# CN104462692A - Automatic vertical section gradient generating method based on deductive method - Google Patents

Automatic vertical section gradient generating method based on deductive method Download PDF## Info

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技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及工程自动化、智能化设计领域，具体地指一种基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to automated engineering, intelligent design, specifically refers to an automatic deduction gradient profile generation method.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 传统的铁路、公路等纵断面设计都采用人工拉坡，对于长大线路，考虑到诸多控制因素，即使是很有经验的工程师，要得出合理且满足规范的纵断面也需要反复推敲，由于没有量化评估指标为参照，设计方案只有更好没有最好，因此，人为的纵断面设计在一次设计中很难面面俱到，往往需要多次复核，延长了设计周期。 [0002] tradition of railways, highways and other profile designs artificial Rapport, to grow up lines, taking into account the many factors that control, even for very experienced engineer, to draw reasonable and meet the specifications of the profile also requires repeated scrutiny, because there is no quantitative assessment index as a reference, the design is not only the best better, therefore, in a man-profile design is difficult to design everything, often they require multiple review, extending the design cycle.

[0003] 近年来，几大铁路设计院及铁道高校都进行过类似的研宄，大多数采用渐逼近满意解的遗传算法进行研宄，并有学者申请了专利（专利申请号：201210106256. 1，发明名称：铁路纵断面自动设计与优化方法）。 [0003] In recent years, several major railway railway design institute and universities have conducted a similar study based, in most cases, gradually approaching the genetic algorithm conducted study based on satisfactory solution, and some scholars have applied for a patent (patent application number: 2012101062561 , title of the invention: automatic design of railway profile and optimization method). 该专利不涉及方案评估与衡量，也没有对已生成纵坡进行自动检测与排查，其设计效果与质量难以评定。 This patent does not involve evaluation and measurement programs, no automatic detection and investigation of the generated vertical gradient, it is difficult to design and quality assessment of the effect. 此外大量论文中探讨过许多种方法进行自动地纵断面拉坡设计，如神经网络方法、拟合法、几何分析法、地形化简法等等，这些方法往往局限于学术研宄的单纯性，鲜见有真正实用的相应技术得以应用。 In addition a large number of papers explored the many ways to be automatically pull slope profile designs, such as neural networks, fitting, geometric analysis, terrain simplification method, etc. These methods are often limited to academic study based on the simple, fresh see there is a real and practical appropriate technology to be applied.

[0004] 参考文献："基于区间填挖平衡的线路纵断面快速评估模型"（2014. 5,周德宏，铁路计算机应用）。 [0004] Reference: "Interval cut to fill the balance of the line profile rapid assessment models" (2014.5, Zhoude Hong COMPUTER APPLICATION).

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0005] 本发明的目的就是要提供一种基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法，该方法在实时评估机制支持下，实现了纵断面拉坡设计的程序化、智能化自动设计，经多重检验对比，自动设计成果通常优于或接近于工程人员的实际设计方案，为工程人员合理设计纵断面坡度提供了理想的设计参考，提高了设计效率与质量。 [0005] The object of the present invention is to provide an automatic method of generating a gradient profile deduction based on the method in real-time assessment of support mechanisms to achieve the programmed profile Rapport design, intelligent automatic design, the multiply inspection contrast, automatic design results are usually better than or close to the actual design engineering staff, provides an ideal reference for design engineers to design a reasonable slope profile, improve design efficiency and quality.

[0006] 为实现此目的，本发明所设计的基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法，其特征在于，它包括如下步骤： [0006] To achieve this object, the present invention is designed to automatically generate a longitudinal profile slope deduction based, characterized in that it comprises the steps of:

[0007] 步骤Sl :模拟工程师对地面线的认识过程，通过传统方式对地面线进行简化，得到能够反映地形整体起伏形状的里程点LC，并将区域空间的平均高程作为高程势函，同时对连续的可合并的地形坡段进行合并简化，得到能同时反映地形与地势的地面轮廓线； [0007] Step Sl: engineers simulate the process of understanding the ground line by line on the ground in a conventional manner to simplify, to give relief to reflect the overall shape of the terrain the LC mileage points, and the average elevation of the space area as a function of elevation potential, while continuous terrain slope may be combined to simplify the merge segment, and to obtain simultaneously reflect the topography of the terrain surface contour;

[0008] 步骤S2 :判断上述地面轮廓线上各坡度的地形类别，并按平地、沟谷的区域划分进行归类，对连续平地段进行整合，对沟谷段按架桥模式进行坡段整合与高程势调整，得到拉坡参照线； [0008] Step S2: determining the slope of each of terrain surface contour, flat press, categorize valley area division, integration continuous flat area, the slope of the valley segment by segment elevation integrated with bridging mode potential adjustment, to give Rapport reference line;

[0009] 步骤S3 :通过轮廓线与参照线的对比，提取大山和高地区域，对此类区域进行标注后按直坡进行屏蔽设计，得到最接近坡度线的拟合线； [0009] Step S3: By comparing the contour line and reference line, and the extraction mountain plateau region, for shielding design of such regions after labeling according to a linear slope, the slope of line to give the closest fit line;

[0010] 步骤S4 :按静态控制点划分出的子区间分别进行纵断面上各区段的独立设计：以两侧控制点的里程从拟合线上进行区间截取，对区间内的大山和高地标注区域重新进行人字坡或单斜坡排水设计；以两侧静态控制点的控制高程对调整后的拟合线进行符合设计规范的双向边坡顺延限标设计，得到自动坡度线； [0010] Step S4: divided by Static Control Point for each zone independently of each segment profile design: the mileage point to both sides of the control section were taken from the fitted line, the heights of the mountains and the interval labeling re-word area or single slope ramp drainage design; static control point to control the height of the line on both sides of the fitting adjustment meet the design specifications of standard design limit extended bidirectional slope, slope line obtained automatically;

[0011] 步骤S5 :对坡度线进行检测、实时评估与优化调整，得到更优化的成果坡度线。 [0011] Step S5: the slope of the line is detected, the adjustment and optimization of real-time evaluation, to obtain a more optimal results slope lines.

