馏份未减压的部分中。
借助于这种工艺方式,按照本发明制冷时,还可以提供处于中压级(一般较高)压力下的总的气态氮馏份,该馏份可在例如一个煤气化发电装置的燃烧室继续使用。
尤其在整个空气分离和特别是中压级必须在较高压力下运行的那些应用中,所达到的产品纯度往往是不能令人满意的。得到的氮气是这样,氧气产品则纯度更差。
由于这种原因,按照本发明的另一方面,从中压级顶部采出另一氮馏份,将之加热,压缩,接着再冷却并导入压力级,在一定的情况下是有益的。将(纯)氮馏份至少部分地送入一个所称的强化循环中。经由强化循环而进入压力级的氮,通过与中压级的釜液间接换热而冷凝,将其以液态采出并作为辅助回流供给中压级。由此,在不影响压力级传质的条件下提高了中压级的物质交换,因而产物流具有较高的纯度。
本发明还涉及一种实施上述方法的装置。该装置包括一个主换热器,该换热器内有空气和氮气通道,还具有一个由压力塔和中压塔组成的双级精馏塔,其特征是有一根管道由主换热器的中间区域引出,使氮气通道与澎胀透平入口连通,并由另一根管道使澎胀透平出口与一台压缩机的入口连通,并作为通道穿过主换热器。此外,压缩机的出口还可以与主换热器的氮通道的出口连通。
下面借助于附图所示本发明方法的一种实施方式进一步解释本发明及其它细节。
经压缩并预净化过的空气经管1导入,在主换热器17中与产物流间接换热而冷却,然后进入两级精馏塔2的压力级3。压力级3(操作压力:6至20巴,优选8至17巴)与中压级4(操作压力:1.5至10巴,优选2.0至8.0巴)经一个共有的冷凝/蒸发器13呈换热连接。引入的空气在压力级3预分离成氮和富氧馏份。富氧馏份经管6以液体状态采出,在换热器32中过冷后节流喷入中压级4。压力级3顶部的氮经管5同样以液体状态采出,在换热器32中过冷后部分地由管8作为液体产物排出。来自压力级3的另一部分的氮由管9以回流形式送入中压级4。
作为中压级4的产物,采出液体氧(管14)、气态纯氮(管15)和不纯的氮(管16),并在主换热器17中对其加热,氮气流则另外还在换热器32中辅助加热。
在进入压力级3之前,管1中一部分空气(管21)在换热器20中与来自中压级4塔釜的氧14换热而冷凝。来自中压级4塔釜的液氧14为此由泵19加压到高压,并在冷凝器20中进行热交换时部分地汽化。部分冷凝的空气22在高于第一进料口(管1)的位置进入压力级3。氧的汽化部分由管23排出并加热(17)。另一部分氧由管42作为液体产物流排出。
按照本发明,使管16中的一部分不纯的氮在约110至210K、优选135至185K的中等温度下,经管30由主换热器17引出,并在澎胀透平31中作功澎胀到2.6至1.4巴、优选约2.0巴的压力。减压澎胀后的氮经管32重新送到主换热器17的冷端并加热至环境温度。从而将减压澎胀时所制的冷传递给管1中待分离的空气。
为了能够使澎胀的氮和未澎胀的部分(管39)一起抽去,分两级33、36再次将其压缩,以此各自相继地将压缩热除去(冷却器35、37)。第二压缩级36与澎胀透平31相耦合,以便回收膨胀时所作的功,用于工艺中。为了使该气体重新恢复其(在管30及29中的)初始压力,还需要另一压缩级33,该压缩级由外部引入的能量驱动。然而,通过本发明的工艺方式,该附加消耗的能量将非常有效地转化成工艺冷量。
如果需要压力高于中压级4的纯氮,可在加热后将其压缩。这一般在多个压缩级40、41中实现。此时,通常在每级40、41之后,要用水冷却器(图中未示出)将压缩热导出。
在这种情况下,特别有利的是采用强化循环来提高中压级的传质和产物纯度。为此,图中虚线表示的管线是必要的。经管42从管15中分出至少一部分调整到压力塔(在该实施例中位于压缩级40和41之间)压力水平的纯氮,在主换热器17中加热,继而经管42送入压力级3。
附加的氮在中压级4的顶部冷凝,同时液体在其塔釜汽化。它还可以液体形式附带经管5采出,并以回流形式送入中压塔。然后也由管15采出数量相应提高的氮,将之加热(32,17)并在压缩级40压缩,这样,强化循环通路就闭合了,换热器32和17的平衡也实现了。

Claims (7)

1.通过精馏来分离空气的方法,其中将空气1压缩、预净化、冷却17并在两级精馏塔2的压力级3预分离成一种富氮馏份5和一种富氧液体6,该两种馏份5、6至少部分地进入精馏过程2的中压级4,并分离成氧和氮,其中至少引出一种气态的氮馏份16,加热17并至少部分地30作功澎胀31,其特征在于,加热17并重新压缩33、36至少一部分作功澎胀31过的氮32,其中将澎胀31时所得功的至少一部分用于压缩36。
2.权利要求1所述的方法,其特征是,压缩33的一部分功率由工艺之外输入的能量供给。
3.权利要求1或2所述的方法,其特征是,将气态氮馏份澎胀后的部分32压缩33、36到一种与气态氮馏份16分开时30、39的压力基本相等的压力。
4.权利要求3所述的方法,其特征是,将气态氮馏份澎胀并重新压缩的部分38重新引入气态氮馏份未减压澎胀的部分39。
5.权利要求1至4中任一项所述的方法,其特征是,由中压级4顶部抽出另一种氮馏份15,将之加热32、17,压缩40,接着再次冷却17并引入42压力级3。
6.实施权利要求1至5中任一项所述方法的装置,该装置中有一个主换热器17,其内有空气1和氮16、39的通道,有一个由压力塔3和中压塔4组成的双级精馏塔2,其特征在于,管30由主换热器17的中间区域引出并与氮通道16和澎胀透平31的入口相连接,另一根管32将澎胀透平31出口与压缩机33、36入口连通,并作为通道穿过主换热器17。
7.权利要求6所述的装置,其特征是,压缩机33、36的出口与主换热器17氮通道39的出口连通。
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