CN104438538B  Threedimensional curved surface stretch forming method based on surfacechanging discrete mould  Google Patents
Threedimensional curved surface stretch forming method based on surfacechanging discrete mould Download PDFInfo
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 CN104438538B CN104438538B CN201410612817.4A CN201410612817A CN104438538B CN 104438538 B CN104438538 B CN 104438538B CN 201410612817 A CN201410612817 A CN 201410612817A CN 104438538 B CN104438538 B CN 104438538B
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 basic body
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 B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
 B21—MECHANICAL METALWORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
 B21D—WORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
 B21D31/00—Other methods for working sheet metal, metal tubes, metal profiles
 B21D31/005—Incremental shaping or bending, e.g. stepwise moving a shaping tool along the surface of the workpiece

 B—PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
 B21—MECHANICAL METALWORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
 B21D—WORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
 B21D37/00—Tools as parts of machines covered by this subclass
 B21D37/10—Die sets; Pillar guides
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 Moulds For Moulding Plastics Or The Like (AREA)
Abstract
The invention provides a threedimensional curved surface stretch forming method based on a surfacechanging discrete mould, and belongs to the field of metal plastic machining. Nonuniform deformation of a plate in the stretch forming process is the main cause of kinds of defects. According to the method, based on the discrete mould, the forming process of a curved surface is controlled through the change of the mould surface. In the forming process, the plate is kept completely attached to the mould surface all the time, the continuous and uniform change of the mould surface makes the deformation of the plate more and more uniform, the forming defects are avoided, and a highquality curvedsurface part can be obtained through stretch forming. The discrete mould is composed of regularlyarrayed basic body units, and realtime control over the geometrical shape of the surface of the stretch forming mould is achieved by changing the height of the basic body units. Besides, in the stretch forming process, the plate is clamped by a clamp to rotate along with the change of the mould surface, the clamp does not need to move in the horizontal direction or height direction, and therefore a loading structure of stretch forming equipment can be simplified through the forming method.
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to Metal Forming field, relate to a kind of sheet forming method it is adaptable to largescale three dimensional curved surface
The stretch forming of part.
Background technology
Stretch forming is a kind of important processing mode of largescale curved part.Tradition is pullshaped to draw using type face is changeless
Shape mould, the geometry of die face designs according to curved surface part to be shaped.In forming process, pullshaped mould is ambilateral
Clamp clamps plate two ends, by the motion of clamp, so that plate is come into contact with mould, and formation of finally fitting with mould completely is bent
Surface parts.Using traditional fixed pattern face mould tool pullshaped to easily cause deformation uneven, cause rupture, wrinkling and skid wire, slightly
The defects such as crystalline substance, these problems are especially prominent in the material forming of the deflection controlled range very little such as aluminium alloy, titanium alloy.Separately
Outward, traditional pullshaped also presence patch mould difficult problem, for ensureing patch mould, plate must leave the hanging section of sufficient length, lead to
Form larger process residue after shaping.For improving deformation distribution, improving the patch mould state of plate, people are in clamp movement locus
Optimization design aspect has carried out many research work, but these problems are difficult to thoroughly solve.
Threedimension curved surface stretch forming is carried out using modification face mould tool, so that plate is protected with die face all the time in forming process
Hold and fit completely, it is possible to achieve deformation homogenization, and can solve the problems, such as that patch mould is bad, it is to avoid defect produces, and improves curved surface zero
The stretch forming quality of part.
Content of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is：Easily inhomogeneous deformation occurs for traditional fixed pattern face mould tool is pullshaped, thus causing into
The problem of various defects on shape part, the present invention will provide a kind of threedimension curved surface stretch forming based on modification face discrete type mould
Method, by the forming process of the change Control curve of die face, in forming process, plate is complete with die face all the time
Laminating, makes the deformation of plate tend to uniform, thus avoiding various forming defectses to produce, obtains highquality stretch forming curved surface zero
Part.
