CN104429579B - The greenhouse gardening method of purple potato - Google Patents

The greenhouse gardening method of purple potato Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104429579B
CN104429579B CN201510001222.XA CN201510001222A CN104429579B CN 104429579 B CN104429579 B CN 104429579B CN 201510001222 A CN201510001222 A CN 201510001222A CN 104429579 B CN104429579 B CN 104429579B
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China
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greenhouse
seedling
potato
canopy
days
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CN201510001222.XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104429579A (en
Inventor
马丹强
张勇
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彭水县百业兴森林食品开发有限公司
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/14Greenhouses
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology, e.g. cooling systems therefor

Abstract

The greenhouse gardening method of purple potato, including building canopy, site preparation, vernalization, seeding, seedbed management, the Zeng Miao that collects seedling, Root growth, eight big step of growth management, its advantage is can be collected heat as requested using special greenhouse or be distributed heat, makes to keep suitable temperature in greenhouse;Blade face can be carried out and apply water or liquid manure, carry out sub-irrigation, supplementary light;The nutrient soil for being adapted to purple potato to grow is prepared by site preparation, can accelerate to come up by vernalization, seeding and seedbed management, once seedling can increase considerably purple potato rice shoot by collecting seedling, and can accelerate tuber growth by appropriate growth management, harvest ahead of time;A series of integrated approach can improve the budding quantity of purple potato, and accelerate tuber growth, increase economic efficiency.

Description

The greenhouse gardening method of purple potato

Technical field

The present invention relates to the plant development technical field of purple potato, the greenhouse gardening method of particularly a kind of purple potato.

Background technology

Purple potato is called black potato, and potato meat is in purple to darkviolet.It is also rich in addition to the nutritional ingredient with common sweet potato Selenium element and anthocyanidin.It is rich in protein, starch, pectin, cellulose, amino acid, vitamin and several mineral materials, also simultaneously Rich in selenium element and anthocyanidin.The nutritious special healthcare function of tool of purple potato, gal4 amino acid therein is all easily by people What body digested and absorbed.The vitamin A being wherein rich in can improve the mucomembranous epithelial cell of eyesight and skin, and vitamin C can make Collagen protein normally synthesizes, and prevents and treats scorbutic generation, and anthocyanidin is natural potent free radical scavenger.

Purple potato is famous anticancer vegetables, from stem apex tender leaf to potato wedge, is respectively provided with certain health care functions, is currently without public affairs Food in evil, green, organic food.Purple potato is rich in cellulose, can increase faecal volume, promotes enterogastric peristalsis, clears up enteric cavity Mucus, pneumatosis and the putrefaction of interior delay, noxious material and carcinogen in excrement are discharged, holding stool is unimpeded, and improvement disappears Change road environment, prevent the generation of enterogastric diseases.It is in addition to the nutritional ingredient with common sweet potato, also containing polysaccharide, flavones Class material, there is certain preventing hypertension, mitigate dyshepatia, the function of anticancer.Selenium and iron therein be human body it is antifatigue, Anti-aging, the particularly essential elements enriched blood, selenium are referred to as " anticancer king ", are easily absorbed by the body, and can stay in serum, repairing Cardiac muscle, strengthen immunity of organisms, remove interior free yl, suppress DNA synthesis and the division of cancer cell and growth in cancer cell, Prevent the generation of the carninomatosis such as stomach cancer, liver cancer.

Because purple potato edibility is high, all parts of the country have has carried out a large amount of plantations to purple potato.Our company has also been carried out greatly Amount plantation exploitation, in actual production process, technology group of our company finds to utilize greenhouse gardening technology, by original greenhouse Built after improvement and meet the special greenhouses of purple potato growth characteristics and can greatly improve the yield and product quality of purple potato, increase is economical Benefit.

The content of the invention

The technical problems to be solved by the invention are in view of the shortcomings of the prior art, there is provided a kind of greenhouse gardening side of purple potato Method, improves the budding quantity of purple potato plantation, and accelerates tuber growth, to increase the yield of purple potato energetically, increases economic efficiency.