[0012] 本发明的有益效果： [0012] Advantageous effects of the invention:

[0013] 本发明通过上述步骤显著地提高了纵断面拉坡设计的效率与设计质量，提高企业的设计能力与设计水平；解决了选线设计纵断面智能化一个方面的技术问题，为智能化综合选线设计平台提供了技术铺垫。 [0013] Through the above steps of the present invention significantly improves the efficiency of design and design quality profile Rapport, designed to improve the design capability and enterprise level; intelligent technology to solve the problem of route designing a profile aspect, for the intelligent comprehensive route selection design platform provides the technical groundwork.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0014] 图1为本发明中纵断面自动坡度生成总流程图； [0014] Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional invention automatically generates a gradient general flow chart;

[0015] 图2为本发明中纵断面自动坡度生成详细流程图及与工程设计思维模式的对比图； [0015] FIG. 2 is a longitudinal section of the invention automatically generates a detailed flowchart of the slope and comparison with FIG thinking engineering design;

[0016] 图3为本发明中参照线与轮廓线的叠加检索出高山及高地示意图； [0016] FIG. 3 is an overlay of the reference line and the contour retrieved mountainous and upland schematic;

[0017] 图4为本发明中参照线上山尖线性插点示意图； [0017] Referring to FIG. 4 of the present invention, a schematic view of the line hilltops linear interpolation point;

[0018] 图5为本发明中高山设坡几何示意图； [0018] FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of the geometry of the mountain slope provided invention;

[0019] 图6纵断面检测与优化示意图。 [0019] Fig 6 a schematic longitudinal sectional detection and optimization.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0020] 以下结合附图和具体实施例对本发明作进一步的详细说明： [0020] The following embodiments in conjunction with accompanying drawings and specific embodiments of the present invention will be further described in detail:

[0021] 本发明提出的一种纵断面自动生成方法，在实时评估机制支持下，实现了纵断面拉坡设计的程序化智能化自动设计，经多重检验对比，自动设计成果通常优于或接近于工程人员的实际设计方案，为工程人员合理设计纵断面坡度提供了理想的设计参考，提高了设计效率与质量。 [0021] A profile of the present invention proposed a method to automatically generate, in real-time assessment of support mechanisms to achieve the design profile programmed intelligent automatic Rapport design, the multiple comparison test, the design results generally preferred or automatic close the actual design engineering staff, provides an ideal reference for design engineers to design a reasonable slope profile, improve design efficiency and quality.

[0022] 为实现此目的，本发明基于模拟工程设计人员的思维过程所提出的同时基于地面线地形起伏与地势高程的自动坡度设计方法，其特征在于，如图2所示，它包括如下的具体实施步骤： While [0022] To achieve this object, the present invention is based on the thinking process engineers simulate the proposed design method of automatic slope and topography land line based on terrain elevation, characterized in that, as shown in FIG. 2, which comprises the following In particular embodiments the steps of:

[0023] 步骤Sl :模拟工程师对地面线的认识过程，通过传统方式对地面线进行简化，得到能够反映地形整体起伏形状的里程点LC，并将区域空间的平均高程作为高程势而，同时对连续的可合并的地形坡段进行合并简化，得到能同时反映地形与地势的地面轮廓线； [0023] Step Sl: engineers simulate the process of understanding the ground line by line on the ground in a conventional manner to simplify, to give relief to reflect the overall shape of the terrain the LC mileage points, and the average elevation of the space area as the potential height and, at the same time continuous terrain slope may be combined to simplify the merge segment, and to obtain simultaneously reflect the topography of the terrain surface contour;

[0024] 步骤S2 :判断上述地面轮廓线上各坡度的地形类别，并按平地、沟谷的区域划分进行归类，对连续平地段进行整合，对沟谷段按架桥模式进行坡段整合与高程势调整，得到拉坡参照线； [0024] Step S2: determining the slope of each of terrain surface contour, flat press, categorize valley area division, integration continuous flat area, the slope of the valley segment by segment elevation integrated with bridging mode potential adjustment, to give Rapport reference line;

[0025] 步骤S3 :通过轮廓线与参照线的对比，提取大山和高地区域，对此类区域进行标注后暂时按直坡（拉斜坡）进行屏蔽设计，得到最接近坡度线的拟合线； [0025] Step S3: By comparing the contour line and reference line, and the extraction mountain plateau region, the region of such temporarily on a straight slope (slope pull) performed after labeling shielding design, give the closest fit line slope line;

[0026] 利用参照线与轮廓线的叠加对比，可以检索出高山及高地区域，如图3所示； [0026] The use of the addition and the reference line with the contour lines can be retrieved and on high mountain area, shown in Figure 3;

