CN104389604A - Method for forming covering layer by stope caving method - Google Patents

Method for forming covering layer by stope caving method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104389604A
CN104389604A CN201410487838.8A CN201410487838A CN104389604A CN 104389604 A CN104389604 A CN 104389604A CN 201410487838 A CN201410487838 A CN 201410487838A CN 104389604 A CN104389604 A CN 104389604A
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China
Prior art keywords
rock
deep
ore
ultra
business
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Pending
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CN201410487838.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
周爱民
柳小胜
宋嘉栋
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Changsha Institute of Mining Research Co Ltd
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Changsha Institute of Mining Research Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201410487838.8A priority Critical patent/CN104389604A/en
Publication of CN104389604A publication Critical patent/CN104389604A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D3/00Particular applications of blasting techniques
    • F42D3/04Particular applications of blasting techniques for rock blasting

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for forming a covering layer by a stope caving method. During the first sublevel stoping under top wall rock, a rock drilling roadway required by the first sublevel stoping is used for drilling an upward fan-shaped medium-depth hole; the stoped upward fan-shaped blast hole is drilled to an ultra-deep state into the top wall rock; the blast hole is totally filled with explosives in the full length; the full length of the blast hole is blasted in one step; the first sublevel ore and the upper top wall rock are simultaneously blasted into fragments; and after the blasting, ores are positioned at the lower part, and waste stones are positioned at the upper part. When the method provided by the invention is used, the new tunneling caving engineering is not needed; the cost and the time are reduced; the yield of a stoping field is favorably improved; the installing time of a newly drilled blast hole drilling machine is reduced; the integral rock drilling efficiency is improved; and blocky structures of the waste stones are favorable for ground pressure management and depletion loss reduction.