In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution adopted in the present invention is a kind of greenhouse gardening method of purple potato, bag Include and build canopy, site preparation, vernalization, seeding, seedbed management, the Zeng Miao that collects seedling, Root growth, eight big step of growth management, it is characterised in that Specific method is as follows.

(1) canopy is built:It is convenient to choose irrigation and drainage, the soil is porous, does not have the plot for planting tuber crops to build purple potato kind within 2 years Special greenhouse is planted, the frame of the greenhouse is made up of ceiling, canopy wall, capplce and irrigation system, is wherein mounted with ceiling and canopy wall Collect hotting mask, insulation film and sunshade net, wherein collection hotting mask is made up of titanium oxide film layer, printing opacity glass film, silica coating, i.e., Titanium oxide film layer is applied in the outer surface of printing opacity glass film, inner surface applies silica coating;Collect hotting mask, insulation film and sunshade net Controlled respectively by the transmitting-receiving wheel each connected;Transmitting-receiving wheel is arranged on capplce, and sprayer and light compensating lamp, canopy are there is also mounted on capplce The corner of beam and canopy wall there is also mounted airflow fan;Irrigation system is made up of water main connection branching pipe, and water main is from the external world Access water source and be embedded at the 110cm of underground, branching pipe is embedded in immediately below potato rattan plant and is embedded at below ground 40-50cm.

(2) site preparation:Every mu of soil in greenhouse is applied into decomposed farm organic fertilizer 3000-4000kg, deep plough 30-35cm, is embedded in Underground;Apply within 10 days before nursery NPK 40-50kg, potassium base fertilizer 30-40kg is multiple by soil, farm organic fertilizer, ternary Hefei and potassium base fertilizer rotary tillage are uniform, and flatten, and make field furrow;Wherein NPK is N:P:K=10:10:10 it is compound Fertilizer;Potassium base fertilizer is that amino acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, natrium nitrosum, ferrous sulfate and water according to weight ratio are 5-7:10-14:1: 1:75-85 ratio mixed dissolution forms.

(3) vernalization:The purple potato stem tuber of preparation breeding is stayed in when preceding stubble excavates than instant processing or edible purple potato stem tuber It is inside soil to cultivate 5-10 days more, shone after digging out under the sun 1-3 days, then carry out cellar type insulation and store sth. in a cellar;During nursery, selection Single heavy 100-200g, no breakage, scab, mildew and rot potato seed, hot and humid vernalization is used directly in cellar, temperature is improved To 30-35 DEG C, relative humidity brings up to 80%-85%, until eye shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, then with 50% carbendazim that temperature is 50-53 DEG C 600-800 times of dilution is soaked seed 4-6 minutes, then is pulled out and dried, and is sent into seeding in greenhouse.

(4) seeding:In greenhouse, code potato seed is arranged since the south of field furrow, potato wedge is tiltedly put with ground in 45 ° of -50 ° of angles, head Portion is spaced 0.8-1.0cm upward and to same direction between every potato wedge, the latter half of front-seat potato seed is pressed in heel row potato seed, most After make potato seed smooth into plane on the furrow of field, then spraying watering, until surface soil drenches, the then earthing on potato seed again Earth, using invisible potato seed as degree, then in plant ash thick soil top covering 2-3mm, then cover mulch film.

(5) seedbed management:From from seeding to during coming up, sprayed 1 hour with clear water daily, and by greenhouse Temperature control is between 25-30 DEG C, by temperature control in mulch film between 34-36 DEG C;From coming up the height of seedling 8-10cm phases Between, sprayed 1 hour with clear water daily, and by canopy temperature control between 23-27 DEG C, by temperature control in mulch film in 29- Between 31 DEG C;Mulch film is opened during height of seedling 8-10cm;From open mulch film to during height of seedling 18-22cm, sprayed daily with rich water Mist 2 times, every time 1 hour, and canopy temperature is gradually lowered between 18-23 DEG C;Keep big using natural light and light compensating lamp Light application time in canopy is 12-14 hours;Wherein rich water is the NPK aqueous solution that concentration is 3%.