[0027] 对群山或高地的中间点的参照线上进行线性插点，如图4所示； [0027] The intermediate point reference line mountains or highlands linear interpolation point, shown in Figure 4;

[0028] 分别对这些投射插值点按照在轮廓线上的位置标注出山尖点、山谷点及高地点。 [0028] each of these interpolation points projected points marked out hilltops, valleys and high points according to the position in place of the contour line. 对其中的标注为山谷点的插值点，如果插值高程值与轮廓线上的高程势相近，将轮廓线上的高程势值赋给插值点，作为山间的变坡点存在，弥补轮廓线的不足； Which is denoted interpolation points valley point, if the interpolation value is similar to the elevation of the potential contour line elevation, the elevation of the potential contour interpolation point value is assigned, as the mountain PVI present, make up the contour insufficient;

[0029] 步骤S4 :按静态控制点划分出的子区间分别进行纵断面上各区段的独立设计：以两侧控制点的里程从拟合线上进行区间截取，对区间内的大山和高地标注区域重新进行人字坡或单斜坡排水设计；以两侧静态控制点的控制高程对调整后的拟合线进行符合设计规范的双向边坡顺延限标设计，得到自动坡度线； [0029] Step S4: divided by Static Control Point for each zone independently of each segment profile design: the mileage point to both sides of the control section were taken from the fitted line, the heights of the mountains and the interval labeling re-word area or single slope ramp drainage design; static control point to control the height of the line on both sides of the fitting adjustment meet the design specifications of standard design limit extended bidirectional slope, slope line obtained automatically;

[0030] 步骤S5 :对坡度线进行检测、实时评估与优化调整，得到更优化的成果坡度线。 [0030] Step S5: the slope of the line is detected, the adjustment and optimization of real-time evaluation, to obtain a more optimal results slope lines.

[0031] 如图6所示，所述步骤S5中的检测，包括根据平面曲线与坡度竖曲线的重叠检测、 坡度线变坡点位置与地面线的排水冲突检测、坡长坡度的超标检测、控制条件的闭合检测。 As shown in [0031] FIG 6, S5 in said detecting step comprising the overlap detection plane curve and the slope of the vertical curve, the slope of the drainage line to detect conflicts PVI position of the ground line, slope length detecting excessive slope, closing detection control condition.

[0032] 所述步骤S5中的实时评估方法，是通过建立的一种地理区间划分进行土石方调配平衡的快速评估系统，它能够对给定的地面线、坡度线进行快速评估得到一个综合的造价指标，从而用于判定拉坡方案的优劣，并帮助方案进行优化设计。 [0032] The method of real-time evaluation of the step S5, a rapid assessment of the earthwork allocation system is achieved by a balanced division of the geographic zone established, it can be given to the ground line, the slope of the line obtained for rapid assessment of the cost of an integrated index, which is used to determine the merits of Rapport programs and programs to help optimize the design. 该快速评估模型的详细实施方法参见论文"基于区间填挖平衡的线路纵断面快速评估模型"（2014. 5,周德宏，铁路计算机应用）。 The detailed implementation method of rapid assessment model see the article "Interval balanced cut and fill line profile Rapid Assessment Model" (2014.5, Zhou Dehong, Railway Computer Application).

[0033] 所述步骤S5中的优化调整，包括非静态控制点的局部优化调整，如权利要求书9 所述。 [0033] The optimal adjustment step S5, comprising a non-static local optimal adjustment of the control point, the book as claimed in claim 9.

[0034] 所述步骤S5不只是针对自动生成的坡度线有效，对人工设计的坡度线同样可以进行检测、评估与优化调整。 [0034] Step S5 is not only for the slope of the line generated automatically effective, artificially designed to slope lines can also be detected, evaluation and optimization of adjustment.

[0035] 上述步骤S1-S4中所有生成的轮廓线、参照线、拟合线及坡度线数据，都是同时包括地面高程与地势量的数据，地势量的引入，能够很好地自动实现丘陵、平地填挖最小，桥址合理抬高、隧道适当收缩的良好性能，地面高程数据的保留，非常有利于进行桥隧路的性质判断与排水冲突检测。 [0035] The above-described steps S1-S4 for all the generated contour line, the reference line, the slope of the fitted line and the line data, including data are simultaneously, the amount of the terrain and topography of the ground elevation introduction amount can be automatically implemented good hilly , dig the ground to fill a minimum, raise the bridge site reasonable, appropriate tunnel contraction good performance, ground elevation data retention and very conducive to determine the nature of the road bridge and tunnel drainage collision detection.

[0036] 所述步骤S1-S5是一个完全的推算演绎函数过程，如图1所示，由地面线一轮廓线-参照线一拟合线一自动坡度线一坡度成果线，系统方法具有稳定高效的特性。 [0036] The S1-S5 estimation step is a complete deductive procedure function, shown in Figure 1, a contour line from the ground - a reference line a line fitted line slope a slope automatic line results, the system stabilizing method efficient features.

[0037] 所述步骤Sl模拟工程人员分区间段设计思维的过程，在系统实现时可置于流程的最前段，也可以根据系统设计的便利在全段一致的数据预处理过程之后在S4-1阶段进行后置实现。 [0037] The design thought process section Sl partitioning step between analog engineers, system implementation may be placed when the process at the first stage, the system may be designed according to facilitate the full segment after pretreatment consistent data in S4- after phase 1 is set to achieve.

