CN104404508B - A kind of laser gain material manufacture method of aluminum alloy junction component - Google Patents

A kind of laser gain material manufacture method of aluminum alloy junction component Download PDF

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CN104404508B
CN104404508B CN201410673502.0A CN201410673502A CN104404508B CN 104404508 B CN104404508 B CN 104404508B CN 201410673502 A CN201410673502 A CN 201410673502A CN 104404508 B CN104404508 B CN 104404508B
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laser
manufacture
layer
powder
aluminum alloy
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CN104404508A (en
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王成磊
张光耀
高原
徐晋勇
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Guilin University of Electronic Technology
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Guilin University of Electronic Technology
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of laser gain material manufacture method of aluminum alloy junction component, is characterized in that:Homemade argon protective device is placed on the table, internal placing aluminium alloy base material is pre-charged with high-purity argon gas, make intracavity oxygen content be less than 70 μ L ∕ L.Using special dust feeder by the Al of certain quality proportioning mix homogeneously, ferrous alloy, rare earth La2O3It is ejected in the molten bath of laser beam generation Deng submicron metal, forms the laser cladding layer with base material metallurgical binding.Then successively laser melting coating is realized by each layer of nc program, finally gives 3-dimensional metal part.So as to produce the high-performance with rapid solidification structure feature, complete fine and close, complex-shaped aluminum alloy junction component.The low cost of manufacture of the manufacture method, the manufacturing cycle is short, stock utilization is high, stable performance, quick Fabrication complex partses can improve the structural strength of aluminum alloy junction component by a relatively large margin, reduce the tissue defects such as alloy internal porosity, crackle, residual stress.