(6) collect seedling Zeng Miao:Stop spraying within 3-5 days before collecting seedling, as the long 20-25cm of seedling, collected seedling, cut with cutting seedlings mode Retain 4-6cm base portion when adopting rice shoot, and rice shoot is beaten except the top heart, be then planted on Zeng Miaopu, then sprayed daily with rich water Mist 2 times, 1 hour every time, its rich water was the NPK aqueous solution that concentration is 3%;Greenhouse is kept using natural light and light compensating lamp Interior light application time is 12-14 hours;Open greenhouse daytime, night with membrane closure is incubated, keeps canopy temperature at 25-30 DEG C Between.

(7) Root growth:Excavate plant ridge furrow, row spacing 73-77cm, ridge top width 15-20cm, the high 20-25cm in ridge;Treat Zeng Miao After rice shoot in garden grows up to, cut and adopt rice shoot and be planted on the furrow of ridge.

(8) growth management:Sprayed 2 times with rich water daily after plant, 1 hour every time, the rich water of first 35 days was that concentration is 3% Urea, calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate are according to 5:10:3 weight is than the mixed aqueous solution, and the rich water of spraying is dense after 35 days Urea and potassium dihydrogen phosphate for 3% are spent according to 1:3 weight is than the mixed aqueous solution;Irrigation system was opened every 5-7 days to apply Water is once;Open greenhouse daytime, night with membrane closure is incubated, keeps canopy temperature between 20-34 DEG C;When trunk diameter growth arrives During 12 section, lifted up of vines, and pinching of pinching, when long branch to 12 section, lifted up of vines again and pinching of pinching;After plant 60-65 days, It can harvest.

The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows that can collect heat as requested using special greenhouse or distribute heat, make greenhouse It is interior to keep suitable temperature;Blade face can be carried out and apply water or liquid manure, carry out sub-irrigation, supplementary light;Prepared by site preparation suitable Close purple potato growth nutrient soil, can accelerate to come up by vernalization, seeding and seedbed management, by collect seedling Zeng Miaoke with Purple potato rice shoot is increased considerably, tuber growth can be accelerated by appropriate growth management, harvested ahead of time;A series of synthesis side Method can improve the budding quantity of purple potato, and accelerate tuber growth, increase economic efficiency.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is the section structure schematic diagram of the special greenhouse of purple potato plantation in the present invention.

In figure:1. frame, 2. ceilings, 3. canopy walls, 4. capplces, 5. irrigation systems, 6. collection hotting masks, 7. insulation films, 8. sunshades Net, 9. transmitting-receiving wheels, 41. sprayers, 42. light compensating lamps, 43. airflow fans, 10. kinds of plant ground, 51. water mains, 52. branching pipes.

Embodiment

With reference to embodiment, the invention will be further described, and following examples are intended to illustrate invention rather than to this The further restriction of invention, should not be limited the scope of the invention with this.

Embodiment 1.

Irrigation and drainage are chosen first conveniently, and the soil is porous, does not have the plot for planting tuber crops to build purple potato plantation within 2 years special With greenhouse, as illustrated, the frame 1 of the greenhouse is made up of ceiling 2, canopy wall 3, capplce 4 and irrigation system 5, wherein ceiling 2 and canopy It is mounted with to collect hotting mask 6, insulation film 7 and sunshade net 8 in wall 3, wherein collection hotting mask 6 is by titanium oxide film layer, printing opacity glass film, dioxy SiClx film layer is formed, i.e., titanium oxide film layer is applied in the outer surface of printing opacity glass film, and inner surface applies silica coating;Collect hotting mask 6th, insulation film 7 and sunshade net 8 are controlled by the transmitting-receiving wheel 9 each connected respectively;Transmitting-receiving wheel 9 is arranged on capplce 4, on capplce 4 also It is mounted with sprayer 41 and light compensating lamp 42, the corner of capplce 4 and canopy wall 3 there is also mounted airflow fan 43;Irrigation system 5 is by leading Water pipe 51 connects branching pipe 52 and formed, and water main 51 is from external world access water source and is embedded at the 110cm of underground, and branching pipe 52 is embedded in potato Immediately below rattan plant and it is embedded at below ground 40cm.