The abovementioned purpose of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions, and is described with reference to the drawings as follows：
A kind of threedimension curved surface method of stretch forming based on modification face discrete type mould, with the variable discrete type mould in type face
2 and clamp 3 as forming tool it is characterised in that：The method passes through the curve form of die face 1 with discrete type mould 2
Consecutive variations and clamp 3 profilefollowed rotation, make clamp 3 clamp plate 4 keep same with what die face 1 was fitted completely
When, gradually stretcher strain, eventually form threedimension curved surface part 5；
Described discrete type mould 2 is made up of the regularly arranged basic body unit 6 of m row n row.In plate 4 stretch forming
Cheng Zhong, the change of die face 1 is changed controlling by the relative altitude of each basic body, and the motion of discrete type mould 2 includes discrete
In the lifting of formula mould 2 entirety and discrete type mould 2 between each basic body unit 6 short transverse relative motion；
Described clamp 3 clamps plate 4, during stretch forming, rotates with the tangential variations at die face 1 edge,
But the position of occurred level and short transverse is not moved；
The rotation of the motion of described discrete type mould 2 and clamp 3 ensure plate 4 in forming process all the time with die face
1 fits completely, makes deformation tend to uniform, obtains highquality stretch forming curved surface part 5；
The comprising the following steps that of the control forming process of the method：
A. the primary tape face of discrete type mould 2 is adjusted to plane, and clamp 3 clamps plate 4, the initial plane patch with mould
Close；
B. the shape according to profile surface, at the uniform velocity risen based on each basic body unit 6 and clamp 3 uniform rotation principle,
Determine in the short transverse displacement w of each basic body of the forming process t and hardover θ of clamp_{max}And discrete type mould 2
The displacement d in whole height direction；
C. the whole height direction of the short transverse displacement w according to required basic body unit 6 and discrete type mould 2
Displacement d course over time, controls the up and down motion of discrete type mould 2 and each basic body unit 6, carries out threedimension curved surface
Stretch forming.
Wherein, in step b determine discrete type mould each basic body unit 6 the direction displacement of forming process t z and from
The detailed process of the overall z direction displacement of scattered formula mould 2 is：
A. extract the coordinate x at basic body unit 6 center of the ith row jth row_{ij}And y_{ij}(i=1,2 ..., m；J=1,2 ...,
n；Wherein m is the line number of basic body unit 6, and n is the columns of basic body unit 6)；Determine bent at discrete type mould 2 edges at two ends
The maximum tangential tilt in face, i.e. the hardover θ of clamp_{max}, and determine the surface parameter equation of threedimension curved surface part 5：
Wherein x, y are the coordinate of horizontal direction, and z is short transverse coordinate；U, v are the parameter coordinate of threedimension curved surface part 5；
B. solving equation II, calculates the basic body unit 6 of the ith row jth row and the parameter of the contact point of threedimension curved surface part 5
Coordinate u_{i}And v_{j}
Wherein x (u_{i},v_{j}), y (u_{i},v_{j}) be given by profile surface equation I, r is the Proberadius of basic body unit (6), h
For plate 4 thickness, H is the thickness of cushion 7, n_{x}(u_{i},v_{j}) and n_{y}(u_{i},v_{j}) divide for normal direction outside the unit of threedimension curved surface part 5
Amount, is calculated by following formula
Wherein P (u_{i},v_{j}) be given by profile surface equation (I)；
C. the final height at the end of utilizing the basic body that equation IV calculates the ith row jth row to shape
Wherein z (u_{i},v_{j}) be given by profile surface equation I, the outer normal component n of unit of curved surface_{z}(u_{i},v_{j}) by equation III
Be given；
D. equation V is utilized to calculate the z direction displacement in t for the basic body unit 6 of the ith row jth row of discrete type mould 2
Wherein z_{min}The basic body unit (6) that calculates for equation (IV) final highly in minima, T is stretch forming
The total time needing；
Calculate the global displacement in the z direction in t for the discrete mold 2 using equation VI
Wherein l is the distance of die edge to clamp, θ_{max}For the maximum tangential tilt of both mold ends edge curved surface, that is,
The hardover of clamp.