[0038] 所述步骤Sl模拟工程人员区间分段的原则同时包括静态控制点与车站参与分段，这与工程设计人员的原则更全面，更彻底。 [0038] The step Sl analog engineers zone segmentation principles include both static control points and stations involved in segmentation, which is the principle of engineering staff more comprehensive and thorough.

[0039] 所述步骤S5中的检测，包括根据平面曲线与坡度竖曲线的重叠检测、坡度线变坡点位置与地面线的排水冲突检测、坡长坡度的超标检测、控制条件的闭合检测。 [0039] The detection in step S5, the overlap detection plane comprising a vertical curve and the slope of the curve, the slope of the drain line PVI conflict with the ground line position detection, detects excessive slope slope length, closed control condition is detected.

[0040] 所述步骤S5中的优化调整，包括非静态控制点的局部优化调整，调整的方法是在控制位置插入新的变坡点或调整邻近变坡点的高程致控制有效；包括满足工程设计习惯的整50M里程调整、坡度精度0. 1/0. 01习惯调整，使设计成果更贴近人工习惯与工程认识的习惯；包括根据评估模型的精细化要求的变坡点横向振荡检测调整、竖向振荡检测调整，从而能够让所得到的坡度线具有最省的评估指标值。 [0040] The optimal adjustment step S5, comprising a non-static local optimal adjustment control point adjustment method is to insert a new PVI or adjust the position adjacent to the control variable slope point elevation actuator control effective; meet the engineering comprising 50M mileage entire adjustment customary design, the accuracy of the gradient 0. 01 1/0 diet adjustments to the design results closer to diet and engineering of artificial diet awareness; including lateral oscillation detector adjusted PVI required fine assessment model, vertical adjustment of the oscillation detection, it is possible to make the slope of the line obtained with evaluation index value most provinces.

[0041] 所述步骤S5不只是针对自动生成的坡度线有效，对人工设计的坡度线同样可以进行检测、评估与优化调整。 [0041] Step S5 is not only for the slope of the line generated automatically effective, artificially designed to slope lines can also be detected, evaluation and optimization of adjustment.

[0042] 上述技术方案中，所述步骤Sl中的高程势五Ϊ，通过里程点两侧一定范围内（如±500m)地面点的平均高程计算确定。 [0042] In the above aspect, in the step Sl elevation potential five Ϊ, calculated (e.g., ± 500m) mean elevation ground point mileage points on both sides within a certain range determined.

[0043] 上述技术方案中，所述步骤S4中的静态控制点，指具备确定高程的控制点，包括车站。 [0043] In the above technical solution, the static control point in step S4, the control point determining means comprises elevation, including stations. 如车站高程不确定，由车站所处区间平均高程势确定。 As the station elevation uncertain, which is determined by the station interval average elevation potential.

[0044] 上述技术方案中，所述步骤S4中非静态控制点为高程上有向上自由或向下自由变动的控制点，此类控制点在步骤S5中进行检测判断后，对不满足控制性要求的坡段进行局部调节。 After [0044] In the above technical solution, S4 are not static control points of the control point there is a step up or down freely consisting elevation changes, such control point is detected is determined in step S5, for controlling not satisfied slope segments required local regulation.

[0045] 上述技术方案中，所述步骤S5中的实时评估，是通过建立的一种地理区间划分进行土石方调配平衡的快速评估方式，它能够对给定的地面线、坡度线进行快速评估得到一个综合的造价指标，从而用于判定拉坡方案的优劣，并帮助方案进行优化设计。 [0045] In the above aspect, the step S5, the real-time assessment, a rapid assessment of the earthwork allocation mode is achieved by a balanced division of the geographic zone established, it can be given to the ground line, the slope of the line obtained for rapid assessment a comprehensive cost index, which is used to determine the merits of Rapport programs and programs to help optimize the design.

[0046] 上述技术方案中，所述步骤1的过程分为如下几个过程实现： [0046] In the above technical solution, the procedure of Step 1 divided into the following process to achieve:

[0047] 步骤Sl-I，对给定的地面线采样点LCi链数据{(LC。，ZHci)，（LC 1, ZH1)，…… ，（LCn，ZHn)}，ZHQi表示各个点的高程，截取附近±500m里程范围的所以采样点，计算得到该点的平均高程作为该点的高程势而存在，形成对采样点的拓展数据（LC，ZH，I)， 得到一条无毛糙、光滑的地面线； [0047] Step Sl-I, the ground line of a given sampling point LCi chain data {(LC., ZHci), (LC 1, ZH1), ......, (LCn, ZHn)}, ZHQi elevation of each point represents , taken near ± 500m the sampling point mileage range, the calculated mean elevation of the point as the elevation of the potential of the point exists, is formed to expand data (LC, ZH, I) of sampling points, to obtain a non-rough, smooth ground line;

[0048] 步骤S1-2,根据前后两个采样点的高程势计算两点间坡度值K，形成对采样点的另一维拓展数据（LC，ZH，五ϊ，K)，根据相邻K值的比较，将相近的坡度进行整合，从而可以简化地面线上的采样点数量； [0048] Step S1-2, the value K is calculated according to the slope between the two points the potential height of the two sampling points before and after formation of a further expansion-dimensional data of sample points (LC, ZH, five ϊ, K), in accordance with the adjacent K comparison value, the similar slope integration, which can simplify the number of sampling points of the ground line;