Description

A kind of laser gain material manufacture method of aluminum alloy junction component
Technical field
The invention belongs to laser gain material manufacture, specifically a kind of laser gain material manufacture method of aluminum alloy junction component.
Background technology
Laser gain material manufacturing technology(Also known as laser 3D printing technology)It is a kind of new manufacture, tradition can be overcome to add The material that subtracts of work manufactures a large amount of wastes to raw material, while having rapid shaping, crystal grain thinning, even tissue zero defect, structure Intensity is high, many excellent characteristics such as easy processing complicated shape structural member.Aluminum and aluminium alloy are most widely used in non-ferrous metal One of material, aluminium alloy has that little density, easy processing, thermal coefficient of expansion are low, thermal conductivity is high, specific stiffness and specific strength height etc. are many Excellent properties.Achieve extensively in the field such as daily production and life and aviation, automobile, high ferro, engine piston, optical instrument General application.In terms of national defense industry and civil aviation, aluminium alloy is the main use material of aircraft body structure, especially in China certainly On the fighter plane of main research and development, the proportion shared by aluminum alloy junction component reaches more than the 50% of fuselage weight.Over nearly 20 years, constantly carry The performance of high-aluminium alloy structural member, reduces cost, exploitation novel aluminum alloy are development trends both domestic and external, mainly around strong Degree, rigidity, thermostability, reliability, the long-life, loss of weight and low cost manufacture forming technique the problems such as and carry out.
The content of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is, to overcome the shortcomings of that classical production process prepares aluminum alloy junction component, and to provide a kind of utilization Laser gain material manufacturing technology, by the programming Control of computer substrate surface cladding forming aluminum alloy junction component technology and system Preparation Method.The face coat has that structural strength is high, solidified structure crystal grain is tiny, and inorganization defect can save metal material in a large number The features such as material, low cost of manufacture.
The technical scheme for realizing the object of the invention is:
A kind of laser gain material manufacture method of aluminum alloy junction component, specifically includes following steps:
(1)First by alloy matrix aluminum material sand papering, polishing, material surface roughness Ra is made<1 μm, Zhi Houyong 5%~10% chlorohydric acid pickling 30~40 minutes, then with clean water, in being then placed in ultrasonic instrument, half an hour is cleaned with acetone More than, finally put it in fine vacuum glow plasma metallic cementation equipment on negative electrode, be evacuated down to 10-3Below pa, voltage- 400~-800V, bombards 30~40 minutes under 2~5 A parameters of electric current, takes out stand-by after being cooled to room temperature;
(2)By a certain proportion of Al powder, iron(-)base powder, rare earth La2O3Powder is mixed more than 4 hours using ball mill. Powder is prepared by the rotating electrode atomized technique of vacuum plasma, 0.050~0.250mm of granularity.After powder mix homogeneously 150 DEG C of drying baker drying more than 1 hour is put into, then is placed in standby in special powder feeder;
(3)Under the driving of aluminum alloy part CAD 3D physical model slice of data, using microtomy by continuous three Vc AD digital-to-analogues are separated into the hierarchy slicing with certain thickness and order, and slice thickness is 500~800 μm, by aluminum alloy junction The three-dimensional data information of component is converted into a series of two dimensional surface data, extracts profile basis produced by each layer of section The technological parameters such as slicing profile path reasonable in design, laser scanning speed, overlapping rate, along determined by two dimensional surface data The nc program of each layer of Track Pick-up of scanning, and pass to numerical control table, NC table;
(4)Homemade argon protective device is placed on the table, the internal aluminum alloy base material for placing drying fills in advance Enter the high-purity argon gas of certain flow(≥99.99%), make intracavity oxygen content be less than 70 μ L ∕ L;
(5)Laser and numerical control device are opened, laser beam machining program is recalled, operation button is clicked on, laser beam is according to predetermined Machining locus run, and at the same time, dust feeder is ejected into mixed-powder in the molten bath of laser beam generation, is formed and base material smelting The laser cladding layer that gold is combined.Successively laser melting coating is realized by each layer of nc program, a cladding section is obtained. After one layer of cladding, laser head rises certain altitude (to should thickness of thin layer), then the 2nd layer of cladding, and makes the 2nd layer and the 1st Layer metallurgical binding together, successively go down like this, finally gives 3-dimensional metal part by cladding.
Step(1)Described matrix material is any series alloys;
Step(2)Described in the mass percent of each powder be:Al:60~80, iron(-)base powder:15~35, La2O3Powder:5.0;Iron(-)base powder mass percent is:Cr:30.0, Si:4.0, B:3.5, Ni:5.0, Mn:1.5, C :3.2, Fe:Surplus;
Step(3)The technological parameter of the laser melting coating is:1.2~5kW of output, 3~8mm of spot diameter, scanning 200~1000mm/min of speed, overlapping rate 10%~30%;
Step(4)The high-purity Ar throughput is 15~40Lmin-1
Step(5)The single cladding layer thickness is 500~800 μm.
The present invention innovative point be:By 3D printing technique, high power laser cladding technology, laser gain material manufacturing technology are dilute Native modification technology is combined together with advanced material technology of preparing, under the driving of CAD 3D physical model slice of data, is adopted Aluminium alloy prepares high performance aluminum alloy junction component as matrix material, without the need for any particular manufacturing craft and any special tool Under the conditions of dress, Directly rapid fabrication goes out the high-performance with rapid solidification structure feature, complete fine and close, complex-shaped aluminum alloy junction Component.Can be used for aerial craft body internal structure such as framework, ribs, web, adapter piece and some eyelid coverings etc..
Specific embodiment
The present invention is further illustrated below by way of specific example:
Embodiment:
Sample base material be 7050 aluminium alloys, size 200mm × 200mm × 8mm (length × width × height), first by base material sand Paper polishing, polishing, material surface roughness Ra<1 μm, afterwards with 10% chlorohydric acid pickling 30 minutes, then with clean water, then Cleaned more than half an hour with acetone in being put into ultrasonic instrument, finally put it in fine vacuum glow plasma metallic cementation equipment On negative electrode, 2 × 10 are evacuated down to-3Pa, bombards 40 minutes under voltage -600V, electric current 3A parameters, takes out and treat after being cooled to room temperature With;
By mass percent it is:Al:70, iron(-)base powder:25, La2O3Powder:5.0 mixed-powder adopts ball milling Machine mixes more than 4 hours.Powder is prepared by the rotating electrode atomized technique of vacuum plasma, 0.050~0.250m of granularity M.150 DEG C of drying baker drying 1 hour is put into after powder mix homogeneously, then is placed in standby in special powder feeder;
Aluminium alloy size of formed part is 200mm × 200 mm × 100 mm(Length × width × height), aluminum alloy part is in CAD tri- Under the driving of dimension physical model slice of data, continuous three-dimensional CAD digital-to-analogue is separated into certain thickness using microtomy And the hierarchy slicing of order, slice thickness is 600 μm, the three-dimensional data information of aluminum alloy junction component is converted into a series of Two dimensional surface data, extract each layer of produced profile of section and according to slicing profile path reasonable in design, laser scanning The technological parameters such as speed, overlapping rate.Technological parameter is adopted:3.6 kW of output, 5.5 mm of spot diameter, scanning speed 960 Mm/min, overlapping rate 20%;Along the nc program that each layer of Track Pick-up is scanned determined by two dimensional surface data, and Pass to numerical control table, NC table;
Homemade argon protective device is placed on the table, the internal aluminum alloy base material for placing drying is pre-charged with The high-purity argon gas of certain flow(≥99.99%), make intracavity oxygen content be less than 70 μ L ∕ L;
Laser and numerical control device are opened, laser beam machining program is recalled, operation button is clicked on, laser beam is according to predetermined processing Track is run, and at the same time, dust feeder is ejected into mixed-powder in the molten bath of laser beam generation, is formed and base material metallurgical junction The laser cladding layer of conjunction.Successively laser melting coating is realized by each layer of nc program, a cladding section is obtained.One layer After cladding, laser head rises certain altitude (to should thickness of thin layer), then the 2nd layer of cladding, and makes the 2nd layer with the 1st layer of smelting Gold is combined together, and successively cladding is gone down like this, finally gives 3-dimensional metal part, and size is 200mm × 200 mm × 100 mm(Length × width × height).
Product checking:Its any surface finish is can be seen that from aluminium alloy drip molding outer surface, color is in brilliant white, regular shape, Without macroscopic cracking.Drip molding is made into its metallographic structure of cross-section analysis and scanning electron microscope sem understands, in aluminium alloy drip molding tissue Pore-free and crackle, even tissue, between layers in metallurgical binding.Vickers is adopted to measure hardness for 754 HV0.5