In the method for the invention, described basic body unit 6 is by cell cube 8, basic body adjusting lever 9 and basic body control
Unit 10 processed forms, and described basic body control unit 10 includes adjusting shape motor, decelerator and encoder, the height of basic body unit 6
Degree is by basic body control unit 10 realtime control；Regularly arranged m row n arranges basic body unit and fixes structure by fixed plate with base 11
The variable discrete type mould 2 of forming surface.
Further, using cushion 7 between discrete type mould 2 and plate 4, to avoid going out on the curved surface part shaping
Existing impression.
Further, described cushion 7 can adopt polyurethane sheet or rubber slab.
Compared with prior art the invention has the beneficial effects as follows：
Because plate and die face are completely attached to by cushion all the time during curve generating, the change of plate can be made
Shape tends to uniform, thus the generation of various forming defectses can be avoided, obtains highquality curved surface part；Additionally, with existing
Pullshaped technology using fixed pattern face mould tool is compared, and improves patch mould state, can substantially reduce technique clout, materialsaving；?
Afterwards, during stretch forming, clamp clamping plate rotates with the change of die face, and clamp does not need levelness and height side
To motion, thus this manufacturing process can also simplify the loading structure of pullshaped equipment.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is modification face of the present invention discrete type mould structure schematic diagram；
Fig. 2 is modification face of the present invention discrete type mould Stretch Forming Process schematic diagram；
Fig. 3 is basic body cellular construction schematic diagram；
Fig. 4 is clamp corner, hanging section length and discrete type mould global displacement schematic diagram；
Fig. 5 is t the ith row jth row basic body cell height direction displacement diagram；
Fig. 6 is the sphere drip molding equivalent strain scattergram pullshaped using modification face discrete type mould；
Fig. 7 is the sphere drip molding equivalent strain scattergram pullshaped using traditional fixed pattern face mould tool；
Fig. 8 is the strain contrast that the pullshaped sphere drip molding pullshaped with tradition in modification face is distributed along along draw direction axis of symmetry
Figure；
Fig. 9 is the strain that the pullshaped sphere drip molding pullshaped with tradition in modification face is distributed along along the axis of symmetry of stretched vertically direction
Comparison diagram.
In figure：
1. die face, 2. discrete type mould, 3. pullingin dog, 4. plate, 5. threedimension curved surface part, 6. basic body unit,
7. cushion, 8. cell cube, 9. basic body adjusting lever, 10. basic body control unit, 11. fixed plates and base.
The whole height direction amount of movement of d discrete type mould
θclamp the anglec of rotation
z_{min} basic body unit final highly in minima
L die edge is to the distance of clamp
z_{ij}The final height of the basic body unit of thethe ith row jth column position
R basic body unit Proberadius
Specific embodiment
Further illustrate detailed content and its specific embodiment of the present invention with reference to Figure of description：
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, the discrete type mould 2 of stretch forming is by 6 groups regularly arranged of the basic body unit of m row n row
Become.During the stretch forming of plate 4, the change of die face 1 is changed to control by the relative altitude of each basic body, discrete
The motion of formula mould 2 includes the phase in the lifting of discrete type mould 2 entirety and discrete type mould 2 between each basic body unit 6
To motion.
As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 4, clamp 3 clamping plate 4, during stretch forming, tangential with die face 1 edge
Change and rotate, but the position of occurred level and short transverse is not moved.
As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 4, ensure plate 4 in forming process by the rotation of the motion of discrete type mould 2 and clamp 3
In fit completely with die face 1 all the time, make deformation tend to uniform, obtain highquality stretch forming threedimension curved surface part 5.