Then site preparation is carried out, i.e., every mu of soil in greenhouse is applied into decomposed farm organic fertilizer 3000kg, deep plough 30cm, is embedded in Underground;Apply within 10 days before nursery NPK 40kg, potassium base fertilizer 30kg, by soil, farm organic fertilizer, NPK and Potassium base fertilizer rotary tillage is uniform, and flattens, and makes field furrow;Wherein NPK is N:P:K=10:10:10 composite fertilizer;Potassium Base fertilizer is that amino acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, natrium nitrosum, ferrous sulfate and water according to weight ratio are 5:10:1:1:75 ratio is mixed Dissolving is closed to form.

Then vernalization is carried out, the purple potato stem tuber used in vernalization is than instant processing or edible purple potato block when preceding stubble excavates Stem stays in the stem tubers for cultivating 5 days inside soil more, and stem tuber shines 1 day after digging out under the sun, then carries out cellar type insulation and stores sth. in a cellar; During nursery, single heavy 100-200g is selected, no breakage, scab, mildew and rot potato seed, is urged directly in cellar using hot and humid Bud, temperature is brought up to 30 DEG C, relative humidity brings up to 80%%, until eye shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, then with the bacterium more than 50% that temperature is 50 DEG C 600 times of dilutions of spirit are soaked seed 4 minutes, then are pulled out and dried, and are sent into seeding in greenhouse.Code potato seed is arranged since the south of field furrow, Potato wedge is tiltedly put with ground in 45° angle, and head is spaced 0.8cm upward and to same direction between every potato wedge, before heel row potato seed pressure The latter half of seeding potato, finally make potato seed smooth into plane on the furrow of field, then spraying watering, until surface soil drenches, Then the earthing earth on potato seed again, using invisible potato seed for degree, then the plant ash in soil top covering 2mm thickness, then cover Mulch film.From from seeding to during coming up, sprayed 1 hour with clear water daily, and canopy temperature controlled at 25 DEG C, By temperature control in mulch film at 34 DEG C;From coming up to during height of seedling 8cm, sprayed 1 hour with clear water daily, and by greenhouse Temperature control is at 23 DEG C, by temperature control in mulch film at 29 DEG C;Mulch film is opened during height of seedling 8cm;To seedling from open mulch film During high 18cm, sprayed 2 times with rich water daily, 1 hour every time, and canopy temperature is gradually lowered to 18 DEG C;Utilize nature It is 12 hours that light and light compensating lamp, which keep the light application time in greenhouse,;Wherein rich water is the NPK aqueous solution that concentration is 3%.

Then the Zeng Miao that collects seedling is carried out, collects seedling first 3 days and stops spraying, as the long 20cm of seedling, collected seedling, cut with cutting seedlings mode Retain 4cm base portion when adopting rice shoot, and rice shoot is beaten except the top heart, be then planted on Zeng Miaopu, then daily with rich water spraying 2 It is secondary, 1 hour every time;It is 12 hours that the light application time in greenhouse is kept using natural light and light compensating lamp;Daytime opens greenhouse, night With insulation membrane closure, canopy temperature is kept at 25 DEG C.Plant ridge furrow are excavated simultaneously, make row spacing 73-77cm, ridge top width 15- 20cm, the high 20-25cm in ridge;After the rice shoot in Zeng Miaopu grows up to, cut and adopt rice shoot and be planted on the furrow of ridge, daily with fertilizer after plant Water spray 2 times, 1 hour every time, the rich water of first 35 days be concentration be 3% urea, calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate is according to 5:10:3 Weight is than the mixed aqueous solution, and the rich water of spraying is urea and potassium dihydrogen phosphate that concentration is 3% according to 1 after 35 days:3 Weight than the mixed aqueous solution;Irrigation system, which was opened, every 5 days applies water once;Daytime opens greenhouse, night insulation film Closing, canopy temperature is kept at 20 DEG C;When trunk diameter growth is to 12 section, lifted up of vines, and pinching of pinching, treat long branch to 12 During section, lift up of vines again and pinching of pinching;After plant 60 days, you can harvesting.

Embodiment 2.