[0049] 步骤S1-3,根据前后两个采样点的高程势，计算中间采样点计算高程势五^，若中间采样点的实际高程势兩与计算高程势万ί的高差在一定控制范围内（如±lm)，表示它们存在线性关系，则可以将中间采样点剔除，得到进一步简化的拟合地面线； [0049] Step S1-3, in accordance with the elevation of the potential of the two sampling points before and after the calculated intermediate samples calculated elevation ^ five potential, if the intermediate potential of the sample points actual elevation and two potential Wan ί calculated elevation of the control range of a certain height within (e.g., ± lm), which indicates a linear relationship exists, then the intermediate samples may be eliminated, further simplifying the fitting ground line;

[0050] 步骤S1-4,根据采样点前后的变坡方向（K1J XKjg < 0, K1J表示采样点前方坡的坡度值，κβ表示采样点后方坡的坡度值），从拟合地面线上过滤提取关键拐点，得到能够反映地面起伏形状的轮廓线。 [0050] Step S1-4, in accordance with variable slope longitudinal direction of the sample points (K1J XKjg <0, K1J value represents the gradient of the slope in front of the sampling points, κβ represents the slope of a sampled rear slope), filtered from the ground line fitting extracting the key turning point, we have been able to reflect the shape of the undulating ground contours.

[0051] 上述技术方案中，所述步骤2的过程分为如下几个过程实现： [0051] In the above technical solution, the process is divided into the following two step process to achieve:

[0052] 步骤S2-1，按照规范要求的最短坡段要求，对短坡进行过滤，过滤的方法参照步骤S1-3,按最小计算高程差进行采样点的保留，从而可以确保坡长的合规配置； [0052] Step S2-1, in accordance with the requirements of minimum slope segment regulatory requirements, short slope filter, filtration with reference to step S1-3, be retained by the sample point calculated minimum difference in elevation, thereby ensuring the engagement slope length regulations configuration;

[0053] 步骤S2-2,通过坡段值K的分析，确立平地地段、沟谷地段，并通过附加说明信息字段，即Mark字段进行类型标注，构成采样点的性质拓展（IX，ΖΗ，，K，Mark)，ZH表示对应点的高程；同时过滤掉所有|K| >20的坡段，这些区域被视为群山或高地区域暂时屏蔽掉；对连续的平地坡段进行合并构成一个坡段，对沟谷坡段按架桥方式直接移除沟底的采样点，形成直坡，构成参照线而存在。 [0053] Step S2-2, the value of K by analyzing the slope segments, establishing ground lots, lots valley, and, i.e. for the type annotation Mark field configured to expand the nature of the sampling points (IX, ΖΗ ,, K by the additional information field description , Mark), ZH represents elevation corresponding point; while filtering out all | K |> slope section 20, these regions are considered as mountains or highlands area for temporarily masked; successive flat slope segments merge to form a slope segment , the slope of the valley section by directly removing the sampling points bridging the groove bottom, to form a straight slope, constituting the reference line exists.

[0054] 平地、沟谷地段的确立可按如下方式进行判断： [0054] the ground, establishing valley area may be determined in the following manner:

[0055] 平地地段的确立：IKI彡20 ; Establishing [0055] plains area: IKI Pie 20;

[0056] 沟谷地段的确立：½ < 0, Kjg > 0 ; Establishment [0056] valley area: ½ <0, Kjg> 0;

[0057] 上述技术方案中，所述步骤4的过程分为如下几个过程实现： [0057] In the above technical solution, the process is divided into the following 4 step process to achieve:

[0058] 步骤S4-1 :模拟工程师的设计思维，利用静态控制点将整段区间分为若干个子区间，再分别针对各个子区间分别进行设计； [0058] Step S4-1: analog engineers design thought, static control point using the whole range is divided into a number of subintervals, each subinterval then separately for each design;

[0059] 说明：工程师的这一个思维过程通常是在设计过程的最前面，本发明安排在S4-1 步骤进行区间化设计，主要是因为前述过程都是可以跨越区间的预处理过程，集中连贯处理更利于程序上的实现与效率上的优化，但数据的预处理过程也是可以分区间进行的，因此与工程师的设计过程是不冲突的； [0059] Description: This is a thought process engineers usually at the top of the design process, the present invention is arranged in a section for design step S4-1, the process is mainly due to the pretreatment process can be cross section, coherent concentration process more conducive to the realization of optimization and efficiency of the program, but also pre-process data that can be made between partitions, and engineers design process is no conflict;

[0060] 步骤S4-2 :对截取的拟合坡度线，分别从区间起点向后，尾点向前进行两次的坡度调整遍历，对其中坡度值大于规范要求的坡段，以给定的最大允可坡度配置计算确立下一采样点的允可高程值并进行顺延调整； [0060] Step S4-2: the slope of the fitted line, taken, respectively, from the starting point back section, tail points forward slope adjustment traversed twice, wherein the slope of the slope value is greater than Compliant section, a given Yunke established maximum gradient location calculation Yunke elevation value of the next sample point is adjusted and extended;

