CN104508230A - Drill bit with hydraulically adjustable axial pad for controlling torsional fluctuations - Google Patents

Drill bit with hydraulically adjustable axial pad for controlling torsional fluctuations Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104508230A
CN104508230A CN 201380039524 CN201380039524A CN104508230A CN 104508230 A CN104508230 A CN 104508230A CN 201380039524 CN201380039524 CN 201380039524 CN 201380039524 A CN201380039524 A CN 201380039524A CN 104508230 A CN104508230 A CN 104508230A
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China
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pad
drill bit
fluid
surface
drilling
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CN 201380039524
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104508230B (en
Inventor
T·施韦费
C·J·博伊尔豪森
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贝克休斯公司
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Priority to US13/489,563 priority Critical
Priority to US13/489,563 priority patent/US9915138B2/en
Application filed by 贝克休斯公司 filed Critical 贝克休斯公司
Priority to PCT/US2013/044487 priority patent/WO2013188206A1/en
Publication of CN104508230A publication Critical patent/CN104508230A/en
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Publication of CN104508230B publication Critical patent/CN104508230B/en

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/62Drill bits characterised by parts, e.g. cutting elements, which are detachable or adjustable
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B47/00Survey of boreholes or wells
    • E21B47/09Locating or determining the position of objects in boreholes or wells, e.g. the position of an extending arm; Identifying the free or blocked portions of pipes

Abstract

In one aspect, a drill bit is disclosed that, in one configuration, includes one or more cutters on a surface thereon configured to penetrate into a formation, at least one pad at the surface, an actuation device configured to supply a fluid under pressure to the pad to extend the pad from the surface, and a relief device configured to drain fluid supplied to the pad to reduce the pressure on the at least one pad when the force applied on the at least one pad exceeds a selected limit.

Description

带有用于控制扭转波动的液压可调轴向垫的钻头 With a hydraulic control torsional fluctuations for axially adjustable pad bit

[0001] 相关申请的交叉引用 CROSS [0001] REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0002] 本申请是2008年10月9日提交的序列价).12/248,801的部分继续美国申请,其是2008年9月25日提交的美国专利申请序列如.12/237,569的部分继续申请,该美国专利申请序列如.12/237,569被公告为美国专利价).7,971,662,每个专利的全部内容都被包含在此。 [0002] This application is a sequence price) part .12 / 248,801 in the United States continue to apply for 2008 filed October 9, which is US Patent September 25, 2008, filed as part of the sequence .12 / 237,569 of continuation application, U.S. Patent application serial such as the .12 / 237,569 U.S. Patent is declared as a monovalent) .7,971,662, the entire contents of each of which are incorporated herein.

[0003] 背景信息 [0003] Background Information

技术领域 FIELD

[0004] 本公开内容概括来说涉及钻头以及利用所述钻头钻进井眼的系统。 [0004] The present disclosure generally relates to the use of a drill bit and drill the wellbore system.

背景技术 Background technique

[0005] 油井(也被称作“井眼”或“钻孔”)利用钻柱钻进,所述钻柱包括具有钻进组件(也被称作“底部钻具组合”或“8撤”)的管状部件。 [0005] well (also referred to as "wellbore" or "borehole") drilling using a drill string, the drill string comprising a drilling assembly (also referred to as "bottom hole assembly" or "withdrawal 8" ) of the tubular member. 8撤典型包括提供关于与钻进作业有关的各种参数(“钻进参数”)、8撤性能(“8撤参数”)以及与井眼周围的地层有关的参数(“地层参数”)的信息的装置和传感器。 8 comprises a withdrawal typically provide for various parameters relating to the drilling operations ( "drilling parameters"), 8 release properties ( "parameters withdrawal 8") and related with the formation around the borehole parameters ( "formation parameters") of apparatus and sensor information. 钻头附接于8撤的底端。 Withdrawal of the drill bit attached to the bottom end 8. 通过旋转钻柱和/或通过8撤中的钻进马达(也被称作“泥浆马达”)使钻头旋转,以便破碎岩层从而钻进井眼。 By rotating the drill string and / or withdrawal of the drill bit by the drill motor 8 (also referred to as "mud motor") is rotated, so to broken rock drill the wellbore. 很多井眼都是沿着起伏状轨迹钻进。 Many are borehole drilling along an undulating track. 例如,单个井眼可以包括穿过不同类型的岩层的一个或多个竖直区段、偏斜区段和水平区段。 For example, the wellbore may comprise a single through the formation of different types of one or more vertical segments, the deflection section and a horizontal section. 当从诸如砂的软地层向诸如页岩的硬地层进行钻进或反之时,钻头的钻进速度(如?)发生变化,并可能导致(减小或增大)钻头中过大的波动或振动(侧向或扭转通常通过控制钻头的钻压(108)和转速(每分钟转数或“!??,')来控制如?,以便控制钻头波动。通过控制地面上的起吊载荷来控制108,并通过控制地面上的钻柱旋转和/或通过控制8撤中的钻进马达速度来控制即1。利用这些方法控制钻头波动和如?需要钻进系统或操作者在地面上的采取动作。这样的地面动作对钻头波动的影响明显不是即刻的。根据井眼深度,其在一时间段后才出现。 When drilling or vice versa from the soft ground to the hard ground, such as sand shale, bit rate of penetration (e.g.,?) Changes, and may cause (decrease or increase) in the drill bit excessive fluctuations or vibration (typically by twisting or lateral WOB control bit (108) and the rotational speed (revolutions per minute or "! ?? ') is controlled such as?, in order to control fluctuations in the drill bit. controlled by controlling the load on the ground lifting 108, and rotation of the drill string on the ground and / or to control 1. using these methods i.e. by controlling the drilling motor speed fluctuations in the drill bit 8 and withdraw as? require drilling system or by the operator to take control on the ground action. the impact of such action on the drill ground volatility clearly not immediate. according to the depth of the borehole, it appears only after a period of time.

[0006] 所以,需要提供一种改进的钻头和用于使用这种钻头的系统,以便在钻进井眼期间控制钻头波动和钻头的80? [0006] Therefore, a need to provide an improved drill bit and for using such system, to control the wellbore during drilling of the drill bit 80 and the fluctuation? .

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0007] 在一个方面,公开了一种钻头,在一个构造中,所述钻头包括:在钻头上的表面上的一个或多个刀具,所述刀具构造成穿入地层中;在所述表面上的至少一个垫;构造成向该垫供给压力下的流体以使该垫从该表面伸出的致动装置;和构造成在施加于所述至少一个垫的力超过选定极限值时排放供给到垫的流体以减少所述至少一个垫上的压力的释放 [0007] In one aspect, a drill bit, in one configuration, the drill bit comprising: a drill bit on a surface on one or a plurality of tools, said tool configured to penetrate into the formation; the surface the at least one pad; pad configured to supply fluid under pressure to the actuating means extending from the surface of the mat; and configured to discharge upon application of the at least one pad of the force exceeds the selected limit value releasing fluid supplied to the pad to reduce the pressure in the at least one pad

目.0 Head .0

[0008] 在另一个方面,公开了一种制造钻头的方法,所述方法可以包括:在钻头的表面上提供刀具和至少一个垫,其中,所述至少一个垫构造成从一选定位置伸出以及从伸出位置缩回,以在钻进井眼期间控制钻头的波动;和提供释放装置,所述释放装置构造成在施加于所述至少一个垫的力超过一选定极限值时排放供给到所述至少一个垫的流体。 [0008] In another aspect, a method of manufacturing a drill bit, the method may comprise: providing on a surface of the tool bit and at least one pad, wherein the at least one pad configured to extend from a selected location and retracted from the extended position to the wellbore during drilling to control fluctuations in the drill bit; and providing a release means, said release means configured to be applied to the at least one pad discharge force exceeds a selected limit value supplying fluid to said at least one pad.

[0009] 在另一个方面,提供了一种钻进井眼的方法,所述方法可以包括:(1)将附接于底部钻具组合的钻头输送到井眼中,所述钻头包括:在钻头的表面上的垫;构造成向该垫供给压力下的流体以对该垫施加力从而使垫从所述表面伸出的致动单元;和构造成在施加于所述垫的力超过一选定极限值时传送供给到垫的流体以减少所述垫上的压力的释放装置;(11)用底部钻具组合钻井眼;和(111)在钻井眼期间,使垫从钻头表面伸出,以在钻井眼期间控制钻头的波动。 [0009] In another aspect, there is provided a method of drilling a wellbore, the method may include: (1) a drill bit attached to the bottom hole assembly is conveyed into the wellbore, the drill bit comprising: a drill bit on the surface of the pad; configuration of the fluid under pressure is supplied to the pad to apply a force to the cushion pad so that the actuating means extending from said surface; and configured to force applied to the pad exceeds a selected transmitting a given limit value when supplied to the fluid cushion releasing means to reduce the pressure pad; (11) drilling the wellbore with the bottom hole assembly; and (111) during drilling a wellbore, the drill bit protruding from the surface of the pad to fluctuations drill bit during drilling eye control.