Irrigation and drainage are chosen first conveniently, and the soil is porous, does not have the plot for planting tuber crops to build purple potato plantation within 2 years special With greenhouse, as illustrated, the frame 1 of the greenhouse is made up of ceiling 2, canopy wall 3, capplce 4 and irrigation system 5, wherein ceiling 2 and canopy It is mounted with to collect hotting mask 6, insulation film 7 and sunshade net 8 in wall 3, wherein collection hotting mask 6 is by titanium oxide film layer, printing opacity glass film, dioxy SiClx film layer is formed, i.e., titanium oxide film layer is applied in the outer surface of printing opacity glass film, and inner surface applies silica coating;Collect hotting mask 6th, insulation film 7 and sunshade net 8 are controlled by the transmitting-receiving wheel 9 each connected respectively;Transmitting-receiving wheel 9 is arranged on capplce 4, on capplce 4 also It is mounted with sprayer 41 and light compensating lamp 42, the corner of capplce 4 and canopy wall 3 there is also mounted airflow fan 43;Irrigation system 5 is by leading Water pipe 51 connects branching pipe 52 and formed, and water main 51 is from external world access water source and is embedded at the 110cm of underground, and branching pipe 52 is embedded in potato Immediately below rattan plant and it is embedded at below ground 45cm.

Then site preparation is carried out, i.e., every mu of soil in greenhouse is applied into decomposed farm organic fertilizer 3500kg, deep plough 32.5cm, buries In underground;NPK 45kg, potassium base fertilizer 35kg are applied within 10 days before nursery, by soil, farm organic fertilizer, NPK It is uniform with potassium base fertilizer rotary tillage, and flatten, make field furrow;Wherein NPK is N:P:K=10:10:10 composite fertilizer;Potassium Plain base fertilizer is that amino acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, natrium nitrosum, ferrous sulfate and water according to weight ratio are 6:12:1:1:80 ratio Mixed dissolution forms.

Then vernalization is carried out, the purple potato stem tuber used in vernalization is than instant processing or edible purple potato block when preceding stubble excavates Stem stays in the stem tubers for cultivating 7.5 days inside soil more, and stem tuber shines 2 days after digging out under the sun, then carries out cellar type insulation cellar for storing things Hide;During nursery, single heavy 100-200g, no breakage, scab, mildew and rot potato seed, using hot and humid directly in cellar are selected Vernalization, temperature is brought up to 32.5 DEG C, relative humidity brings up to 82.5%, is then 51.5 DEG C with temperature until eye shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally 700 times of dilutions of 50% carbendazim are soaked seed 5 minutes, then are pulled out and dried, and are sent into seeding in greenhouse.Arranged since the south of field furrow Code potato seed, potato wedge tiltedly puts with ground in 47.5 ° of angles, and head is spaced 0.9cm upward and to same direction between every potato wedge, after Seeding potato presses the latter half of front-seat potato seed, finally makes potato seed smooth into plane, then spraying watering, until surface on the furrow of field Soil drenches, then the earthing earth on potato seed again, using invisible potato seed for degree, then the grass in soil top covering 2.5mm thickness Wood ash, then cover mulch film.From from seeding to during coming up, sprayed 1 hour with clear water daily, and by canopy temperature Control is at 27.5 DEG C, by temperature control in mulch film at 35 DEG C;It is small with clear water spraying 1 daily from coming up to during height of seedling 9cm When, and canopy temperature is controlled at 25 DEG C, by temperature control in mulch film at 30 DEG C;Mulch film is opened during height of seedling 9cm;From opening ground During arriving height of seedling 20cm from film, sprayed 2 times, every time 1 hour, and canopy temperature is gradually lowered to rich water daily 20.5℃;It is 13 hours that the light application time in greenhouse is kept using natural light and light compensating lamp;Wherein rich water be concentration be 3% three The component composite fertilizer aqueous solution.