[0061] 步骤S4-3 :顺延检索过程中，对前述标注的山尖点进行人字坡或单坡排水设计； 对标注的高地点进行人字坡或拱坡排水设计；当高地的中央平地距离小于一定距离时（如〈3KM)，可视为平顶高山，从中剔出高地点，并作为标注补充一个山尖点，按大山模式进行处理，设置人字坡或单斜坡；高地中央平地距离超出给定距离阈值时，高地两侧的大坡度线可以通过双向顺延进行自动调整，无须额外处理。 [0061] Step S4-3: extended retrieval process, the labels will be the point Shanjian word or a single grade slope drainage design; locations denoted high slope or herringbone design Arch drainage slope; if central flat highlands when the distance is less than a certain distance (such as <3KM), can be regarded as flat-topped mountains, excised from high places, and as a supplement jian point mark, according to the mountain mode processing, set the herringbone slope or single slope; the central highland plains when the distance exceeds a given distance threshold, large slope on both sides of the line can be automatically adjusted by the heights bidirectional extended without additional processing.

[0062] 所述步骤S4中对区间内的群山、大山、高地标注区域进行人字坡或单斜坡排水设计的方法，采用最优试测的方法实现如下： [0062] Step S4, the inner section of the mountains, mountain, highland area labeling method or a single word ramp slope drainage design, optimal use of the test method to achieve the following test:

[0063] 如图5所示，假定A、B两点分别为大山入口与出口变坡点，相距里程为IX，两点高程差为Λ H，变坡点可能是区间内的任何一点0,为了方便，将AB区间分为10份进行切割定位，假定变坡点的位置处于m/ΙΟ处，m为大于0小于10的正数。 [0063] As shown in FIG 5, it is assumed A, B are two mountains PVI inlet and the outlet, for the mileage distance IX, two elevation difference Λ H, PVI can be any within the range 1.0, for convenience, the AB interval is divided into 10 parts of cut positioning, PVI assumed position is at m / ΙΟ at, m is a positive number greater than 0 and less than 10.

[0064] 设两段坡线的斜率绝对值分别为K1、K2,则按照几何逻辑关系，有如下的推理公式： [0064] The slope of the line located two slope absolute values as K1, K2, according to the geometric logic, reasoning following equation:

[0068] 上面的公式准确了描述了m、KU Κ2之间的数理关系，要确立区间坡线，实质就是要确立其中两个参数条件即可，第三个参数就自然可以通过该公式计算出来。 [0068] The above equation accurately describes the mathematical relationship between m, KU Κ2, to establish the slope of the line section, wherein the substance is to establish two parameter conditions can, naturally the third parameter can be calculated by the formula . 结合工程设计我们来分析这三个参数的作用：m确立的是山中变坡点的设置位置，通常隧道施工是双向进行的，为了保障施工周期与施工方便，自然是两段边坡能够等长为好，所以m越处于中间点位置越好。 We combine engineering design to analyze the role of these three parameters: m-established position is set in the mountains PVI, usually two-way tunnel construction is carried out, in order to protect the construction period and facilitate the construction, natural slope can be as long as two as well, so that m is in the intermediate position as possible. KU K2有两重作用，一是弥补大山两侧的出入口落差过渡；二是考虑排水。 KU K2 has two functions, one to make up the mountains on both sides of the entrance gap transition; the second is to consider drainage. 如果仅就排水，考虑动力性能，自然是坡度越小越好，3%。 If only for drainage, consider the dynamic performance, the smaller the better natural slope is 3%. 的坡就足够了。 The slope is enough. 此外，两边坡度一致既能够保持良好的动力性能，也能简化设计施工的难度。 In addition, both sides agreed to maintain the slope of a good dynamic performance, can simplify the difficulty of design and construction.

[0069] 综上所述，可以列出确立上述参数的三个最优条件如下： Optimal conditions for three [0069] In summary, the above parameters can be listed established as follows:

[0071] 实施方法：按2〈K1，K2〈MaxSlope按递进坡度0. 5进行逐个给定，计算出相应的m 值后。 [0071] The procedure: press 2 <K1, K2 <MaxSlope-by progressive slope given by 0.5 to calculate the corresponding value of m. 若得到的m值小于O或大于10,此时意味着该给定坡度设计不出来山中的人字坡，设坡无效可以跳过，继续试探其它的组合参数。 If the resulting value of m is less than or greater than O 10, at this time means that the slope of the given design does not come out of the word mountain slope, the slope is provided to skip invalid, continue to test other combinations of parameters.

[0072] 对计算出来的有效人字坡，还需要进行如下的检测才能最终确立： [0072] effective herringbone slope calculated, but also need the following final testing to establish:

[0073] ①两段坡的长度要求满足线路对坡长的限制条件； [0073] ① two longitudinal slope of the line in claim slope length constraints is satisfied;

[0074] ②变坡点要在地面线下20M以下的深度，否则隧道埋深过浅，容易造成安全事故。 [0074] ② PVI to the depth of 20M or less in line ground, otherwise the tunnel depth is too shallow, easily lead to accidents.

[0075] 对判断有效的所有人字坡进行比较，是基于三个层面进行的，优先M - 5,其次K1+K2 - 6,再次Kl = K2进行选优判断，得到最优的KU K2、m参数后确立人字坡。 [0075] The determination of the effective slope of all words compared, is based on three levels, the priority M - 5, followed by K1 + K2 - 6, again Kl = K2 Selecting the optimum determination of optimal KU K2, after establishing the slope m word parameters.