[0010] 在又一个方面,公开了一种在钻井眼时使用的设备,在一个构造中,所述设备可以包括:附接于底部钻具组合的底端的钻头,所述钻头包括垫、构造成向该垫供给压力下的流体以对该垫施加力从而使垫从所述表面伸出的致动装置、和构造成在施加于所述垫的力超过一选定极限值时传送供给到垫的流体以减少所述垫上的压力的释放装置。 [0010] In yet another aspect, an apparatus is disclosed for use in drilling a wellbore, in one configuration, the apparatus may include: a drill bit attached to the bottom end of the BHA, the drill bit comprising a pad configured supplying fluid under pressure to the pad to apply a force to the cushion pad so that the actuating means extending from said surface, and configured to transmit when the force applied to the pad exceeds a selected limit value is supplied to the pad to reduce fluid pressure release means of said pad.

[0011] 在此公开的设备和方法的某些特征的例子概述得相当宽泛,以便可以更好地理解下文对其的详细说明。 [0011] Examples of certain features of the apparatus and method disclosed herein outlined rather broadly so that it can better understand the detailed description thereof below. 当然,下文公开的设备和方法还具有附加特征,其将形成附加于此的权利要求的主题。 Of course, the apparatus and methods disclosed hereinafter, also have additional features, which will form the subject of the claims appended hereto.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0012] 参照附图能最佳地理解本文公开的内容,其中,同样的数字基本上被分配给同样的元件,其中: [0012] can be best understood with reference to the disclosure herein to the accompanying drawings, wherein like numerals are assigned to substantially identical elements, wherein:

[0013]图1是示例性钻进系统的示意图,所述钻进系统包括具有根据本公开内容的一个实施例制成的钻头的钻柱; [0013] FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an exemplary drilling system, said drilling system comprising a drill string having a drill bit made in accordance with an embodiment of the present embodiment of the disclosure;

[0014] 图2八是示例性钻头的立体图,显示了根据本公开内容的一个实施例的钻头上的一个或多个可调垫的放置; [0014] FIG. 2 is a perspective view of an exemplary eight bit, showing one or more embodiments of the adjustable drill according to one embodiment of placing the pad of the present disclosure;

[0015] 图28显示了图2八的钻头的底部部分的立体图,显示了根据本公开内容的一个方法的垫的放置; [0015] Figure 28 shows a perspective view of a bottom portion of the bit of FIG. 2 eight showing a method of placing in accordance with the present disclosure pad;

[0016] 图3八显示了图2八的钻头的一部分,该部分包括根据本公开内容的一个实施例的位于钻头的面部分上的与可伸出的垫连通的流体通道和用于致动可伸出的垫的致动装置; [0016] FIG. 3 shows a portion of eight bit eight in FIG. 2, the actuation part comprising a pad according to a fluid communication passage may extend on the surface portion of the drill bit according to one embodiment of the present disclosure and for actuating means of extendable pad;

[0017] 图38显示了图2八的钻头的一部分,该部分包括根据本公开内容的一个实施例的位于钻头的侧面上的与可伸出的垫连通的流体通道和用于致动可伸出的垫的致动装置; [0017] FIG. 38 shows a portion of a drill bit eight in FIG. 2, the portion comprising a fluid channel and extending according to a communication pad extendable actuator located on the side of a drill bit of the embodiment of the present disclosure the actuating means of the pad;

[0018] 图3(:显示了带有释放机构的示例性止回阀,所述释放机构可用作图3八和图38所示的系统中的流体流量控制装置;和 [0018] FIG. 3 (: a fluid flow control device shows an exemplary system with a check valve release mechanism, the release mechanism 3 may be used as shown in FIG. 38 and eight in; and

[0019] 图4是在图2八的钻头的面部分上的相对于切削元件处于伸出位置的可伸出的垫的示意图。 [0019] FIG. 4 is a phase in the surface portion of the drill bit of FIG. 2 for eight cutting elements may extend schematic pad is in the extended position.

[0020] 实施例的详细说明 Detailed Description [0020] Example of

[0021] 图1是示例性钻进系统100的示意图,所述钻进系统100可以使用根据在此的本公开内容制成的钻头。 [0021] FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an exemplary drilling system 100, the drilling system 100 may use the disclosure of this drill bit made according to the present. 图1显示了井眼110,所述井眼110具有上区段111和下区段114,所述上区段111带有安装在该上区段中的套管112,所述下区段114被钻柱118钻进。 Figure 1 shows a borehole 110, the wellbore 110 has an upper section 111 and lower section 114, the upper section 111 having a sleeve mounted in the upper section 112, section 114 of the lower 118 is the drillstring. 钻柱118显示为包括管状部件116,所述管状部件具有附接于其底端的8撤130。 The drill string 118 is shown as comprising a tubular member 116, the tubular member having attached thereto a bottom end 130 to withdraw 8. 管状部件116可以通过联接钻管区段构成,或者其可以是挠性管。 The tubular member 116 can be coupled to the drill pipe section configuration, or it may be a flexible tube. 钻头150显示为附接于8撤130的底端,用于破碎岩层119,以钻进具有选定直径的井眼110。 The drill bit 150 is shown for attachment to the bottom end 8 of the withdrawal 130, 119 for breaking rock, to drill a wellbore having a selected diameter 110.

[0022] 钻柱118显示为被从地面167上的钻机180输送到井眼110中。 [0022] The drill string 118 is shown as being conveyed from a rig 180 on the surface 167 into the wellbore 110. 为便于说明,所示的示例性钻机180为陆上钻机。 For ease of explanation, the exemplary drill 180 as shown in land rigs. 在此公开的设备和方法也可以与用于在水下钻进井眼的离岸钻机一起使用。 Apparatus and methods disclosed herein may also be used with respect to offshore drilling rig subsea wellbore. 可以使用联接到钻柱118的转盘169或上驱动(未显示)上的旋转钻柱118,从而使8撤130旋转,并因而带动钻头150旋转以钻进井眼110。 Can be coupled to a drill string rotary drive 118 or 169 (not shown) is rotated on the drill string 118, 130 is rotated so that the withdrawal of 8, and thus drive the drill bit 150 is rotated to drill the borehole 110. 钻进马达155(也称作“泥浆马达”)可以设置在8撤130中以旋转钻头150。 Drilling motor 155 (also referred to as "mud motor") in the 8 to 130 withdrawal rotary drill bit 150 may be provided. 可以单独使用钻进马达155来旋转钻头150或通过钻柱118叠加钻头的旋转。 150 or 155 to rotate the drill bit through the drill string 118 rotation of the drill bit may be used alone superposed drilling motor. 控制单元(或控制器)190可以是基于计算机的单元,其可以放置在地面167上,以接收并处理由钻头150中的传感器和8撤130中的传感器传送的数据,并控制8撤130中各种装置和传感器的选定操作。 8 130 withdrawal control unit (or controller) 190 may be a computer-based unit, which can be placed on the ground 167 to receive and drill bit 150 in the data transmitted by the sensor 8 and withdrawal sensor 130, and controls selected operating various devices and sensors. 在一个实施例,地面控制器190可以包括处理器192、用于存储数据的数据存储装置(或计算机可读介质)194、算法和计算机程序196。 In one embodiment, the ground controller 190 may include a processor 192, a data storage means for storing data (or computer readable media) 194, 196 algorithms and computer programs. 数据存储装置194可以是任何适合的装置,包括但不限于:只读存储器¢01)、随机存取存储器(狀的、闪存、磁带、硬盘和光盘。在钻进期间,钻进流体179从其源在压力下被泵送到管状部件116中。钻进流体在钻头150的底部排出,然后经由钻柱118与井眼110的内壁142之间的环形空间(也被称作“环空”)返回至地面。 The data storage device 194 may be any suitable means, including but not limited to: 01 ¢ ROM), a random access memory (shape, a flash memory, a magnetic tape, a hard disk and an optical disk during drilling, drilling fluid 179 therefrom. source under pressure is pumped into the tubular member 116. the drilling fluid is discharged at the bottom of the drill bit 150, and then via the annular space between the drill string 142 and inner wall 118 of the wellbore 110 (also referred to as "annulus") return to the ground.