Then the Zeng Miao that collects seedling is carried out, collects seedling first 4 days and stops spraying, as the long 22.5cm of seedling, collected seedling with cutting seedlings mode, The base portion for retaining 5cm when adopting rice shoot is cut, and rice shoot is beaten except the top heart, is then planted on Zeng Miaopu, is then sprayed daily with rich water Mist 2 times, 1 hour every time;It is 13 hours that the light application time in greenhouse is kept using natural light and light compensating lamp;Daytime opens greenhouse, Night with membrane closure is incubated, keeps canopy temperature at 27.5 DEG C.Plant ridge furrow are excavated simultaneously, make row spacing 75cm, ridge top width 17.5cm, the high 22.5cm in ridge;After the rice shoot in Zeng Miaopu grows up to, cut and adopt rice shoot and be planted on the furrow of ridge, used daily after plant Rich water is sprayed 2 times, 1 hour every time, the rich water of first 35 days be concentration be 3% urea, calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate is according to 5:10:3 Weight than the mixed aqueous solution, the rich water of spraying is urea and potassium dihydrogen phosphate that concentration is 3% according to 1 after 35 days: 3 weight is than the mixed aqueous solution;Irrigation system, which was opened, every 6 days applies water once;Daytime opens greenhouse, night insulation film Closing, canopy temperature is kept at 27 DEG C;When trunk diameter growth is to 12 section, lifted up of vines, and pinching of pinching, treat long branch to 12 During section, lift up of vines again and pinching of pinching;After plant 62.5 days, harvested.

Embodiment 3.

Irrigation and drainage are chosen first conveniently, and the soil is porous, does not have the plot for planting tuber crops to build purple potato plantation within 2 years special With greenhouse, as illustrated, the frame 1 of the greenhouse is made up of ceiling 2, canopy wall 3, capplce 4 and irrigation system 5, wherein ceiling 2 and canopy It is mounted with to collect hotting mask 6, insulation film 7 and sunshade net 8 in wall 3, wherein collection hotting mask 6 is by titanium oxide film layer, printing opacity glass film, dioxy SiClx film layer is formed, i.e., titanium oxide film layer is applied in the outer surface of printing opacity glass film, and inner surface applies silica coating;Collect hotting mask 6th, insulation film 7 and sunshade net 8 are controlled by the transmitting-receiving wheel 9 each connected respectively;Transmitting-receiving wheel 9 is arranged on capplce 4, on capplce 4 also It is mounted with sprayer 41 and light compensating lamp 42, the corner of capplce 4 and canopy wall 3 there is also mounted airflow fan 43;Irrigation system 5 is by leading Water pipe 51 connects branching pipe 52 and formed, and water main 51 is from external world access water source and is embedded at the 110cm of underground, and branching pipe 52 is embedded in potato Immediately below rattan plant and it is embedded at below ground 50cm.

Then site preparation is carried out, i.e., every mu of soil in greenhouse is applied into decomposed farm organic fertilizer 4000kg, deep plough 30-35cm, It is embedded in underground;NPK 50kg, potassium base fertilizer 40kg are applied within 10 days before nursery, by soil, farm organic fertilizer, tri compound Fertilizer and potassium base fertilizer rotary tillage are uniform, and flatten, and make field furrow;Wherein NPK is N:P:K=10:10:10 composite fertilizer; Potassium base fertilizer is that amino acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, natrium nitrosum, ferrous sulfate and water according to weight ratio are 7:14:1:1:85 ratio Example mixed dissolution forms.