Description

A kind of tectal formation method of caved stopes
 
Technical field
The present invention relates to underground mining technology, the tectal formation method of especially a kind of caved stopes.
Background technology
Caved stopes generally carries out ore drawing under covering rock (ore deposit) stone, and therefore, initial stage tectal formation is the necessary condition of the mining such as sublevel caving method without sill pillar, sill pillars sublevel caving method, block caving method.Tectal thickness should be greater than height of lift, is generally 15 ~ 20m.
" mining design handbook " deposit mining volume volume two 1188 pages published China Construction Industry Press in December, 1987 describes and is tectally formed with 4 kinds of methods.1) natural caving method: when taking over a business built on the sand, adopts natural caving to form covering layer, a small amount of explosion treatment that can be auxiliary; 2) manually backfill barren rock: when strip mining transformation proceeds to underground mining, barren rock source is sufficient, can adopt this way; 3) forced caving method: taking over a business country rock can not the mine of inbreak, forced caving should be adopted to form covering layer, blind orebody directly adopts sublevel caving method without sill pillar, when country rock is firm, general employing deep hole or medium-length hole forced caving form covering layer, can be divided into concentrated caving three kinds of orders after back production after first caving, limit caving limit back production, back production by avalanche roof rock and the relation of actual mining; 4) persisting ore is covering layer: reserved ore makes covering layer, after roof rock avalanche or at the end of exploitation, then releases covering ore layer.These 4 kinds of method conditions of compatibility are different, respectively have quality, and natural caving method requires built on the sand, and the time that covering layer is formed is difficult to control; Artificial backfill barren rock uses when only exploitation proceeds to underground mining in the open; Forced caving method needs taking over a business in country rock to dig engineering, and the time is long, and cost is high; Persisting ore is that ore then overstocks in stope by covering layer, and early stage, production capacity was little, can not form benefit immediately, let funds lie idle.
The patent of invention of publication number CN 101737051 A discloses a kind of covering layer forming method of blind ore bodies, the main points of this invention are that the first substoping roadway layout is in ore body, the continuous goaf induction balkstone inbreak provided after utilizing the first substoping, along with the carrying out of actual mining, goaf area constantly expands, and when the area in goaf reaches critical exposed area, dead zone top plate rock is under the effect of stress and gravity, unstability inbreak gradually, forms covering layer.The method can be summarized as the natural caving method described in " mining design handbook ", requires country rock moderately stable and following, and covering layer formation time and scale are difficult to control.
The patent of invention of application number 201010568346.3 discloses a kind of method that ore deposit is reclaimed and lower mining covering layer is formed more than upper edge nation of stope, the bottom in Bang Yu ore deposit, limit is arrived by vertical shaft, formation level joins lane and joins vertical horizontal rock drilling lane, lane with level, rock drilling courtyard and drilling chamber is dug in rock drilling lane, and from drilling chamber upwards Drilling big gun hole, and load explosive, carry out explosion, ore deposit amount avalanche more than Shi Bian nation bottom ore deposit and level are dished out, and form the covering layer needed for the mining of below.This covering layer forming method can be summarized as the forced caving method of production ore after in advance caving, and the time is long, and engineering quantity is large.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome existing Caving Method with Large Space covering layer and form the problem that technical efficiency is low, cost is high, provide a kind of and form tectal method while mining.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: when taking over a business first point of section mining under country rock, to fan shaped medium length hole on the rock drilling lane Drilling utilizing first point of section mining to need, by mining on to fanhole(s) ultra-deep to taking over a business in country rock, big gun hole total length all loads explosive, big gun hole total length blasting in once-through, the ore of the first segmentation is become fragment with the country rock explosion simultaneously of taking over a business on top, and after explosion, ore is in bottom, barren rock, on top, forms covering layer.
Big gun hole up ultra-deep to the degree of depth of country rock is determined according to orebody mining technical condition and recovery scheme and underground pressure management requirement, rock drilling equipment feature etc., generally makes it exceed rock line of demarcation, ore deposit 10 ~ 30m.
Upwards ultra-deep on can according to the character of ore deposit rock to fanhole(s), whole big gun holes up ultra-deep, or part big gun hole up ultra-deep, as every artillery salvo hole up ultra-deep, row in big gun hole, interval up ultra-deep.
Up ultra-deep on total length can adopt an other explosion of section to fanhole(s), also can be divided into ore body section big gun hole and country rock section big gun hole by ultra-deep to fanhole(s), the blocking of middle stemming, arranges priming bomb, different delay times respectively, explosion respectively.
The inventive method be adapted to unstable rock, moderately stable, firmly, very firm, can not natural caving time, thick large blind orebody adopts the tectal formation of caved stopes.Can be used for the mining codes such as sublevel caving method without sill pillar, sill pillars sublevel caving method, block caving method, both can be used for taking over a business the mining condition in the first segmentation or the first stage casing under country rock, also can be used for lower segment needs because the slanting angle of ore body slows down to form new tectal condition.
Compared with prior art, beneficial effect of the present invention has:
1) do not need newly to tunnel caving engineering, cost saving, save time, be conducive to improving stope output, realize as early as possible going into operation;
2) directly utilize the rock drilling lane rock drilling of lower first point of section mining, big gun hole is ultra-deep on the basis in mining big gun hole directly, and the mining of the first segmentation explosion simultaneously, and decrease the drilling machine set-up time of newly setting off firecrackers, overall rock penetration performance improves;
3) after explosion, ore is in bottom, and barren rock is on top, and because upper hole network parameters is large, top barren rock blast fragmentation size is large, and its lumpiness structure is more conducive to tectal function, i.e. underground pressure management, is also conducive to reducing depletion loss.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further details:
Fig. 1 is in bottom-column-free sectional caving stoping method, and application the present invention forms tectal first embodiment conceptual scheme, comprises elevation I-I and lateral view II-II.
Fig. 2 is in bottom-column-free sectional caving stoping method, and application the present invention forms tectal second embodiment conceptual scheme, every artillery salvo hole ultra-deep to taking over a business country rock, comprises elevation I-I and lateral view II-II.
Fig. 3 is in bottom-column-free sectional caving stoping method, and application the present invention forms tectal 3rd embodiment conceptual scheme, and in row, big gun hole, interval ultra-deep is to taking over a business country rock, comprises elevation I-I and lateral view II-II.
Fig. 4 is blast hole loading structure schematic diagram in an embodiment, and super deep blasting hole total length only uses a priming bomb, an other explosion of section.
Fig. 5 is blast hole loading structure schematic diagram in another embodiment, and super deep blasting hole total length divides two priming bombs, ore body section and country rock section respectively by delay detonator explosion.
In figure: 1, take over a business country rock; 2, ore body; 3, ore deposit rock line of demarcation; 4, the first sublevel drilling lane (route) under country rock; 5, to fanhole(s) on; 6, super deep blasting hole; 7, slice drift; 8, drop shaft; 9, not super deep blasting hole; 10, priming bomb; 11, explosive; 12, stemming; 13, stopper; 14, detonator; 15, big gun hole wall; 16, broken ore; 17, avalanche barren rock (covering layer).
Detailed description of the invention
Be described in detail for bottom-column-free sectional caving stoping method below.As shown in Fig. 1 ~ 3, when adopting Caving Method with Large Space mining, country rock 1 is taken over a business on top, and bottom is ore body 2, and the two is separated by rock line of demarcation, ore deposit 3.Layout of actual mining roadway is in ore body, and its height of lift can be consistent with other heights of lift.Adopt the tectal formation method of the present invention, to fan shaped medium length hole on the rock drilling lane Drilling directly utilizing first point of section mining to need, ultra-deep on the basis in mining big gun hole, and the mining of the first segmentation explosion simultaneously.
Specific practice is: in the first sublevel drilling lane 4 on Drilling to fanhole(s) 5, wherein part blast hole depth extends in country rock, exceedes rock line of demarcation, ore deposit 10 ~ 30m(particularly 20m), form super deep blasting hole 6.The total length powder charge of big gun hole, aperture blocks, and big gun hole total length blasting in once-through, by the particularly 20m of 10 ~ 30m(on the ore body of the first segmentation and ore body) height takes over a business the whole explosion of country rock and gets off, country rock fragment covers on ore, forms covering layer.
Fanhole(s) 5 points of some arrangements are put, and the big gun hole often in row is presented to fan beam centered by the first sublevel drilling lane 4, on the center line being radiated to adjacent two first sublevel drilling lanes 4 in the lateral direction or near it.Super deep blasting hole 6 can have the mode of different distributions and upwards ultra-deep in fanhole(s) 5, can determine generally there are following three kinds of modes according to the character of ore deposit rock:
1) as shown in fig. 1, be applicable to ore body and take over a business the situation that country rock belongs to firm ~ very firm, explosiveness is poor.Whole big gun hole upwards ultra-deep to exceeding rock line of demarcation, ore deposit 10 ~ 30m(particularly 20m), preferably upwards ultra-deep to same level position.
2) part big gun hole upwards ultra-deep, as shown in Figure 2 preferred, is applicable to ore body and takes over a business country rock and belong to built on the sand ~ firm, situation that explosiveness is good.Every tier hole upwards ultra-deep to exceeding rock line of demarcation, ore deposit 10 ~ 30m(particularly 20m), remaining big gun hole extend to rock line of demarcation, ore deposit 3 or near, be distributed in distance distribution.
3) as shown in Figure 3, be applicable to ore body take over a business country rock and belong to built on the sand ~ firm, situation that explosiveness is good.Often arrange inner minute gun hole upwards ultra-deep, preferably often row in big gun hole, interval upwards ultra-deep to exceeding rock line of demarcation, ore deposit 10 ~ 30m(particularly 20m), often row in residue big gun hole extend to rock line of demarcation, ore deposit 3 or near, in row in be spaced distribution.
During explosion, blast hole projectile filling can adopt two kinds of structures:
1) as shown in Figure 4, whole super deep blasting hole total length only uses 10, the other explosion of section of a priming bomb;
2) as shown in Figure 5, at ultra-deep big gun broken charges, big gun hole is divided into ore body section big gun hole and country rock section big gun hole, arrange priming bomb respectively, stemming 12 is established in centre, explosion, the i.e. other onepull of single hole two sections respectively of different delay times.
Adopt above-mentioned charge constitution, after explosion, ore is in bottom, and barren rock is on top, and top barren rock blast fragmentation size is large, and its lumpiness structure is more conducive to tectal function, can realize ore drawing under bulk waste rock overburden, guarantees that depletion loss is less.