[0076] 本说明书未作详细描述的内容属于本领域专业技术人员公知的现有技术。 SUMMARY [0076] The present specification is not described in detail belong to the prior art techniques known to technicians.

## Claims (8)

- 1. 一种基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法，其特征在于，它包括如下步骤： 步骤Sl:通过传统方式对地面线进行简化，得到能够反映地形整体起伏形状的里程点LC，并将区域空间的平均高程作为高程势兩，同时对连续的可合并的地形坡段进行合并简化，得到能同时反映地形与地势的地面轮廓线； 步骤S2 :判断上述地面轮廓线上各坡度的地形类别，并按平地、沟谷的区域划分进行归类，对连续平地段进行整合，对沟谷段按架桥模式进行坡段整合与高程势调整，得到拉坡参照线； 步骤S3 :通过轮廓线与参照线的对比，提取大山和高地区域，对此类区域进行标注后按直坡进行屏蔽设计，得到最接近坡度线的拟合线； 步骤S4 :按静态控制点划分出的子区间分别进行纵断面上各区段的独立设计：以两侧控制点的里程从拟合线上进行区间截取，对区间内的大山 An automatic method of generating a gradient profile based on deduction, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: Step Sl is: simplify the ground line by conventional means, to give a shape to reflect the entire undulating terrain the LC mileage points, and the average elevation of the space area as two potential elevation, while continuous combined terrain slope segment may be combined to simplify, to obtain simultaneously reflect the topography of the terrain surface contour; step S2: determining the slope of each of terrain surface contour press the ground, zoning valley categorize, integrate continuous flat area, the slope of the valley segment elevation section integrated with the potential bridging mode adjusted to give Rapport reference line; step S3: contour line and by reference to comparison line, and the extraction mountain plateau region, shielding the design of such regions are labeled by a linear slope, the slope of the line obtained closest fit line; step S4: divided by the static control points respectively subintervals profile independently each segment design: the mileage point to both sides of the control section be taken from the fitted line, the interval of the mountains 高地标注区域重新进行人字坡或单斜坡排水设计；以两侧静态控制点的控制高程对调整后的拟合线进行符合设计规范的双向边坡顺延限标设计，得到自动坡度线； 步骤S5 :对坡度线进行检测、实时评估与优化调整，得到更优化的成果坡度线。 Highland area marked re herringbone single slope or slope and drainage design; static control point to control the height of the line on both sides of the fitting adjustment meet the design specifications of standard design limit extended bidirectional slope, slope lines obtained automatically; step S5 : the slope of the line for testing, evaluation and optimization of real-time adjustments to get more optimal results slope line.
- 2. 根据权利要求1所述的基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法，其特征在于：所述步骤Sl中的高程势五Ϊ，通过里程点两侧一定范围内地面点的平均高程计算确定。 The gradient profile generation based automatic deduction according to claim 1, wherein: said step Sl elevation of five potential Ϊ, is determined by calculating the average elevation within a range of mileage points on both sides ground point .
- 3. 根据权利要求1所述的基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法，其特征在于：所述步骤S4中的静态控制点，指具备确定高程的控制点，包括车站。 3. The method of automatically generating a gradient profile based on deduction, wherein according to claim 1: said static control point in step S4, the control point determining means comprises elevation, including stations. 如车站高程不确定，由车站所处区间平均高程势确定。 As the station elevation uncertain, which is determined by the station interval average elevation potential.
- 4. 根据权利要求1所述的基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法，其特征在于：所述步骤S4中非静态控制点为高程上有向上自由或向下自由变动的控制点，此类控制点在步骤S5中进行检测判断后，对不满足控制性要求的坡段进行局部调节。 4. The automatic deduction gradient profile generated based, wherein according to claim 1: the step S4 is not static control point has a free control point up or down the free elevation changes, such after detecting the control point is determined in step S5, the controllability of the slope section does not satisfy the requirements of local regulation.
- 5. 根据权利要求1所述的基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法，其特征在于：所述步骤S5中的实时评估，是通过建立的一种地理区间划分进行土石方调配平衡的快速评估方式，它能够对给定的地面线、坡度线进行快速评估得到一个综合的造价指标，从而用于判定拉坡方案的优劣，并帮助方案进行优化设计。 The gradient profile generation based automatic deduction according to claim 1, wherein: said evaluating step S5, in real time, rapid assessment is formulated earthwork balanced manner by means of a geographical zone divided established it can quickly get a comprehensive assessment of the cost index for a given ground line, the slope of the line, which is used to determine the merits of the program Rapport, and help optimize the design scheme.