[0023] 仍然参照图1,钻头150包括面部分(或底部部分)152。 [0023] Still referring to 1, the drill bit 150 includes a face portion (or bottom portion) 152 of FIG. 面部分152或其一部分在钻进期间面对钻头前面的地层或井眼底部。 A portion facing the front portion 152 of the drill bit at the bottom surface or the formation or borehole during drilling. 在一个方面,钻头150在面部分152包括一个或多个垫160,所述垫160在钻进期间可以可调地(也被称作“可选择地”或“可控地”)从面部分152伸出。 In one aspect, the drill bit 150 in the face portion 152 comprises one or more pads 160, the pads 160 may be adjustably during drilling (also referred to as "selectable" or "controllably") from the face portion 152 out. 垫160在此也被称作“可伸长的垫”、“可伸出的垫”或“可调垫”。 The pad 160 is also referred to as "extensible pad", "extendable pad" or "pad tunable." 可利用8撤130和/或钻头150中适合的致动装置(或致动单元)155在钻进井眼110期间激活垫160。 8 130 may be utilized to withdraw and / or drill suitable actuator means (or actuator means) of the activation mat 150 155 160 110 during drilling of the wellbore. 与垫160相关联的或与致动单元155相管联的适合的传感器178提供了对应于施加在垫上的力或确定垫伸出量的信号。 Suitable sensor pad 160 associated with the actuating means or tube 155 associated 178 provides a signal corresponding to the force applied on the pad or pads projecting amount is determined. 8撤130还可以包括一个或多个井下传感器(共同用数字175标记)。 8 withdraw 130 may also include one or more downhole sensors (collectively labeled with the number 175). 传感器175可以包括任意数量和类型的传感器,包括但不限于:通常被称为随钻测量(^0)传感器或随钻测井([10)传感器的传感器、和提供有关8撤130的行为的信息的传感器,所述行为例如钻头旋转(每分钟转数或“即^')、刀面、压力、振动、涡旋、弯曲和粘滑运动。8撤130还可以包括控制单元(或控制器)170,所述控制单元(或控制器)构造成控制垫160的操作并用于至少部分地处理接收自传感器175和178的数据。控制器170可以包括用于处理传感器178信号(例如,放大和数字化信号)的电路、用于处理数字化信号的处理器172(例如,微处理器)、数据存储装置174(例如,固态存储器)和计算机程序176及其它器件。处理器172可以处理数字化信号,控制垫160的操作,处理来自其它井下传感器的数据,控制其它井下装置和传感器,并经由双向遥测单元188与控制器190通讯数据信息。在一 Sensor 175 may include any number and types of sensors, including but not limited to: commonly referred to as Measurement While Drilling (^ 0) sensor or logging while drilling sensor, a sensor ([10), and the act of providing the relevant withdrawal 130 8 sensor information, for example, the behavior of the rotary drill bit (revolutions per minute or "i.e. ^ '), flank, pressure, vibration, vortexed, and stick-slip motion .8 bending withdrawal may further include a control unit 130 (or controller ) 170, the control unit (or controller) configured to control the operation of the pad 160 and 178 for at least partially processing the data received from the sensor 175 and controller 170 may comprise a signal for processing the sensor 178 (e.g., amplifies, and digitized signal) of the circuit for processing the digital signal processor 172 (e.g., a microprocessor), a data storage device 174 (e.g., solid state memory) and computer programs 176 and other devices. the processor 172 may process the digitized signals, control pad operation 160, the process data from other downhole sensors, downhole control other devices and sensors, and information 188 and controller 190 via the bidirectional communication data telemetry unit. in a 方面,控制器170可以调节垫160的伸出量,以控制钻头波动或如?,从而提高钻进效率并延长钻头150的寿命。增大垫的伸出量可以减少刀具暴露于地层或减少刀具的切削深度。减少刀具暴露则可导致扭转或侧向波动、如?、涡旋、粘滑运动、弯曲力矩、振动等的降低,这反过来又可以导致钻出更光滑的孔以及减少钻头150和8撤130上的应力,从而延长8撤和钻头寿命。对于相同的108和1??1,钻进诸如砂的软地层时的如?通常高于钻进诸如页岩的硬地层时的如?。从软地层钻到硬地层的过渡由于如?的下降可导致钻头中过大的侧向波动,而从硬地层钻到软地层的过渡由于如?的升高可导致钻头中过大的扭转波动。所以,当从软地层过渡到硬地层或者从硬地层过渡到软地层时,需要控制钻头的波动。垫伸出量可以根据一个或多个参数进行控制,所述参数包括但 Aspect, the controller 170 may adjust the amount of projection of the pad 160 to the drill bit, such as fluctuations or?, Thereby increasing drilling efficiency and extend the life of the drill bit 150. Increased pad tool can reduce the amount of projection exposure in the formation or reduce tool the depth of cut can lead to reduced exposure tool twist or lateral fluctuations, such as? decreases, vortexed, stick-slip, bending moment, vibration or the like, which in turn can lead to a smoother hole drilled and the drill bit 150 to reduce 8 and stress on the withdrawal 130, thereby extending the life of the drill bit 8 and withdrawal. 1 and 108 for the same time 1, as? usually higher than drilling, such as shale hard formation when drilling in soft formations such as sand such as?. drilled hard from soft formations such as the formation of the transition due? drop can lead to excessive drill lateral fluctuations, and drill down from a hard transition due to the soft ground formations such as? may lead to increased bit too large torsional fluctuations. Therefore, when the transition from hard to soft formation formation formation or transition from hard to soft formation, the drill bit needs to control hunting. pad projecting amount may be controlled in accordance with one or more parameters, the parameters including, but 限于:压力、刀面、如?、涡旋、振动、扭矩、弯曲力矩、粘滑运动和岩石类型。自动地和选择性地调节垫伸出量可使系统100能够控制扭转和侧向钻头波动、如?及其它钻头和8撤物理参数,而不用在地面上改变钻压或钻头即1。进一步参照图2八、3八和38描述垫160的控制。 Limited to: pressure, flank, e.g., vortexed, vibration, torque, bending moment, stick-slip motion and rock types and automatically selectively adjusting the amount of projection pads enable the system 100 to control the bit torsional and lateral fluctuation?. as? 8 and withdraw the drill bit and other physical parameters, without changing the drill or drill press 1. That is further described with reference to the control pad 160 of FIG. 2 eight, eight, and 38 3 on the ground.

[0024] 图2八显示了根据本公开内容的一个实施例制作的钻头150的立体图。 [0024] FIG. 2 shows a perspective view eight 150 bit according to one embodiment of the present embodiment produced disclosure. 所示的钻头150为聚晶金刚石复合片$00钻头,其具有钻头本体212,所述钻头本体212包括一部分2123和接头部分212比所述部分2123包括切削元件,所述接头部分2126连接于8撤。 The drill bit 150 is shown $ 00 polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit having a bit body 212, including a portion of the bit body 212 and a joint portion 2123 than the portion 212 includes a cutting element 2123, 2126 is connected to the joint portion 8 withdrawal . 该部分2123包括面部分21¾(在此也被称作“底部部分”)。 The portion 2123 includes a face portion 21¾ (herein also referred to as "bottom portion"). 为本公开内容的目的,面部分21&1可以包括如图3八所示的鼻部、锥形部和肩部。 The purpose of the present disclosure, a surface portion 21 may include a & nose, and a tapered shoulder portion 3 shown in FIG eight. 该部分2123显示为包括多个刀片轮廓214^21413、……21½ (也被称作“轮廓”)。 The portion 2123 is shown to include a plurality of blade profile 214 ^ 21413, ...... 21½ (also referred to as "contour"). 每个刀片轮廓包括位于面部分21¾上的刀具。 Each cutter includes a blade profile on the face portion 21¾. 每个刀片轮廓紧邻钻头中心215终止。 Each blade profile 215 terminates close to the drill center. 在钻进井眼期间,中心215面对钻头150前面的井眼110的底部(或在井眼110的底部的前面钻头150的侧面部分15½基本上平行于钻头150的纵向轴线222。多个间隔开的刀具沿着各个刀片轮廓设置。例如,刀片轮廓21½显示为包含刀具2163-2161每个刀具具有切削表面或切削元件,例如刀具2163的切削元件2163',其在钻头150在钻进井眼期间旋转时接合岩层。每个刀具2163-216111具有后倾角和侧倾角,两者组合限定了刀具进入到岩层中的切削深度。每个刀具还具有最大地层切削深度。 During drilling of the wellbore, the center 215 facing the bottom 150 of the wellbore ahead of the bit 110 (or a plurality of spaced longitudinal axis 222. 15½ substantially parallel to the front of the drill bit 150 of the drill bit at the bottom of the side portions 110 of the wellbore 150 apart along each cutter blade profile settings. For example, the blade profile is shown as comprising tool 21½ 2163-2161 each having a cutting surface or cutting tool element, such as a cutting tool element 2163 2163 ', which is the bit in drilling the wellbore 150 during formation engaging rotates after each tool 2163-216111 has an inclination angle and a roll, a combination of both defining the cutting depth of the tool into the rock formation. formations each tool further has a maximum depth of cut.