Claims (8)

1. a kind of laser gain material manufacture method of aluminum alloy junction component, including CAD graphics softwares, 3D printing technique, laser melting coating Technology, laser gain material manufacturing technology, rare-earth modification technology, is characterized in that:Comprise the following steps that:
(1)First by alloy matrix aluminum material sand papering, polishing, material surface roughness Ra is made<1 μm, afterwards with 5%~ 10% chlorohydric acid pickling 30~40 minutes, then with clean water, half an hour is cleaned in being then placed in ultrasonic instrument with acetone with On, finally put it in fine vacuum glow plasma metallic cementation equipment on negative electrode, be evacuated down to 10-3Below pa, voltage- 400~-800V, bombards 30~40 minutes under 2~5 A parameters of electric current, takes out stand-by after being cooled to room temperature;
(2)By a certain proportion of Al powder, iron(-)base powder, rare earth La2O3Powder is mixed more than 4 hours using ball mill;Powder Prepared by the rotating electrode atomized technique of vacuum plasma, 0.050~0.250mm of granularity;It is put into after powder mix homogeneously 150 DEG C of drying baker is dried more than 1 hour, then is placed in standby in special powder feeder;
(3)Under the driving of aluminum alloy part CAD 3D physical model slice of data, will be continuous three-dimensional using microtomy CAD digital-to-analogues are separated into the hierarchy slicing with certain thickness and order, and slice thickness is 500~800 μm, by aluminium alloy structure The three-dimensional data information of part is converted into a series of two dimensional surface data, extracts the profile produced by each layer of section and basis is cut The technological parameters such as the rational path of piece profile design, laser scanning speed, overlapping rate, edge are swept determined by two dimensional surface data The nc program of each layer of Track Pick-up is retouched, and passes to numerical control table, NC table;
(4)Homemade argon protective device is placed on the table, the internal aluminum alloy base material for placing drying is pre-charged with one High-purity argon gas >=99.99% of constant flow, makes intracavity oxygen content be less than 70 μ L ∕ L;
(5)Laser and numerical control device are opened, laser beam machining program is recalled, operation button is clicked on, laser beam is according to predetermined processing Track is run, and at the same time, dust feeder is ejected into mixed-powder in the molten bath of laser beam generation, is formed and base material metallurgical junction The laser cladding layer of conjunction;Successively laser melting coating is realized by each layer of nc program, a cladding section is obtained, one layer After cladding, laser head rise to should thickness of thin layer, then the 2nd layer of cladding, and make the 2nd layer to exist with the 1st layer of metallurgical binding Together, successively cladding is gone down like this, finally gives 3-dimensional metal part.
2. manufacture method according to claim 1, is characterized in that:Step(1)Described matrix material is closed for any series aluminum Gold.
3. manufacture method according to claim 1, is characterized in that:Step(2)Described in each powder mass percent For:Al:60~80, iron(-)base powder:15~35, La2O3Powder:5.0.
4. manufacture method according to claim 3, is characterized in that:The iron(-)base powder mass percent is:Cr: 30.0, Si:4.0, B:3.5, Ni:5.0, Mn:1.5, C:3.2, Fe:Surplus.
5. manufacture method according to claim 1, is characterized in that:Step(3)The technological parameter of the laser melting coating is:It is defeated Go out 1.2~5kW of power, 3~8mm of spot diameter, 200~1000mm/min of scanning speed, overlapping rate 10%~30%.
6. manufacture method according to claim 1, is characterized in that:Step(4)The high-purity Ar throughput is 15~40L min-1
7. manufacture method according to claim 1, is characterized in that:Step(5)The laser cladding layer thickness be 500~ 800 μm。
8. with aluminum alloy junction component made by the manufacture method described in one of claim 1~7.
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CN104759625B (en) * 2015-03-27 2017-01-04 桂林电子科技大学 A kind of material and the method that use laser 3D printing technique to prepare aluminum alloy junction component
CN105251999A (en) * 2015-09-06 2016-01-20 航星利华(北京)科技有限公司 Method for preparing rare earth reinforced equiaxial fine-crystal part through high-energy beam metal 3D printing
WO2017050226A1 (en) * 2015-09-22 2017-03-30 重庆塞拉雷利科技有限公司 Method of laser-forming aluminum
CN105386036A (en) * 2015-10-28 2016-03-09 西安铂力特激光成形技术有限公司 Precise laser forming method for aluminum alloy part with complex inner runner
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CN105734470A (en) * 2016-03-31 2016-07-06 哈尔滨工业大学 Thermal treatment method for as-deposited 2219 aluminum alloy
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CN108465807B (en) * 2018-03-20 2020-03-27 中南大学 3D printing method of Al-Mg-Sc alloy powder and aluminum alloy prepared by applying method
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