- 6. 根据权利要求1所述的基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法，其特征在于：所述步骤1的过程分为如下几个过程实现： 步骤S1-1，对给定的地面线采样点LCi链数据{(LC。，ZHci)，（LC1,ZH1)，……，（LCn，ZHn)}，ZHtlI表示各个点的高程，截取附近±500m里程范围的所以采样点，计算得到该点的平均高程运^，作为该点的高程势而存在，形成对采样点的拓展数据（LC，ZH，&)，得到一条无毛糙、光滑的地面线； 步骤S1-2,根据前后两个采样点的高程势计算两点间坡度值Κ，形成对采样点的另一维拓展数据（LC,ZH, ，Κ)，根据相邻K值的比较，将相近的坡度进行整合，从而可以简化地面线上的采样点数量； 步骤S1-3,根据前后两个采样点的高程势，计算中间采样点计算高程势涵'，若中间采样点的实际高程势五Ϊ与计算高程势方Ϊ'的高差在一定控制范围内，表示它们存在线 The gradient profile generation based automatic deduction according to claim 1, wherein: said step of process 1 is divided into the following process is realized: a step S1-1, the ground line of a given sample LCi chain data point {(LC., ZHci), (LC1, ZH1), ......, (LCn, ZHn)}, ZHtlI showing the elevation of each point, mileage ± 500m taken near the sampling point range, the calculated point the average elevation ^ transport, as the potential of the point of elevation exists, is formed to expand the data sampling point (LC, ZH, &), to give a non-rough, smooth ground line; step S1-2, two samples contextually potential point elevation between two points is calculated gradient value K0, and the other dimension is formed to expand the data sampling point (LC, ZH,, Κ), based on a comparison of adjacent K value, the integration slope close to the ground may be simplified the line number of sample points; step S1-3, in accordance with the elevation of the potential of the two sampling points before and after the calculated intermediate samples calculated elevation potential Han ', if the actual height of the intermediate sampling points and computing a potential five Ϊ potential side elevation Ϊ' of height difference within a certain control range, they are represented by lines 关系，则可以将中间采样点剔除，得到进一步简化的拟合地面线； 步骤S1-4,根据采样点前后的变坡方向，从拟合地面线上过滤提取关键拐点，得到能够反映地面起伏形状的轮廓线。 Relation, the intermediate samples may be eliminated, further simplifying the fitting ground line; step S1-4, in accordance with variable slope longitudinal direction sampling point, an inflection point from the filtered extract key fitting the ground line, to give a shape to reflect hypsography the contour lines.
- 7. 根据权利要求6所述的基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法，其特征在于：所述步骤2的过程分为如下几个过程实现： 步骤S2-1，按照规范要求的最短坡段要求，对短坡进行过滤，按最小计算高程差进行采样点的保留，从而可以确保坡长的合规配置； 步骤S2-2,通过坡段值K的分析，确立平地地段、沟谷地段，并通过附加说明信息字段， 即Mark字段进行类型标注，构成采样点的性质拓展(LC,ZH,ffl，K，Mark)，ZH表示对应点的高程；同时过滤掉所有|K| >20的坡段，这些区域被视为群山或高地区域暂时屏蔽掉；对连续的平地坡段进行合并构成一个坡段，对沟谷坡段按架桥方式直接移除沟底的采样点，形成直坡，构成参照线而存在。 7. The method of automatically generating a gradient profile based on deduction, wherein according to claim 6: Step 2 of the process is divided into the following process implementation: Step S2-1, the shortest segment accordance with the specifications of the slope requirements, short slope was filtered, to retain sample points by calculating the minimum difference in elevation, thereby ensuring compliance slope length configuration; step S2-2, the value of K by analyzing the slope segments, establishing the ground area, the valley area, and , i.e. Mark fields with additional explanatory information field type labels, constituting the nature of the sample point to expand (LC, ZH, ffl, K, Mark), ZH represents elevation corresponding point; while filtering out all | K |> slope section 20 these areas are considered as mountains or highlands area for temporarily masked; successive flat slope segments merge to form a slope segment, the slope of the valley section by directly removing the sampling points bridging the groove bottom, to form a straight slope, constituting reference line exists.
- 8. 根据权利要求6所述的基于演绎法的纵断面自动坡度生成方法，其特征在于：所述步骤4的过程分为如下几个过程实现： 步骤S4-1 :利用静态控制点将整段区间分为若干个子区间，再分别针对各个子区间分别进行设计； 步骤S4-2 :对截取的拟合坡度线，分别从区间起点向后，尾点向前进行两次的坡度调整遍历，对其中坡度值大于规范要求的坡段，以给定的最大允可坡度配置计算确立下一采样点的允可高程值并进行顺延调整； 步骤S4-3 :顺延检索过程中，对前述标注的山尖点进行人字坡或单坡排水设计；对标注的高地点进行人字坡或拱坡排水设计；当高地的中央平地距离小于一定距离时，可视为平顶高山，从中剔出高地点，并作为标注补充一个山尖点，按大山模式进行处理，设置人字坡或单斜坡；高地中央平地距离超出给定距离阈值时，高地两侧的大坡 The gradient profile generated automatically based on the deduction of claim 6, wherein: said process is divided into the following 4 step process implementation: Step S4-1: Static control point using the whole interval is divided into a plurality of subintervals, each subinterval then separately for each design; step S4-2: the slope of the fitted line, taken, respectively, starting from the section rearwardly, the forward end of the two point slope adjustment traversal of wherein the gradient value is greater than the slope of segment specifications, given the maximum gradient Yunke Yunke elevation values calculated configured to establish a next sampling point and extended adjustment; step S4-3: extended retrieval, the labeling of the mountain sharp points or a single word slope slope drainage design; to mark locations of high arch herringbone slope or slope and drainage design; when the central highlands of less than a certain distance from the ground, can be regarded as flat-topped mountains, excised from high places Highland large flat central distance exceeds a given distance threshold heights on both sides; and denoted as a complementary point hilltops, the processing mode according to the mountain, slope or herringbone set slope single 线可以通过双向顺延进行自动调整，无须额外处理。 Line can be automatically adjusted by two-way extended without additional processing.

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