As shown in Fig. 2 the control forming process of threedimension curved surface method of stretch forming based on modification face discrete type mould
Comprise the following steps that：
A. the primary tape face of discrete type mould 2 is adjusted to plane, clamp 3 clamps plate 4, first with discrete type mould 2
Beginning plane is fitted, and is set as the initial time of forming process this moment；
B. the shape according to threedimension curved surface part 5, is at the uniform velocity risen based on each basic body unit 6 and clamp 3 uniform rotation
Principle, determines the hardover θ of the short transverse displacement w in each basic body unit 6 of forming process t and clamp 3_{max}And
The whole height direction displacement d of discrete type mould 2；
C. according to required basic body unit 6 displacement w and discrete type mould 2 whole height direction displacement d in time
Change course, controls the motion of discrete type mould 2 and each basic body unit 6, carries out the stretch forming of threedimension curved surface.
As shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5, determine each basic body unit 6 of discrete mold in the direction displacement of forming process t z and
Mould entirety the displacement of z direction detailed process be：
A. determine the coordinate x in x, y direction for each basic body center_{ij}And y_{ij}I=1,2 ..., m；J=1,2 ..., n；Wherein m
Be basic body line number n be basic body columns；Determine the maximum tangential tilt of both mold ends edge curved surface, that is, clamp is
Big corner θ_{max}, and determine the parametric equation of threedimension curved surface part 5：
Wherein u, v are the parameter coordinate of curved surface.
B. solving equation II, calculates the basic body of the ith row jth row and the parameter of the contact point of target threedimension curved surface part 5
Coordinate u_{i}And v_{j}
Wherein x (u_{i},v_{j}), y (u_{i},v_{j}) be given by profile surface equation I, r is basic body Proberadius, and h is that plate 4 is thick
Degree, H is the thickness of cushion 7, n_{x}(u_{i},v_{j}) and n_{y}(u_{i},v_{j}) it is normal component outside the unit of curved surface, calculated by following formula
C. the final height at the end of utilizing the basic body that equation IV calculates the ith row jth row to shape
Wherein z (u_{i},v_{j}) be given by profile surface equation I, the outer normal component n of unit of curved surface_{z}(u_{i},v_{j}) by equation III
Be given.
D. equation V is utilized to calculate the z direction displacement in t for the basic body of the ith row jth row of discrete mold 2
Calculate the global displacement in the z direction in t for the discrete mold 2 using equation VI
Wherein z_{min}The basic body that calculates for equation IV final highly in minima, T for stretch forming need total when
Between, l is the distance of die edge to clamp, θ_{max}For the maximum tangential tilt of both mold ends edge curved surface, the i.e. maximum of clamp
Corner.
As shown in figure 3, the basic body unit 6 of discrete type mould 2 is by cell cube 8, basic body adjusting lever 9 and basic body control
Unit 10 processed forms, and basic body control unit 10 includes adjusting shape motor, decelerator and encoder, and the height of basic body is by basic
Body control unit 10 realtime control.Regularly arranged m row n arranges basic body unit can by the fixing structure forming surface of fixed plate and base 11
The discrete type mould 2 becoming.
As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 4, cushion 7 should be used between discrete mold 2 and plate 4, to avoid in the curved surface shaping
On part, impression occurs, and cushion 7 can adopt polyurethane sheet or rubber slab.
Specific embodiment
Plate 4 is 400mm × 240mm, thickness h=1mm；The target surface of threedimension curved surface part 5 is the ball of radius 360mm
Face, it is 250mm × 250mm that discrete type mould 2 shapes area；Discrete type mould 2 is made up of 10 × 10 basic body units 6, base
The size of body is 25mm × 25mm, basic body unit 6 Proberadius r=15mm；Discrete type mould 2 edge to clamp 3 away from
From for l=45mm, cushion 7 is the polyurethane sheet of thickness H=30mm.
The concretely comprising the following steps of the control forming process of the threedimension curved surface method of stretch forming based on modification face discrete type mould：
The first step：The primary tape face of discrete type mould 2 is adjusted to plane, clamp 3 clamping plate 4 is initially put down with mould
Fit in face；
Second step：Determine the coordinate x in x, y direction for the center of each basic body unit 6 of discrete type mould 2_{ij}And y_{ij}：
Determine the maximum tangential tilt of curved surface at discrete type mould 2 edges at two ends, that is, the hardover of clamp is θ_{max}=
19.47 °, and determine the parametric equation of profile surface：
Wherein R=360mm is the radius of sphere,With θ for profile surface parameter coordinate (i.e. in equation Iv
=θ).