[0025] 仍然参照图2八,多个可伸出的垫(例如垫240)可以设置在钻头150的面部分2183上。 [0025] Still referring to FIG. 2 eight pads (e.g., pad 240) a plurality of projecting portions may be provided on the surface 2183 of the drill bit 150. 在一个构造中,垫240可以设置成紧邻着刀片轮廓(2143-21½)的刀具。 In one configuration, the pad 240 may be disposed proximate the blade profile (2143-21½) tool. 每个垫240可以设置在相关联的空腔242中。 Each pad 240 may be disposed in the cavity 242 associated. 垫可以可控地从面部分21&!伸出以及缩回到空腔242中。 21 & mat may! Retracted into the cavity 242 and extends from the face portion controllably. 垫240的伸出量取决于施加于垫240的力。 Projecting pads 240 depends on the force applied to the pad 240. 当该力被从垫240释放或减小时,垫240朝着空腔242缩回。 When the force is released or reduced from the pad 240, pad 240 is retracted toward the cavity 242. 在一个构造中,致动装置元件350'(图3幻可以将压力下的流体经由与垫240相关联的流体通道244供给到垫240以使垫240从面部分21¾伸出。参照图3,更加详细地描述了特定的致动装置。适合的偏压部件可以联接到垫240以使垫240缩回。 In one configuration, the actuating means element 350 '(FIG. 3 may be magic fluid under pressure via a fluid passage 240 associated with the pad 244 is supplied to the pad 240 to the pad 240 protrudes from the face portion 21¾. Referring to FIG 3, described in more specific detail the actuating means. suitable biasing member may be coupled to the pad 240 to the pad 240 is retracted.

[0026] 图28显示了示例性钻头250的面部分252的立体图。 [0026] Figure 28 shows a perspective view of an exemplary portion 252 of the bit face 250. 钻头250显示为包括六个刀片轮廓2603-260? Drill 250 is shown to include six blade profile 2603-260? ,每个刀片轮廓包括多个刀具,例如对于刀片轮廓2603,包括刀具262^-2621110间隔交替的刀片轮廓260^,2600和2606显示为朝着钻头250的中心215会聚,而剩下的刀片轮廓2601260(1和260?显示为分别终止于刀片轮廓260。、2606和2603的侧面。流体通道2783-278?将钻进流体179排出到钻头底部(图1)。图3的特定构造显示了在钻头250的面部分252上的三个可调垫,每一个沿着相关联的刀片轮廓:垫2703沿着刀片轮廓2603 ;垫270。沿着刀片轮廓260。;垫2706沿着刀片轮廓2606。垫270^270(3和2706显示为设置在它们相应的空腔272^272。和2726中。如参照图2八的描述,每个垫272^2720和2726借助施加在其上的选定的力可以选择性地从面部分252伸出一所需的距离。在一个构造中,所有垫270^270(3和2706可以绕中心215以对称方式设置,并且可以构造成从钻头面部分252伸出相同的距离,以便控制钻头波动或如 Each blade profile comprises a plurality of tools, for example, blade profile 2603, the tool 262 includes alternating intervals -2621110 ^ 260 ^ blade profile, shown as 2600 and 2606 converge towards the center 215 of the drill bit 250, and the remaining blade profile 2,601,260 (1 and 260? shown as terminating in a blade profile 260., 2606 and 2603 of the side fluid passage 2783-278? the drilling fluid is discharged to the bottom of the drill bit 179 (FIG. 1). Figure 3 shows a specific configuration of the three adjustable pad portion 252 on the bit face 250, each blade profile along the associated: pads 2703 along a blade profile 2603; .; cushion pad 270.260 2706 2606 along the blade profile along the blade profile. pad 270 ^ 270 (shown as 2706 and 3 in their respective cavities provided 272 ^ 272 and in 2726 as described with reference to FIG. 2 eight, each pad 272 ^ 2720 and 2726 selected by the applied thereto force can be selectively extended a desired distance from the face portion 252. in one configuration, all of the patches 270 ^ 270 (215 3 and 2706 may be centrally disposed in a symmetrical manner around, and may be configured to extend from the bit face portion 252 the same distance, in order to control such fluctuations or drill 。虽然显示了六个刀片轮廓(2603-2600和三个垫,但是钻头250可以包括任何适合数量的刀片轮廓和垫(27(^,2700,270^)。此外,在此所示和所述的构思同样适用于非钻头。 . Although a six blade profile (2603-2600 and three pads, the drill bit 250 but may include any suitable number of blade profile and the pad (27 (^, ^ 2700,270). Further, as shown and described in this the same idea applies to non-drill.

[0027] 图3八显示了钻头250(图28)的示例性刀片轮廓310的局部侧视图300。 [0027] FIG. 3 shows the eight bit 250 (FIG. 28) is an exemplary partial side view of blade profile 310 300. 刀片轮廓310显示为包括设置在钻头本体315内的示例性刀具316'。 Blade profile 310 is shown as comprising a bit body 315 disposed within an exemplary tool 316 '. 刀具316'具有切削元件或切削表面318'。 Tool 316 'or a cutting member having a cutting surface 318'. 刀具316'从刀片轮廓310的面部分320'伸出一选定距离。 Tool 316 'from the blade portion 320 contoured surface 310' extends a selected distance. 刀片轮廓310还显示为包括紧邻刀具316'的可伸出的垫340'。 Blade profile 310 is also shown to include a tool 316 proximate apos extendable pads 340 '. 垫340'可以设置在刀片轮廓310中的配合凹部或支座342'中。 'Mating recess or holder 310 may be provided in the blade profile 342' of the pad 340. 可以设置密封件348以对凹部342'中的液压流体形成密封。 Seal member 348 can be provided to form a seal on the recessed portions 342 'of the hydraulic fluid. 在一个实施例中,来自其源的压力下的流体可以经由在刀片轮廓310中制成的或在钻头本体的另一适合部位上制成的流体线路或流体通道344'供给到垫340'。 In one embodiment, the fluid under pressure from a source thereof may be 344 'is supplied to the pad 340' formed through the blade profile 310 or fluid line or fluid passage on another suitable portion of the bit body made. 到垫340'的流体可以由位于钻头250内部或外部的致动装置或动力装置350'供给。 The pad 340 'by a fluid in the drill bit 250 may be internal or external power unit or actuator means 350' is supplied. 流体可以是储存在贮槽352'中的清洁流体,或者可以是在钻进井眼110期间供给到钻头250(图1)的钻进流体179(图1)。 Fluid may be stored in the storage tank 352 'of the cleaning fluid, or may be drilling a wellbore 110 during the drilling fluid supplied to the drill bit 250 (FIG. 1) 179 (FIG. 1). 在另一个方面,来自致动装置或致动单元350'的流体可以供给到活塞346',活塞346'在室349中移动以使可调垫340'向外移动(远离表面部分320')。 In another aspect, the actuating means or from the actuation unit 350 'of the fluid can be fed to the piston 346', the piston 346 'in chamber 349 to move the adjustable pad 340' moves outwardly (away from the surface portion 320 '). 致动装置350'可以是任何适合的装置,包括但不限于:电气装置,例如马达;机电或液压装置,例如由马达驱动的泵;液压装置,例如由流体驱动涡轮机驱动的泵;和机械装置,例如选择性地允许流体流到垫340'的环式装置。 Actuating means 350 'may be any suitable means, including but not limited to: an electrical device, such as a motor; electromechanical or hydraulic means, for example by a motor driven pump; a hydraulic device, e.g. a turbine driven pump is driven by a fluid; and a mechanical means ring means, for example, to selectively allow fluid flow to the pad 340 & apos ;. 供给到垫340'的流体可以保持在压力下,以使垫保持所要求的伸出量。 Supplying fluid to the pad 340 'may be maintained under pressure to the pad to maintain a desired amount of protrusion. 在一个构造中,可以通过将致动装置350'保持在工作模式而使垫340'保持在所要求的伸出位置。 In one configuration, by actuation means 350 'held in the working mode of the pad 340' remains in the extended position desired. 在另一个方面,流体流量控制装置354'(例如阀)可以与可伸出的垫340'相关联,以控制流体向垫的供给。 In another aspect, the fluid flow control device 354 '(e.g., a valve) 340 and the pad may be extended' is associated, to control the supply of fluid to the pad. 在一个构造中,可利用共用的致动装置350'经由共用的控制阀将流体供给到每个垫。 In one configuration, may be utilized common actuator device 350 'via a common control valve for supplying fluid to each pad. 在另一个构造中,可利用共用的致动装置通过用于每个垫的单独的控制阀来控制流体向每个垫的供给。 In another configuration, the fluid may be supplied to each of the control pad via a separate control valve for each pad by a common actuating device. 在又一个构造中,可以对每个垫使用带有独立控制阀的独立致动装置。 In yet another configuration, the actuating means may be used independently with separate control valve for each pad. 在另一个构造中,可以利用电致动单元移动一线性部件而伸出和缩回垫340'。 In another configuration, it may be utilized electrically actuated means moving linear extension and retraction of the pad member 340 '. 紧邻垫340'的传感器345'可用来提供表示垫伸出量大小的信号。 Immediately pad 340 'of the sensor 345' may be used to provide a signal represents a projecting amount of the size of the pad. 该传感器可以是线性运动传感器、压力传感器或任何其它适合的传感器345'。 The sensor may be a linear motion sensor, a pressure sensor or any other suitable sensor 345 '. 8撤130中的处理器172(图1)可以构造成响应于井下测量参数、存储在存储装置174中的指令或从地面控制器190或地面上的操作者发出的指令来控制致动装置350'的运行。 Processor 172 (FIG. 1) 8 130 may be configured to withdraw downhole measured parameters in response to instructions stored in the memory device 174 or an instruction issued from the surface controller 190 or an operator on the ground to control the actuating means 350 'operation. 可以在地面上校准可伸出的垫340'相对于供给到该可伸出的垫340'的流体的运动,校准数据可以存储在数据存储装置174中,以便被处理器172使用。 Calibration can be extended on the ground pad 340 'with respect to the supplied extendable pads 340' of the motion of the fluid, calibration data may be stored in the data storage device 174, processor 172 so as to be used. 当使用电马达激活线性装置以移动垫340'时,可使用旋转量控制垫伸出量。 When a linear electric motor means to move the activation pad 340 'may be used to control the rotation amount of the pad protrusion amount. 在另一个方面,可以使用在施加激励信号时变形的装置(诸如压电装置)来伸出和缩回垫340'。 In another aspect, the apparatus (such as a piezoelectric device) is deformed upon application of the excitation signal may be used to extend and retract the pad 340 '. 激励信号的大小决定致动装置的变形,因而决定垫伸出和缩回。 Determining the size of the excitation signal modification means actuation, and therefore decided to extend and retract the pad. 垫340'在激励信号解除时缩回。 Pad 340 'is retracted while the excitation signal is released. 在另一个方面,一止回阀370可以借助于流体线路372'设置在室349和贮槽352'之间。 In another aspect, the check valve 370 by means of a fluid line 372 'is provided in the sump chamber 349 and 352' between. 止回阀370可以构造成在一选定高压下打开以便当施加给垫340'的压力超过一选定极限值时把被供给到垫340'的流体排放或泄放到|&槽,从而避免损坏垫340'。 The check valve 370 may be configured to open when fluid is applied to the pad 340 'when the pressure exceeds a selected threshold value to be supplied to the pad 340' is released to the discharge or high pressure at a selected | & grooves, so as to avoid damage to the pad 340 '.

