CN104360327A - Method for compensating frequency and phase consistency of radio frequency channels of phased array radar - Google Patents

Method for compensating frequency and phase consistency of radio frequency channels of phased array radar Download PDF

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CN104360327A
CN104360327A CN201410443500.2A CN201410443500A CN104360327A CN 104360327 A CN104360327 A CN 104360327A CN 201410443500 A CN201410443500 A CN 201410443500A CN 104360327 A CN104360327 A CN 104360327A
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frequency
passage
signal
formula
contrast
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CN104360327B (en
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刘海波
龙腾
牛阳
刘泉华
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Beijing Institute of Technology BIT
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/02Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S13/00
    • G01S7/40Means for monitoring or calibrating
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/02Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S13/00
    • G01S7/40Means for monitoring or calibrating
    • G01S7/4004Means for monitoring or calibrating of parts of a radar system
    • G01S7/4008Means for monitoring or calibrating of parts of a radar system of transmitters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/02Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S13/00
    • G01S7/40Means for monitoring or calibrating
    • G01S7/4004Means for monitoring or calibrating of parts of a radar system
    • G01S7/4021Means for monitoring or calibrating of parts of a radar system of receivers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S13/00Systems using the reflection or reradiation of radio waves, e.g. radar systems; Analogous systems using reflection or reradiation of waves whose nature or wavelength is irrelevant or unspecified
    • G01S13/02Systems using reflection of radio waves, e.g. primary radar systems; Analogous systems
    • G01S2013/0236Special technical features
    • G01S2013/0245Radar with phased array antenna

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for compensating frequency and phase consistency of radio frequency channels of phased array radar. The method includes a transmitting process and a receiving process. By means of the method, the problem that the channels fail in phase-coherent accumulation due to differences in time-delay characteristics of different channels can be improved in a targeted manner at the beginning of transmitting medium-frequency broadband digital signals; by adjusting the frequencies and phases of NCOs (numerically controlled oscillators) of the channels during the receiving process, the frequencies and phases of the treated medium-frequency broadband digital signals of the channels are made identical. During each of the transmitting process and the receiving process, a reference passage and a comparison passage are subjected to coherence and treated via single-frequency-point signals, many parameters are eliminated, and the calculating process is made simple and feasible.