3rd step：According to equation II, by basic body unit 6 and the target profile surface of following equation solution the ith row jth row
The parameter coordinate of contact pointAnd θ_{j}
Wherein spherical radius R=360mm, the Proberadius r=15mm of basic body unit 6, sheet thickness h=1mm, elasticity
Mat thickness H=30mm,WithThe outer normal component of unit for profile surface；
4th step：According to equation IV, at the end of being shaped by the basic body unit 6 of following Equation for Calculating the ith row jth row
Height eventually
WhereinThe outer normal component of unit for profile surface；
5th step：The basic body unit 6 of the ith row jth row calculating discrete type mould 2 according to equation V is in the z side of t
To displacement
Calculate the global displacement in the z direction in t for the discrete type mould 2 according to equation VI
Wherein z_{min}For basic body unit 6 final highly in minima, the total time that T needs for stretch forming, discrete type
Mould 2 edge to the maximum tangential tilt of clamp curved surface at l=45mm, discrete type mould 2 edges at two ends, i.e. clamp
Hardover θ_{max}=19.47 °.
Become using the sphere that the threedimension curved surface method of stretch forming of modification face discrete type mould is shaped with traditional pullshaped mode
The numerical simulation result of the draw direction stress distribution of shape part is given by Fig. 6, Fig. 7, the strain longitudinally and on lateral symmetry axis
Distribution is given by Fig. 8, Fig. 9, and the longitudinal direction of spherical parts is as follows with the maximum of strain, minima contrast on lateral symmetry axis：
Compared with traditional pullshaped mode, under its plastic strain amplitude of curved surface of modification face discrete type mould pullshaped method shaping is notable
Fall, stress distribution degree of irregularity is greatly improved.Should using the maximum on the pullshaped method longitudinal axis of modification face discrete type mould
Become and have dropped 11.6%, maximum strain and minimum strain difference have dropped 72%；Maximum strain on axis of pitch have dropped
11.6%, minimum strain have dropped 18%.
Claims (6)
1. a kind of threedimension curved surface method of stretch forming based on modification face discrete type mould, with discrete type mould (2) and clamp (3)
As forming tool it is characterised in that：The method passes through the company with discrete type mould (2) for the curve form of die face (1)
Continue the profilefollowed rotation of change and clamp (3) and change, make the plate (4) that clamp (3) clamps keep complete with die face (1)
While full laminating, gradually stretcher strain, eventually form threedimension curved surface part (5)；
Described discrete type mould (2) is made up of the regularly arranged basic body unit (6) of m row n row, in plate (4) stretch forming
During, the change of die face (1) is changed to control by the relative altitude of each basic body, the sports bag of discrete type mould (2)
Include in the overall lifting of discrete type mould (2) and discrete type mould (2) the relative of short transverse between each basic body unit (6)
Motion；
Described clamp (3) clamping plate (4), during stretch forming, turns with the tangential variations at die face (1) edge
Dynamic, but the position of occurred level and short transverse is not moved；
The rotation of the motion of described discrete type mould (2) and clamp (3) ensure plate (4) in forming process all the time with mould type
Fitting completely in face (1), makes deformation tend to uniform, obtains highquality stretch forming curved surface part (5).
2. a kind of threedimension curved surface method of stretch forming based on modification face discrete type mould as claimed in claim 1, the method
Control comprising the following steps that of forming process：
A. the primary tape face of discrete type mould (2) is adjusted to plane, clamp (3) clamping plate (4), the initial plane patch with mould
Close；
B. the shape according to profile surface, at the uniform velocity risen based on each basic body unit (6) and clamp (3) uniform rotation principle,
Determine in the short transverse displacement w of each basic body of the forming process t and hardover θ of clamp_{max}And discrete type mould
(2) the displacement d in whole height direction；
C. the position in the short transverse displacement w according to required basic body unit (6) and discrete type mould (2) whole height direction
Move d course over time, control the up and down motion of discrete type mould (2) and each basic body unit (6), carry out threedimension curved surface
Stretch forming.