[0028] 图38显示了示例性刀片轮廓314的局部侧视图300。 [0028] FIG. 38 shows an exemplary partial side view of the blade profile 314 300. 刀片轮廓314显示为包括设置在刀片本体315的侧面部分320上的刀具316。 314 is shown as comprising a blade profile provided on the side portion 320 of the body 315 of the cutter blade 316. 刀具316具有切削元件或切削表面318。 Tool 316 has a cutting surface 318 and cutting element. 刀具316从刀片轮廓314的侧面320伸出一选定距离。 Tool 316 320 a selected distance from the projecting side surface 314 of the blade profile. 刀片轮廓314还显示为包括紧邻刀具316的可伸出的垫340。 Blade profile 314 is also shown to include a pad 340 proximate the tool 316 can be extended. 可伸出的垫340可以设置在刀片轮廓本体315中的配合凹部或支座342中。 Extendable pads 340 may be disposed on the body 315 in the blade profile portion mating recess or holder 342. 在一个实施例中,来自其源的压力下的流体可以经由在刀片轮廓315中制成的或在钻头本体的另一适合部位上制成的流体线路或流体通道344供给到可伸出的垫340。 In one embodiment, the fluid under pressure from a source thereof to a feed 344 may extend through the pad 315 made of a blade profile in the fluid line or fluid passage or on another suitable portion of a bit body made of 340. 到可伸出的垫340的流体可以由位于钻头150内部或外部的致动装置或动力装置350供给。 The drill bit 150 may be supplied from internal or external means or power means actuating fluid 350 may be extended to a pad 340. 流体可以是储存在贮槽352中的清洁流体,或者可以是在钻进井眼110期间被供给到钻头150(图1)的钻进流体179(图1)。 The fluid may be stored in the cleaning fluid sump 352, or may be a drilling fluid 179 during drilling of the wellbore 110 is supplied to the drill bit 150 (FIG. 1) (FIG. 1). 在另一个方面,来自致动单元350的流体可以被供给到活塞346,活塞346使可伸出的垫或可调垫340向外移动(远离刀片轮廓315)。 In another aspect, the fluid from the actuator unit 350 may be supplied to the piston 346, the piston 346 may be extended so that the pad or pads 340 adjustable moving outwardly (away from the blade profile 315). 致动装置350可以任何适合的装置,包括但不限于:电气装置,例如电机;机电装置,例如由马达驱动的泵;液压装置,例如由通过在8撤中流动的流体操作的涡轮机驱动的泵;和机械装置,例如选择性地允许流体流到垫340的环式装置。 350 may be any suitable actuating means, including but not limited to: an electrical device, such as a motor; electromechanical means, for example by a motor driven pump; a hydraulic device, for example driven by the turbine by the fluid flowing in the 8 withdrawal operation of the pump ; and mechanical means, for example, selectively allow fluid loop 340 flows pad. 供给到可伸出的垫340的流体保持在一定压力下,而可伸出的垫340在井眼110的下侧上。 Fluid cushion 340 may be extended to the holding supplied under pressure, while on the lower side of the wellbore 110 in the pad 340 may extend. 在一个构造中,可以通过将致动装置350保持在工作模式而使可伸出的垫340保持在所要求的伸出位置。 In one configuration, by actuation means 350 remain in the operating mode of the extendable pads 340 held in the extended position desired. 在另一个方面,流体流量控制装置354(例如阀)可以与每个可调垫340相关联,以控制流体向其相关联的垫的供给。 In another aspect, the fluid flow control device 354 (e.g., a valve) may be associated with each pad 340 is adjustable to control the supply of fluid to its associated pad. 在这样的构造中,可利用共用的致动装置350向所有的控制阀供给流体。 In such a configuration, it can utilize a common actuation device 350 is supplied to all fluid control valves. 在另一个构造中,可利用独立的致动装置来控制流体向每个垫340的供给。 In another configuration, the control fluid may be supplied to each of the pads 340 with a separate actuating means. 8撤中的处理器172(图1)可以构造成响应于井下测量参数、存储在存储装置174中的指令或从地面控制器190发出的指令控制致动装置350的运行。 Processor 172 (FIG. 1) may be configured to withdraw 8 in response to downhole measurements, the instruction stored in the storage device 174 or device 350 controls the operation of the actuator 190 from the instruction issued by the ground controller. 可以在地面上校准可调垫340相对于供给到该可调垫的流体的运动,校准数据可以存储在数据存储装置174中,以便被处理器172使用。 May be calibrated to the ground pad 340 is adjustable relative to the movement of the fluid supplied to the adjustable pad, and the calibration data may be stored in the data storage device 174, processor 172 so as to be used. 在一个方面,用于激活刀片侧面上的垫340以及面部分上的垫340'的一些部件中的有些部件可以是共用的。 In one aspect, the pad 340 and the pad for activating the face portion 340 on the side surface of the insert 'some of the components in some parts can be common. 例如,可利用带有不同控制阀的共用的致动装置来激活侧面垫340和底部垫340'。 For example, the pad 340 may be activated and the bottom side pad 340 using an actuator of the control valve means with different common '. 因而,在一个实施例中,可以利用位于刀片轮廓的侧面上的可调垫(例如垫340)和位于钻头的面部分上的一个或多个垫(例如垫340'侧面垫340可用来改变钻头150的方向,而面部分320上的垫340'可用来控制井下如?。在另一个方面,一止回阀3703可以借助于流体线路3723设置在室34如和贮槽352之间。止回阀3703可以构造成在一选定高压下打开以便当施加给垫340的压力超过一选定极限值时把被供给到垫340的流体排放到|&槽,从而避免损坏垫340。在图3八和38中所示的任一构造中,流量控制装置354或354'可以是带有液压释放部的止回阀,例如如图3(:所示的阀35如。当压力下的流体沿着进入路径356被供给到阀35½时,阀打开并允许流体从出口路径357排出。当进入路径356处的压力被释放时,流体从路径357进入阀35如,并经由释放路径或旁路358排出。这种阀可控地允许垫从钻头表 Thus, in one embodiment, it may be utilized an adjustable pad located on the side of the blade profile (e.g., pad 340) and a portion of the upper face of the drill bit or a plurality of pads (e.g., pad 340 'side pad 340 may be used to change the drill bit direction 150, and 340 on the surface of the pad portion 320 'may be used to control the downhole as?. in another aspect, a check valve 3703 can be provided by means of a fluid line 3723, such as between 34 and sump chamber 352. nonreturn to open the valve 3703 may be configured so as to be supplied to the fluid discharged to the pad 340 when pressure is applied to the mat 340 exceeds a selected limit at a selected high pressure | & grooves, so as to avoid damage to the pad 340. in FIG. 3 configuration shown in any one of eight and 38, the flow control means 354 or 354 'may be a check valve with hydraulic release portion, for example, FIG. 3 (: when the valve shown as 35 in the fluid under pressure the entry path is supplied to the valve 356 is 35½, the valve opens and allows the fluid discharged from the outlet 357 path. when the pressure at the entrance path 356 is released, the fluid path from the inlet valve 35 such as 357, and 358 through the release or bypass path discharge. such a valve allows the controlled from the bit table mat 伸出和缩回。如前所述,钻头中、底部钻具组合中和/或地面上的控制器可以被编程以根据一个或多个选定标准或参数控制垫的伸出和缩回。 Extended and retracted. As described above, in the drill bit, the controller in the bottom hole assembly and / or on the ground can be controlled in accordance with one or more selected criteria or parameters programming pad extension and retraction.