Claims (8)

1. the tectal formation method of caved stopes, take over a business country rock and ore body is separated by rock line of demarcation, ore deposit, it is characterized in that: when taking over a business first point of section mining under country rock, making it exceed rock line of demarcation, ore deposit to taking over a business in country rock by mining to fanhole(s) ultra-deep, then all loading explosive, big gun hole total length blasting in once-through, the ore of the first segmentation is become fragment with the country rock explosion simultaneously of taking over a business on top, after explosion, ore is in bottom, and barren rock, on top, forms covering layer.
2. the tectal formation method of the caved stopes according to claims 1, it is characterized in that by make it exceed rock line of demarcation, ore deposit 10 ~ 30m to fanhole(s) ultra-deep.
3. the tectal formation method of the caved stopes according to claims 2, is characterized in that to the whole ultra-deep of fanhole(s) to taking over a business in country rock.
4. the tectal formation method of the caved stopes according to claims 2, is characterized in that to fanhole(s) every arranging ultra-deep to taking over a business in country rock.
5. the tectal formation method of the caved stopes according to claims 2, in it is characterized in that often arranging to fanhole(s), big gun hole, interval ultra-deep is to taking over a business in country rock.
6. according to the tectal formation method of the caved stopes one of claims 1 ~ 5 Suo Shu, it is characterized in that ultra-deep on adopt an other explosion of section to fanhole(s) total length.
7. according to the tectal formation method of the caved stopes one of claims 1 ~ 5 Suo Shu, it is characterized in that ultra-deep on be divided into ore body section big gun hole and country rock section big gun hole to fanhole(s), arrange priming bomb respectively, middle stemming blocking, different delay time onepulls.
8. avalanche mining methods, is characterized in that the covering layer forming method adopting one of claim 1 ~ 7 described.
CN201410487838.8A 2014-09-23 2014-09-23 Method for forming covering layer by stope caving method Pending CN104389604A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106089204A (en) * 2016-08-10 2016-11-09 福建省新华都工程有限责任公司 A kind of method that forward deep hole great explosion caving realizes remnant reclaiming
CN106522955A (en) * 2016-12-05 2017-03-22 广西大学 Studding recovery method for reconstructing covering layer through dead zone wastefill and top surrounding rock spallation collaboratively
CN108049870A (en) * 2018-01-10 2018-05-18 鞍钢集团矿业有限公司 The induction caving mining methods of high-dipping middle thickness orebody of the upper disk containing unstable rock stratum
CN111350506A (en) * 2020-03-13 2020-06-30 海南矿业股份有限公司 Goaf roof treatment blast hole arrangement method

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106089204A (en) * 2016-08-10 2016-11-09 福建省新华都工程有限责任公司 A kind of method that forward deep hole great explosion caving realizes remnant reclaiming
CN106089204B (en) * 2016-08-10 2018-03-16 福建省新华都工程有限责任公司 A kind of method that remnant reclaiming is realized in positive deep hole great explosion caving
CN106522955A (en) * 2016-12-05 2017-03-22 广西大学 Studding recovery method for reconstructing covering layer through dead zone wastefill and top surrounding rock spallation collaboratively
CN108049870A (en) * 2018-01-10 2018-05-18 鞍钢集团矿业有限公司 The induction caving mining methods of high-dipping middle thickness orebody of the upper disk containing unstable rock stratum
CN108049870B (en) * 2018-01-10 2019-03-29 鞍钢集团矿业有限公司 The induction caving mining methods of high-dipping middle thickness orebody of the upper disk containing unstable rock stratum
CN111350506A (en) * 2020-03-13 2020-06-30 海南矿业股份有限公司 Goaf roof treatment blast hole arrangement method

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Application publication date: 20150304