3. a kind of threedimension curved surface method of stretch forming based on modification face discrete type mould according to claim 2, its feature
It is, each basic body unit (6) determining discrete type mould in step b is in forming process t short transverse displacement and discrete
The detailed process of formula mould (2) whole height direction displacement is：
A. extract the coordinate x at basic body unit (6) center of the ith row jth row_{ij}And yi_{j}(i=1,2 ..., m；J=1,2 ..., n；
Wherein m is total line number of basic body unit (6), and n is total columns of basic body unit (6))；Determine discrete type mould (2) two ends
The maximum tangential tilt of edge's curved surface, i.e. the hardover θ of clamp_{max}, and determine the Surface Parameters of threedimension curved surface part (5)
Equation：
Wherein x, y are the coordinate of horizontal direction, and z is short transverse coordinate；U, v are the parameter coordinate of threedimension curved surface part (5)；
B. solving equation (II), calculates the basic body unit (6) of the ith row jth row and the ginseng of the contact point of threedimension curved surface part (5)
Number coordinate u_{i}And v_{j}
Wherein x (u_{i},v_{j}), y (u_{i},v_{j}) be given by profile surface equation (I), r is the Proberadius of basic body unit (6), and h is plate
Material (4) thickness, H is the thickness of cushion (7), n_{x}(u_{i},v_{j}) and n_{y}(u_{i},v_{j}) it is normal direction outside the unit of threedimension curved surface part (5)
Component, is calculated by following formula
Wherein P (u_{i},v_{j}) be given by profile surface equation (I)；
C. the final height at the end of utilizing the basic body that equation (IV) calculates the ith row jth row to shape
Wherein z (u_{i},v_{j}) be given by surface equation (I), the outer normal component n of unit of curved surface_{z}(u_{i},v_{j}) be given by equation (III)；
D. equation (V) is utilized to calculate the basic body unit (6) of the ith row jth row of discrete type mould (2) in the z direction position of t
Move
Wherein z_{min}The basic body unit (6) that calculates for equation (IV) final highly in minima, T is stretch forming needs
Total time；
Calculate the global displacement in the z direction in t for the discrete mold (2) using equation (VI)
Wherein l is the distance of die edge to clamp, θ_{max}For the maximum tangential tilt of both mold ends edge curved surface, i.e. clamp
Hardover.
4. a kind of threedimension curved surface stretch forming side based on modification face discrete type mould according to any one of claim 13
Method is it is characterised in that described basic body unit (6) controls list by cell cube (8), basic body adjusting lever (9) and basic body
First (10) composition, described basic body control unit (10) includes adjusting shape motor, decelerator and encoder, basic body unit (6)
Height is by basic body control unit (10) realtime control；Regularly arranged m row n arranges basic body unit by fixed plate and base (11)
The variable discrete type mould (2) of fixing structure forming surface.
5. a kind of threedimension curved surface stretch forming side based on modification face discrete type mould according to any one of claim 13
Method it is characterised in that using cushion (7) between discrete type mould (2) and plate (4), to avoid in the curved surface zero shaping
Impression is occurred on part.
6. a kind of threedimension curved surface method of stretch forming based on modification face discrete type mould according to claim 3, its feature
It is, described cushion (7) can adopt polyurethane sheet or rubber slab.
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US4212188A (en) *  19790118  19800715  The Boeing Company  Apparatus for forming sheet metal 
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CN103495635B (en) *  20130930  20150408  中国航空工业集团公司北京航空制造工程研究所  Skin stretchforming method with transition sectional face of flexible multipoint mould 
CN203649151U (en) *  20131219  20140618  方大新材料（江西）有限公司  Manually adjusted flexible mold for forming curved surface aluminum decorating plates 

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