[0029] 图4显示了处于伸出位置的可伸出的垫440。 [0029] FIG. 4 shows a pad 440 in the extended position may be extended. 可以通过施加于垫440的力的大小调节垫440的伸出量。 The force of the pad 440 can be applied by adjusting the size of the pad 440 projecting amount. 可伸出的垫440显示为伸出一段距离“01”,并且可以伸出至如虚线444所示的最大或完全伸出位置。 Extendable pad 440 extends a distance shown as "01", and may be extended as shown by dashed lines 444 to a maximum or fully extended position. 垫440保持在其选定或要求的伸出位置,直到施加于垫440的力通过致动装置减小或移除。 The pad 440 is held in its extended position a selected or desired, until the force applied to the pad 440 by the actuating means is reduced or removed. 例如,在图3八所示的构造中,关闭阀354'或者以防止供给到垫440的流体返回流体储存装置352'的方式保持致动装置350',这将使垫440'保持在选定的伸出位置。 For example, eight in the configuration shown in FIG. 3, the shut-off valve 354 'or to prevent the fluid supplied to the pad 440 of the return fluid storage means 352' in a manner holding the actuating means 350 ', which will cause the pad 440' remains in the selected the extended position. 当阀354'打开或致动装置350'停用时,几乎没有力或者没有力施加于可伸出的垫340'。 When the valve 354 'is opened or actuator means 350' is disabled, no force or little force is applied to the pad 340 may extend '. 力的缺少使垫340'缩回或从伸出位置退回。 Missing force the pad 340 'is retracted from the extended or retracted position. 还可以为每个垫440设置一偏压元件460',以使垫440在垫440上的力减小或移除时缩回。 Each pad 440 may also be provided with a biasing member 460 ', the pad 440 to the pad 440 on force is reduced or removed retracted.

[0030] 参照图1-4,在运行时,可以根据对钻头在泥土地层中的钻进速度和/或钻头150或8撤130的属性的所要求的影响,控制垫伸出量。 [0030] Referring to FIGS. 1-4, in operation, the withdrawal may influence the desired properties of the drilling bit 130 according to the velocity in the earth formation and / or 8 bit or 150, projecting amount of the control pad. 垫伸出量可以根据任何一个或多个所要求的参数进行控制,所述参数包括但不限于:振动、钻头侧向或扭转波动、00? The pad protrusion amount can be controlled by any one or more of the parameters required, the parameters include but are not limited to: a vibration, a lateral or torsional fluctuations bit, 00? 、压力、刀面、岩石类型、振动、涡旋、弯曲力矩、粘滑运动、扭矩和钻进方向。 Pressure, flank, rock type, vibration, vortexed, bending moment, stick-slip, torque and drilling direction. 但是,一般而言,垫伸出量越大,钻头在地层中的如? However, in general, the greater the amount of pad out, as in drill formation? 下降越多。 The more decline. 可以采用根据在此所述的任意实施例制成的钻头减小钻头的面部分上的刀具切削深度,这反过来又影响钻头波动和如?。 Bit may be used according to embodiments made on the surface portion of the tool to reduce the cutting depth of a drill bit according to any of herein, which in turn affects the drill bit and fluctuations as?. 钻头波动(扭转或侧向)的减少可以影响钻头和/或8撤物理参数中的一个或多个。 Reduce fluctuations bit (twist or lateral) may affect one or more bits and / or physical parameters 8 withdrawal. 所施加的力和垫伸出量之间的关系可以在实验室试验中获取。 The applied force and pad out the relationship between the amount can be obtained in laboratory tests. 所施加的力、垫伸出量、钻头波动的相应变化、1?0? The applied force, pad out the amount corresponding change drill volatility, 1? 0? 以及对任何其它参数的影响之间的所计算的或以其它方式(例如通过模拟)确定的关系可以存储在井下数据存储装置274和/或地面数据存储装置194中。 As well as affecting any other parameters between the computed or otherwise (e.g., by simulation) determined relationship may be stored downhole in a data storage device 274 and / or ground data storage means 194. 这样的信息可以以任何适合的形式存储,包括但不限于:一个或多个算法,曲线,矩阵和表格。 Such information may be stored in any suitable form, including but not limited to: one or more algorithms, curves, and matrix form. 垫伸出量可以由井下控制器270和丨或地面控制器190控制。 Pad 190 projecting amount may be controlled by the downhole controller 270 and Shu or the ground controller. 在此提供的系统100可以在钻进井眼110期间自动地、动态地控制垫伸出量,并从而控制钻头波动、卩0? The system 100 provided herein may automatically, dynamically controlled during drilling of the wellbore pad 110 projecting amount, and to control fluctuations in the drill bit, Jie 0? 及其它参数,而不改变某些其它参数,例如肌)8和即1。 And other parameters without changing some other parameters, e.g. muscle) and 8 or 1. 并且可以以与面部分上的垫340'(图3八)相同的方式、基于任何所要求的参数来控制钻头的侧面上的垫340 (^38)的伸出量,以改变钻进方向。 The pad 340 and may '(eight in FIG. 3) on the face portion in the same manner, based on any of the parameters required to control pad 340 (^ 38) on the side of the projecting amount of the bit, to change the drilling direction. 可以同时激活侧面垫(例如垫340)和面部分上的垫(例如垫340')以便大体上同时地改变钻进方向和尺0? Side pads can be activated at the same time (e.g., pad 340) and the pads on the face portion (e.g., a pad 340 ') substantially simultaneously in order to change the drilling direction and size 0? .

[0031] 因而,在一个方面,公开了一种钻头,在一个构造中,所述钻头可以包括面部分或底部部分,所述面部分或底部部分包括:位于所述面部分或底部部分上的一个或多个刀具,所述刀具构造成穿入泥土地层中;以及多个可选择性地伸出的垫,所述垫用以在钻进井眼期间控制钻头波动或钻头钻进泥土地层中的如?。 [0031] Accordingly, in one aspect, a drill bit, in one configuration, the drill bit may include a face portion or bottom portion, or a bottom portion of the face portion comprising: a face portion or the bottom portion or a plurality of tools, said tool configured to penetrate into the earth formation; and a plurality of selectively projecting a pad for a wellbore during drilling of the drill bit or the bit drilling mud fluctuation formation such as?. 在一个方面,每个垫可以构造成当在该垫上施加力时从面部分伸出。 In one aspect, each pad may be configured to protrude from the face portion when the mat when a force is applied. 当力减小或移除时,垫朝着面部分缩回。 When force is reduced or removed, the pad is retracted toward the face portion. 每个垫可以设置在钻头中的相关联的空腔中。 Each pad may be disposed in the cavity of the drill bit associated. 可以为每个垫设置一偏压部件,所述偏压部件使垫在施加在垫上的力减小或移除时缩回。 A biasing member may be provided for each pad, the pad is retracted so that the biasing member when the force exerted on the pad is reduced or removed. 偏压部件可以直接联接到或附接于垫。 The biasing member may be coupled to or directly attached to the pads. 可以使用任何适合的偏压部件,包括但不限于弹簧。 Any suitable biasing means, including but not limited to the spring. 施加于每个垫的力可以由任何适合的致动装置提供,包括但不限于:向垫或向移动垫的活塞供给压力下的流体的装置,和响应于激励信号改变形状或变形的形状改变装置或形状改变材料。 Force is applied to each pad may be provided by any suitable actuation means, including but not limited to: a fluid under the mat or pad to move the supply pressure of the piston, and change shape in response to changes or variations in the excitation signal It means change in shape or material. 形状改变装置在激励移除时回复到其原始形状。 Shape changing device to return to its original shape when the excitation is removed. 形状改变的大小取决于激励信号的大小。 Change the size and shape depends on the size of the excitation signal. 供给压力下的流体的装置可以是由电马达操作的泵或由钻进流体操作的涡轮机操作的泵。 Means of fluid under pressure may be supplied by a pump or pump drilling fluid operated turbine operated by an electric motor operated. 流体可以是储存在8撤中的储存室中的清洁流体(例如,油),或者可以是钻进流体。 Fluid may be a cleaning fluid reservoir (e.g., oil) in the storage chamber 8 in the withdrawal, or may be a drilling fluid. 流体可以被供给到从泵到各个垫的流体通道。 Fluid may be supplied to the fluid passage from the pump to the respective pads. 在另一个构造中,流体可以供给到附接于垫的活塞。 In another configuration, the fluid may be supplied to the pad attached to the piston. 由此引起的活塞运动使垫伸出。 The resulting movement of the piston out of the pad. 可以设置控制阀来控制进入流体通道或流到活塞的流体。 The control valve may be provided to control the flow of fluid into the fluid passage or the piston. 在一个方面,所有的垫可以从底部部分伸出相同的伸出量或距离。 In one aspect, the pad may extend all the same distance from the bottom of the amount or projecting portion. 可以使用共用的致动装置和控制阀。 You can use a common actuating device and a control valve.