Then vernalization is carried out, the purple potato stem tuber used in vernalization is than instant processing or edible purple potato block when preceding stubble excavates Stem stays in the stem tubers for cultivating 10 days inside soil more, and stem tuber shines 3 days after digging out under the sun, then carries out cellar type insulation cellar for storing things Hide;During nursery, single heavy 100-200g, no breakage, scab, mildew and rot potato seed, using hot and humid directly in cellar are selected Vernalization, temperature is brought up to 35 DEG C, relative humidity brings up to 85%, until eye shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, then with more than 50% that temperature is 53 DEG C 800 times of dilutions of bacterium spirit are soaked seed 6 minutes, then are pulled out and dried, and are sent into seeding in greenhouse.Code kind is arranged since the south of field furrow Potato, potato wedge are tiltedly put with ground in 50 ° of angles, and head is spaced 1.0cm, heel row potato seed upward and to same direction between every potato wedge The latter half of front-seat potato seed is pressed, finally makes potato seed smooth into plane, then spraying watering, until surface soil is wet on the furrow of field Thoroughly, the then earthing earth on potato seed again, using invisible potato seed for degree, then the plant ash in soil top covering 3mm thickness, then cover Lid mulch film.From from seeding to during coming up, sprayed 1 hour with clear water daily, and canopy temperature is controlled 30 DEG C, by temperature control in mulch film at 36 DEG C;From coming up to during height of seedling 10cm, sprayed 1 hour with clear water daily, and will be big Temperature of shed is controlled at 27 DEG C, by temperature control in mulch film at 31 DEG C;Mulch film is opened during height of seedling 10cm;From mulch film is opened To during height of seedling 22cm, sprayed 2 times with rich water daily, 1 hour every time, and canopy temperature is gradually lowered to 23 DEG C;Utilize It is 14 hours that natural light and light compensating lamp, which keep the light application time in greenhouse,;Wherein rich water is that the NPK that concentration is 3% is water-soluble Liquid.