[0032] 在另一个方面,公开了一种制造钻头的方法,所述方法包括:提供终止于钻头的底部部分上的多个刀片轮廓,每个刀片轮廓上具有至少一个刀具;和在钻头的底部部分上设置多个可伸出的垫,其中,每个可伸出的垫构造成在施加力时从底部部分伸出一选定距离,并且在可伸出的垫上的力被移除时朝着底部部分缩回。 [0032] In another aspect, a method of manufacturing a drill bit, the method comprising: providing a plurality of terminating in a drill bit on the bottom portion of the blade profile, each having at least one cutter blade profile; and a bit when a plurality of extendable pads on the bottom portion, wherein each pad is configured to be extending a selected distance from the bottom of the projecting portion when force is applied, the force is removed and the mat may be extended retracted toward the bottom portion. 该方法还可以包括:将每个可伸出的垫设置在钻头底部部分中的相关联的空腔中。 The method may further comprise: each extendable drill pad disposed in the bottom part of the associated cavity. 该方法还可以包括:将一偏压部件联接到每个可伸出的垫。 The method may further comprising: a biasing member coupled to each extendable pad. 所述偏压部件构造成在施加于垫的力被移除时使其相关联的垫缩回。 The biasing member configured to retract the associated pad so that when force is applied to the pad removed. 一个或多个流体通道可以向垫供给压力下的流体,以使垫伸出至相应的选定位置。 One or more fluid channels may be supplied to the fluid pressure of the pad to the pad protruding to the respective selected position. 该方法还可以包括:提供向多个垫中的每个垫供给力的致动装置。 The method may further comprise: providing a plurality of pads each pad actuating means supplied force. 致动装置可以包括下列中的至少一个:向每个垫供给压力下的流体的装置;和响应于激励信号变形的形状改变装置或材料。 Actuation means may comprise at least one of the following: means for supplying the fluid at each pressure pad; and in response to the changing shape of the excitation signal deforming device or material.

[0033] 在另一个方面,公开了一种在钻进井眼时使用的8撤,在一个构造中,所述8撤可以包括附接于8撤的底端的钻头,所述钻头包括底部部分,所述底部部分包括在其上的构造成穿入地层中的一个或多个刀具。 [0033] In another aspect, a withdrawal 8 for use in the wellbore while drilling, in one configuration, may include withdrawal of the 8 bit attached to the bottom end 8 of the withdrawal, the drill bit comprising a bottom portion said bottom portion includes thereon configured to penetrate into the formation to one or a plurality of tools. 钻头还可以包括:在底部部分上的多个可伸出的垫;和构造成对每个垫施加力以使每个垫伸出一选定伸出量的致动单元。 The drill bit may further comprise: a plurality of portions on the bottom of extendable pads; and each configured to apply a force to the pad so that each pad extending a selected amount of projection of the actuating unit. 该伸出量导致钻进井眼期间的钻头波动和钻头进入泥土地层中的如? The amount of projection results in fluctuations in the drill and bit into the earth formation during drilling, such as wellbore? 发生改变。 changes happened. 致动单元可以是下列之一:向每个垫供给压力下的流体的动力单元;和形状改变材料,所述形状改变材料在激活信号施加到该形状改变材料时在每个垫上供给选定的力。 The actuation unit may be one of the following: the power unit to the fluid supplied at each pressure pad; and a shape change material, the shape of the material change in the activation signal is applied to change the shape of each selected pad material supply force. 8撤还可以包括传感器,所述传感器提供有关每个垫的伸出量或致动装置在每个垫上所施加的力的信号。 8 may further include a withdrawal sensor, the sensor provides a signal related to the amount of each projection or pad means force applied to each pad actuated. 在另一个方面,8撤还可以包括构造成处理来自传感器的信号以控制垫的伸出量的控制器。 In another aspect, the withdrawal may further comprise a controller 8 configured to process signals from the sensors to control the amount of projecting pad. 控制器可以根据一个或多个参数控制垫伸出量,所述参数可以包括但不限于:钻头波动(侧向和/或扭转)、钻压、压力、如? The controller may control one or more parameters pads projecting amount, the parameters may include, but are not limited to: the bit fluctuation (lateral and / or twisting), WOB, pressure, such as? (所要求的或实际的〉、涡旋、振动、弯曲力矩和粘滑运动。可以利用地面控制器向8撤中的控制器提供信息和指令。 (Actual or requested>, vortexed, vibrations, bending moments, and stick-slip may be utilized to provide the ground controller 8 withdraw information and instructions to the controller.

[0034] 在又一个方面,一种形成井眼的方法,其可以包括:将附接于底部钻具组合的钻头输送到井眼中,所述钻头具有至少一个刀具和位于钻头的面部分上的至少一个垫;通过旋转钻头而钻进井眼;在所述至少一个垫上施加力,以使所述至少一个垫从缩回位置移动到选定的伸出位置;和减小施加在所述至少一个垫上的选定力,以使所述至少一个垫从选定的伸出位置缩回,从而控制钻头在钻进井眼期间的波动。 [0034] In yet another aspect, a method of forming a wellbore, which may include: a drill bit attached to the bottom hole assembly is conveyed into the wellbore, the drill bit having at least one surface of the drill bit and the tool part at least one pad; a rotary drill bit while drilling through the wellbore; at least one force is applied to the pad, so that the pad at least one selected from the extended position to the retracted position; and applying at least reduced a pad of a selected force to the at least one pad is retracted from the selected extended position, so as to control fluctuations in the drill bit during drilling of the wellbore.

[0035] 为了便于解释,以上公开内容用于某些具体实施例。 [0035] For convenience of explanation, the above disclosure for certain embodiments. 但是,这些实施例的各种改变和修改对本领域技术人员来说都是显而易见的。 However, various changes and modifications of the present embodiments will become apparent to those skilled in the. 意图是,在所附权利要求的范围和精神之内的所有改变和修改都由在此的公开内容涵盖。 It is intended that all changes and modifications within the scope and spirit of the appended claims disclosed herein by covers.