Then the Zeng Miao that collects seedling is carried out, collects seedling first 5 days and stops spraying, as the long 25cm of seedling, collected seedling, cut with cutting seedlings mode Retain 6cm base portion when adopting rice shoot, and rice shoot is beaten except the top heart, be then planted on Zeng Miaopu, then daily with rich water spraying 2 It is secondary, 1 hour every time;It is 14 hours that the light application time in greenhouse is kept using natural light and light compensating lamp;Daytime opens greenhouse, night With insulation membrane closure, canopy temperature is kept at 30 DEG C.Plant ridge furrow are excavated simultaneously, make row spacing 77cm, ridge top width 20cm, ridge height 25cm;After the rice shoot in Zeng Miaopu grows up to, cut and adopt rice shoot and be planted on the furrow of ridge, sprayed 2 times with rich water daily after plant, often Secondary 1 hour, the rich water of first 35 days be concentration be 3% urea, calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate is according to 5:10:After 3 weight is than mixing The aqueous solution, the rich water of spraying is urea and potassium dihydrogen phosphate that concentration is 3% according to 1 after 35 days:3 weight is than mixing The aqueous solution afterwards;Irrigation system, which was opened, every 7 days applies water once;Open greenhouse daytime, night with membrane closure is incubated, keeps greenhouse Interior temperature is at 34 DEG C;When trunk diameter growth is to 12 section, lifted up of vines, and pinching of pinching, when long branch to 12 section, lift up of vines again And pinching of pinching;After plant 65 days, harvested.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of greenhouse gardening method of purple potato, including build canopy, site preparation, vernalization, seeding, seedbed management, the Zeng Miao that collects seedling, ridging cultivation Training, eight big step of growth management, it is characterised in that specific method is as follows:
(1) canopy is built:It is convenient to choose irrigation and drainage, the soil is porous, does not have the plot for planting tuber crops to build purple potato plantation within 2 years special With greenhouse, the frame of the greenhouse is made up of ceiling, canopy wall, capplce and irrigation system, is wherein mounted with thermal-arrest in ceiling and canopy wall Film, insulation film and sunshade net, wherein collection hotting mask is made up of titanium oxide film layer, printing opacity glass film, silica coating, i.e., saturating The outer surface of light glass film applies titanium oxide film layer, and inner surface applies silica coating;Collect hotting mask, insulation film and sunshade net difference Controlled by the transmitting-receiving wheel each connected;Transmitting-receiving wheel is arranged on capplce, there is also mounted sprayer and light compensating lamp on capplce, capplce and The corner of canopy wall there is also mounted airflow fan;Irrigation system is made up of water main connection branching pipe, and water main accesses from the external world Water source and it is embedded at the 110cm of underground, branching pipe is embedded in immediately below potato rattan plant and is embedded at below ground 40-50cm;
(2) site preparation:Every mu of soil in greenhouse is applied into decomposed farm organic fertilizer 3000-4000kg, deep plough 30-35cm, is embedded in ground Under;NPK 40-50kg, potassium base fertilizer 30-40kg are applied within 10 days before nursery, by soil, farm organic fertilizer, tri compound Fertilizer and potassium base fertilizer rotary tillage are uniform, and flatten, and make field furrow;Wherein NPK is N:P:K=10:10:10 composite fertilizer; Potassium base fertilizer is that amino acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, natrium nitrosum, ferrous sulfate and water according to weight ratio are 5-7:10-14:1:1: 75-85 ratio mixed dissolution forms;
(3) vernalization:The purple potato stem tuber of preparation breeding is stayed in into soil when preceding stubble excavates than instant processing or edible purple potato stem tuber The inside is cultivated 5-10 days more, is shone after digging out under the sun 1-3 days, is then carried out cellar type insulation and is stored sth. in a cellar;During nursery, select single Weight 100-200g, no breakage, scab, mildew and rot potato seed, hot and humid vernalization is used directly in cellar, temperature is brought up to 30-35 DEG C, relative humidity brings up to 80%-85%, until eye shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, then with 50% carbendazim that temperature is 50-53 DEG C 600-800 times of dilution is soaked seed 4-6 minutes, then is pulled out and dried, and is sent into seeding in greenhouse;
(4) seeding:In greenhouse, code potato seed is arranged since the south of field furrow, potato wedge is tiltedly put with ground in 45 ° of -50 ° of angles, head court It is upper and to same direction, 0.8-0.9cm is spaced between every potato wedge, heel row potato seed is pressed the latter half of front-seat potato seed, finally made Potato seed is smooth into plane on the furrow of field, then spraying watering, until surface soil drenches, the then earthing earth on potato seed again, Using invisible potato seed as degree, then in plant ash thick soil top covering 2-3mm, then cover mulch film;
(5) seedbed management:From from seeding to during coming up, sprayed 1 hour with clear water daily, and by canopy temperature Control is between 25-30 DEG C, by temperature control in mulch film between 34-36 DEG C;From coming up to during height of seedling 8-10cm, often It with clear water spray 1 hour, and by canopy temperature control between 23-27 DEG C, by temperature control in mulch film 29-31 DEG C it Between;Mulch film is opened during height of seedling 8-10cm;From from opening mulch film to during height of seedling 18-22cm, sprayed 2 times with rich water daily, 1 hour every time, and canopy temperature is gradually lowered between 18-23 DEG C;Kept using natural light and light compensating lamp in greenhouse Light application time is 12-14 hours;Wherein rich water is the NPK aqueous solution that concentration is 3%;
(6) collect seedling Zeng Miao:Stop spraying within 3-5 days before collecting seedling, as the long 20-25cm of seedling, collected seedling with cutting seedlings mode, cut and adopt seedling Retain 4-6cm base portion during seedling, and rice shoot is beaten except the top heart, be then planted on Zeng Miaopu, then daily with rich water spraying 2 Secondary, 1 hour every time, its rich water was the NPK aqueous solution that concentration is 3%;Kept using natural light and light compensating lamp in greenhouse Light application time be 12-14 hours;Daytime open greenhouse, night with insulation membrane closure, keep canopy temperature 25-30 DEG C it Between;
(7) Root growth:Excavate plant ridge furrow, row spacing 73-77cm, ridge top width 15-20cm, the high 20-25cm in ridge;Treat in Zeng Miaopu Rice shoot grow up to after, cut and adopt rice shoot and be planted on the furrow of ridge;
(8) growth management:Sprayed 2 times with rich water daily after plant, 1 hour every time, the rich water of first 35 days was the urine that concentration is 3% Element, calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate are according to 5:10:3 weight is than the mixed aqueous solution, and the rich water of spraying is concentration after 35 days For 3% urea and potassium dihydrogen phosphate according to 1:3 weight is than the mixed aqueous solution;Irrigation system, which was opened, every 5-7 days applies water Once;Open greenhouse daytime, night with membrane closure is incubated, keeps canopy temperature between 20-34 DEG C;When trunk diameter growth to 12 During section, lifted up of vines, and pinching of pinching, when long branch to 12 section, lifted up of vines again and pinching of pinching;After plant 60-65 days, i.e., It can harvest.
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