Claims (21)

1.一种钻头,包括: 表面,所述表面包括在该表面上的一个或多个构造成穿入地层中的刀具; 在所述表面上的至少一个垫; 致动单元,所述致动单元构造成将压力下的流体供给到所述至少一个垫以使所述至少一个垫从该表面伸出;和释放装置,所述释放装置构造成在施加于所述至少一个垫的力超过一选定极限值时传送供给到所述至少一个垫的流体以减少所述至少一个垫上的压力。 1. A drill bit, comprising: a surface, said surface comprising a surface on which the one or more configured tool to penetrate into the formation; on the surface of the at least one pad; actuating means, the actuating unit is configured to supply a fluid under pressure to said at least one pad such that the at least one pad extending from the surface; and a release means, said release means at least one pad configured to force applied to the more than one when the supply transfer fluid to a selected limit value of the at least one pad to reduce the at least one pressure pad.
2.如权利要求1所述的钻头,其中,所述至少一个垫包括多个可伸出的垫,并且其中,所述致动单元使每个可伸出的垫伸出大体上相同的伸出量。 2. The drill bit according to claim 1, wherein the at least one pad comprises a plurality of extendable pads, and wherein the actuating means may extend each pad extending substantially the same extension the amount.
3.如权利要求1所述的钻头,其中,所述至少一个垫设置在钻头中的空腔中。 The drill bit as claimed in claim 1, wherein the at least one pad disposed in a cavity in the drill bit.
4.如权利要求2所述的钻头,还包括联接到所述至少一个可伸出的垫的偏压部件,所述偏压部件在施加于垫的力减小时使所述至少一个垫缩回。 4. The drill bit according to claim 2, further comprising a biasing member coupled to said at least one pad extending the biasing member when the pad is applied to the at least one pad retracting force reduction .
5.如权利要求1所述的钻头,还包括构造成供给压力下的流体以使所述至少一个垫伸出至选定位置的流体通道。 5. The drill bit according to claim 1, further comprising a configured to supply fluid at a pressure such that the at least one projecting pad to a selected position the fluid passage.
6.如权利要求1所述的钻头,其中,致动单元包括动力单元和控制器中的至少一个,所述动力单元将压力下的流体供给到所述至少一个垫,所述控制器控制流体的供给。 6. The drill bit according to claim 1, wherein the actuating unit comprises at least one of the power unit and the power unit controller fluid under pressure is supplied to the at least one pad, wherein the controller controls the fluid supply.
7.如权利要求1所述的钻头,还包括位于致动装置和所述至少一个垫之间的带液压释放部的止回阀,所述止回阀用于控制流体向所述至少一个垫的供给。 7. The drill bit according to claim 1, further comprising actuating means and said at least one check valve between the hydraulic release portion of the pad with the check valve for controlling fluid to said at least one pad supply.
8.如权利要求1所述的钻头,其中,所述流体通道位于下列位置中的一个位置处:钻头中的主流体通道的外部;和至少部分地位于钻头中的主流体通道的内部。 8. The drill bit according to claim 1, wherein the fluid passage is located at a position of the following locations: the main body of the drill outer channel; and at least partially inside the main body of the drill channel.
9.一种钻井眼的方法,包括: 将附接于底部钻具组合的钻头输送到井眼中,所述钻头包括:在钻头的表面上的至少一个垫;致动装置,所述致动装置构造成将压力下的流体供给到所述至少一个垫以对所述至少一个垫施加力从而使所述至少一个垫从所述表面伸出;和释放装置,所述释放装置构造成在施加于所述至少一个垫的力超过一选定极限值时传送供给到所述至少一个垫的流体以减少所述垫上的压力;和用底部钻具组合钻所述井眼;和在钻所述井眼期间,使所述至少一个垫从钻头的表面伸出,以控制钻头在钻所述井眼期间的波动。 9. A method of drilling a well bore, comprising: conveying a bottom hole assembly attached to the drill bit into the wellbore, the drill bit comprising: at least one pad on the surface of the drill bit; actuating means, the actuating means configured to supply fluid under pressure to said at least one pad of said at least one pad extending at least one force is applied to the pad from the surface such that; and release means, said release means configured to be applied to the transmitting said at least one feeding pad force exceeds a selected threshold value to at least one of the fluid cushion to decrease the pressure of said pad; and with the bottom hole assembly drilling the wellbore; and drilling the well during the eye, the at least one pad projecting from a surface of the drill bit, the drill bit to control fluctuations in the wellbore during drilling.
10.如权利要求9所述的方法,其中,所述至少一个垫包括多个垫,并且其中,所述方法还包括:使每个垫伸出大体上相同的伸出量。 10. The method according to claim 9, wherein the at least one pad comprises a plurality of pads, and wherein said method further comprises: each pad extending substantially the same amount of protrusion.
11.如权利要求9所述的方法,还包括:使一偏压部件联接到所述至少一个垫,以在所施加的力减小时使所述至少一个垫缩回。 11. The method according to claim 9, further comprising: a biasing member coupled to said at least one pad such that when the applied force is reduced at least one pad is retracted.
12.如权利要求9所述的方法,其中,施加力包括使用致动装置,所述致动装置包括动力单元和控制器中的至少一个,所述动力单元将压力下的流体供给到所述至少一个垫,所述控制单元控制流体向所述至少一个垫的供给。 12. The method according to claim 9, wherein applying a force includes the use of actuating means, the actuating means comprises a power unit and a controller, at least one of a power unit supplying the fluid under pressure to the at least one pad, wherein the control unit controls the supply of fluid to the at least one pad.
13.如权利要求9所述的方法,还包括:响应于与井眼的钻进有关的选定参数,控制所施加的力。 13. The method according to claim 9, further comprising: in response to a selected parameter relating to drilling the wellbore, controlling the applied force.
14.如权利要求13所述的方法,其中,所述选定参数选自下列参数构成的组:(i)振动;(ii)粘滑运动;(iii)钻压;(iv)钻头的钻进速度;(V)弯曲力矩;(vi)轴向加速度;(vii)径向加速度;和(viii)钻头波动。 14. The method according to claim 13, wherein said selected parameter is selected from the group consisting of the following parameters: (i) vibration; (ii) stick-slip; (iii) WOB; (iv) drill bit feed rate; (V) bending moment; (VI) axial acceleration; (VII) radial acceleration; and (viii) the drill bit fluctuations.
15.如权利要求9所述的方法,还包括:当钻进从软地层过渡到硬地层时或从硬地层过渡到软地层时,使所述至少一个垫伸出。 15. The method according to claim 9, further comprising: when the transition to the soft formation drilling hard formations or when the transition from the formation from hard to soft formation, the at least one projecting pad.
16.一种在钻井眼时使用的设备,包括: 附接于底部钻具组合的底端的钻头,所述钻头具有:表面,所述表面包括一个或多个刀具和至少一个垫;和致动单元,所述致动单元构造成将压力下的流体供给到所述至少一个垫以对所述至少一个垫施加力从而使所述至少一个垫从所述表面伸出;和释放装置,所述释放装置构造成在施加于所述至少一个垫的力超过一选定极限值时传送供给到所述至少一个垫的流体以减少所述至少一个垫上的压力。 16. An apparatus for use in drilling a wellbore, comprising: a drill bit attached to the bottom end of the BHA, the drill bit comprising: a surface, said surface comprising one or a plurality of tools and at least one pad; and an actuator unit, the actuating unit is configured to supply a fluid under pressure to said at least one pad to the at least one pad such that a force applied to said at least one pad projecting from said surface; and release means, said configured to transmit a pressure fluid is supplied to the at least one pad when the at least one pad force exceeds a selected limit value to reduce the at least one pad is applied to the release means.
17.如权利要求16所述的设备,还包括控制器,所述控制器构造成控制所述致动装置,以控制垫的选定伸出量,从而控制钻头在钻进井眼期间的波动。 17. The apparatus according to claim 16, further comprising a controller configured to control the actuation means to control the amount of projection of the selected pad, so as to control fluctuations in the drill bit during drilling of the wellbore .
18.如权利要求17所述的设备,其中,所述控制器还构造成响应于选自下列参数构成的组中的参数控制致动装置:⑴振动;(ii)粘滑运动;(iii)钻压;(iv)钻头的钻进速度;(V)弯曲力矩;(vi)轴向加速度;(vii)径向加速度;和(viii)钻头波动。 18. The apparatus according to claim 17, wherein the controller is further configured to respond to a parameter selected from the group consisting of the following parameters controlling the actuating means: ⑴ vibration; (ii) stick-slip; (iii) WOB; (iv) the rate of penetration of the drill bit; (V) bending moment; (VI) axial acceleration; (VII) radial acceleration; and (viii) the drill bit fluctuations.
19.如权利要求16所述的设备,其中,致动装置包括动力单元,所述动力单元供给压力下的流体以使所述至少一个垫伸出。 19. The apparatus according to claim 16, wherein the actuating means comprises a power unit, a fluid under pressure is supplied to the power unit the at least one projecting pad.
20.如权利要求16所述的设备,还包括传感器,所述传感器提供与由致动装置施加在所述至少一个垫上的力相关的信号。 20. The apparatus according to claim 16, further comprising a sensor means provided by the actuating signal is applied to the at least one pad forces associated.
21.如权利要求16所述的设备,其中,所述至少一个垫包括多个垫,并且其中,所述致动装置向所述多个垫中的每个垫施加大体上相同的力。 21. The apparatus according to claim 16, wherein the at least one pad comprises a plurality of pads, and wherein said actuating means is substantially the same force is applied to the plurality of pads each pad.
CN201380039524.5A 2008-09-25 2013-06-06 With a hydraulic control torsional fluctuations for axially adjustable pad bit CN104508230B (en)

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IN2014DN10334A (en) 2015-08-07
SG11201408079UA (en) 2015-01-29
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EP2859172A1 (en) 2015-04-15
MX2014014906A (en) 2015-06-10

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