Description

The compensation method of a kind of phased-array radar radio-frequency channel frequency and phase equalization
Technical field
The present invention relates to radar signal processing field, be specifically related to the compensation method of a kind of phased-array radar radio-frequency channel frequency and phase equalization.
Background technology
Broadband phased-array radar is the important equipment of China's national defense modernization construction, in order to realize detection range far away, needs phased-array radar to have large bore; Covering to realize wide-angle spatial domain, needing phased-array radar to have large-angle scanning ability; In order to implementation space target identification, need phased-array radar to have high range resolution, namely radar emission signal will have large bandwidth.But along with the increase of antenna aperture and transmitted signal bandwidth, the aperture effect of phased-array radar is more and more serious.At present, aperture fill time way to solve the problem comparative maturity.In the ideal case, after carrying out aperture fill time compensation, each channel signal can superpose by coherent, but in the phased array radar system of reality, due to the difference of each passage microwave device and physical connection characteristics, the time delay of process can be variant, and this will cause the echoed signal energy loss after synthesizing, and then causes radar coverage to decline.So must compensate each channel signal, the rear energy loss problem of phased-array radar each channel signal synthesis could be solved.
Sketch two channel signals through different delayed time for two passages below, cause phase place inconsistent, the problem of energy loss after superposition.
Emission process as shown in Figure 1, intermediate frequency wideband digital signal becomes simulating signal through digital-to-analog conversion (DAC Digital to Analog Converter), intermediate frequency transmission path carry out through simulation up-conversion namely with radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator after frequency mixing module filtering, signal is input to radio-frequency channel, forms certain particular beam be directed to space environment by aerial radiation through suitable weighting.If intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is s i(t):
s I ( t ) = cos { 2 π [ ( f I - B 2 ) t + kt 2 2 ] } - - - ( 1 - 1 )
F in formula ibe resting frequence, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate.S is become through intermediate frequency transmission path signal i(t-t l), obtain rf broadband signal s (t) with after radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator mixing and filtering:
F in formula cradio-frequency (RF) local oscillator carrier frequency, t lfor the transmission delay of intermediate-freuqncy signal, t cfor the transmission delay of radiofrequency signal, for the first phase of radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator.Due to the t of each passage l, t c, may be different, by causing, the frequency of each channel transmit signal is different with phase place, cannot superpose, cause radar coverage to reduce at target direction coherent.
Receiving course as shown in Figure 2, the rf broadband signal that each antenna receives carry out through radio-frequency channel analog down namely with radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator after analog frequency mixing filtering, signal is input to intermediate-frequency channel, directly gathered by high speed analog-to-digital conversion (ADC Analog to Digital Converter), intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is carried out digital deramping local oscillator and digital controlled oscillator (NCO Numerically Controlled Oscillator) process, finally each channel signal is synthesized laggard row relax.If the rf broadband signal that antenna receives is s r(t):
s r ( t ) = cos { 2 π [ ( f I - B 2 + f c ) t + kt 2 2 ] } - - - ( 1 - 3 )
Behind radio-frequency channel, carry out analog down filtering obtain intermediate frequency broadband signal s r_I(t) be:
Analog down filtering becomes s through intermediate frequency transmission path after exporting r_I(t-t l), being input to high-speed ADC collection, utilizing digital deramping local oscillator centering frequency wideband digital signal to go tiltedly to the intermediate frequency wideband digital signal after gathering, utilizing NCO to obtain intermediate frequency broadband signal s to going the intermediate frequency wideband digital signal tiltedly to carry out Digital Down Convert process ddc(t):
Similar with emission process, due to each passage t l, t c, may be different, will each passage be made to remove the Range Profile main lobe broadening after tiltedly process synthesis, distance respectively rate reduces.
Due to the time-delay characteristics difference of each passage, cause each channel signal cannot the problem of correlative accumulation.The method of traditional RF compensation is owing to being the compensation carried out at analog domain, and compensation delay line can change along with the change of temperature, and so, the precision of compensation is low and usually in order to ensure that compensation precision needs computation delay line length repeatedly, inefficiency.
Summary of the invention
In view of this, the invention provides the compensation method of a kind of phased-array radar radio-frequency channel frequency and phase equalization, effectively can improve phased-array radar multi channel signals phase place inconsistent, cannot coherent superposition problem.And precision is high, without the need to double counting.
1, a compensation method for phased-array radar frequency and phase equalization, for compensating the frequency of phased-array radar radio-frequency channel emission process and phase place; The method comprises the steps:
Step one, from N × M transmission channel of phased-array radar selected one as with reference to passage, other passages passage as a comparison;
Step 2, with reference to the expression formula s being converted the rf broadband signal to be sent obtained in passage by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal refthe expression formula s being converted the rf broadband signal to be sent obtained in passage by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is contrasted with i-th icarry out coherent, obtain the difference on the frequency f of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel adjust_iand phase differential expression formula:
f adjust_i=k(Δt c_i+Δt L_i) (1)
Wherein, Δ t c_ifor reference channel and i-th contrast the transmission delay differences of the radiofrequency signal of passage and Δ t c_i=t c_ref-t c_i, Δ t l_ifor reference channel and i-th contrast the transmission delay differences of the intermediate-freuqncy signal of passage and Δ t l_i=t l_ref-t l_i, for reference channel with i-th contrast the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of passage first differ and f iintermediate-freuqncy signal carrier frequency, f cbe radiofrequency signal carrier frequency, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate, t l_reffor the transmission delay of reference channel intermediate-freuqncy signal, t c_reffor the transmission delay of reference channel radiofrequency signal, for the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of reference channel, it is the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of i-th contrast passage;
Step 3, with reference to the expression formula s being converted the radiofrequency signal to be sent obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal ref' contrast with i-th the expression formula s being converted the radiofrequency signal to be sent obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal i' carry out coherent, obtain the phase differential Φ of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel i; Then two kinds of different frequency f i-1and f i-2phase differential Φ corresponding to single point-frequency signal i-1and Φ i-2expression formula be respectively:
Formula (3) and formula (4) are subtracted each other and obtain:
Δt L _ i + Δt c _ i = Φ i - 1 - Φ i - 2 2 π ( f I - 1 - f I - 2 ) - - - ( 5 )
Formula (5) is substituted into formula (3) obtain:
Step 4, input single point-frequency signal of two different frequencies successively to reference channel and i-th contrast passage, by measure or the mode of signal transacting obtains twice input time, relative to the phase differential Φ of i-th contrast passage of reference channel i-1and Φ i-2, utilize the Φ obtained i-1and Φ i-2and the frequency of single point-frequency signal adopts formula (5) and formula (6) to obtain Δ t l_i+ Δ t c_iwith
Step 5, the Δ t that step 4 is obtained l_i+ Δ t c_iwith substitution formula (1) and formula (2), obtain the difference on the frequency f of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel adjust_iand phase differential
Step 6, when transmitting, i-th contrast passage centering be before wideband digital signal carries out digital-to-analog conversion frequently, first with the difference on the frequency f that step 5 obtains adjust_iand phase differential centering frequently wideband digital signal carries out frequency and phase compensation;
All carry out the process of step 2 ~ step 6 for each contrast passage, complete the uniformity compensation of frequency to phased-array radar radio-frequency channel emission process and phase place.
2, a compensation method for phased-array radar frequency and phase equalization, for compensating the frequency of phased-array radar intermediate-frequency channel receiving course and phase place; The method comprises the steps:
Step 1, from N × M receiving cable of phased-array radar selected one as with reference to passage, other passages passage as a comparison;
Step 2, with reference to being converted the expression formula s obtaining intermediate frequency wideband digital signal in passage by the rf broadband signal that receives ddc_refcontrast in passage and convert by the rf broadband signal received the expression formula s obtaining intermediate frequency wideband digital signal with i-th ddc_icarry out coherent, obtain the difference on the frequency f of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel ddc_adjust_iand phase differential expression formula:
f ddc_adjust_i=k(Δt' c_i+Δt' L_i) (7)
Wherein, Δ t' c_ifor reference channel and i-th contrast the transmission delay differences of the radiofrequency signal of passage and Δ t' c_i=t' c_ref-t' c_i, Δ t' l_ifor reference channel and i-th contrast the transmission delay differences of the intermediate-freuqncy signal of passage and Δ t' l_i=t' l_ref-t' l_i, for reference channel with i-th contrast the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of passage first differ and f iintermediate-freuqncy signal carrier frequency, f cbe radiofrequency signal carrier frequency, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate, t' l_reffor the transmission delay of reference channel intermediate-freuqncy signal, t' c_reffor the transmission delay of reference channel radiofrequency signal, for the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of reference channel, it is the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of i-th contrast passage;
Step 3, with reference to the expression formula s' being converted the intermediate-freuqncy signal to be received obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal ddc_refthe expression formula s' being converted the intermediate-freuqncy signal to be received obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal is contrasted with i-th ddc_icarry out coherent, obtain the phase differential Φ ' of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel i; Then two kinds of different frequency f' i-1and f' i-2phase differential Φ ' corresponding to single point-frequency signal i-1with Φ ' i-2expression formula be respectively:
Formula (9) and formula (10) are subtracted each other and obtain:
Δt ′ L _ i + Δt ′ c _ i = Φ ′ i - 1 - Φ ′ i - 2 2 π ( f ′ I - 1 - f ′ I - 2 ) - - - ( 11 )
Formula (11) is substituted into formula (9) obtain:
Step 4, input single point-frequency signal of two different frequencies successively to reference channel and i-th contrast passage, by measure or the mode of signal transacting obtains twice input time the phase differential Φ ' of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel i-1with Φ ' i-2, utilize the Φ ' obtained i-1with Φ ' i-2and the frequency of single point-frequency signal adopts formula (11) and formula (12) to obtain Δ t' l_i+ Δ t' c_iwith
Step 5, the Δ t' that step 4 is obtained l_i+ Δ t' c_iwith substitution formula (7) and formula (8), obtain the difference on the frequency f' of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel adjust_iand phase differential
Step 6, the difference on the frequency f' adopting step 5 to obtain adjust_iand phase differential the frequency of digital controlled oscillator use i-th contrast passage and phase place compensate;
All carry out step 2 ~ process of step 6 for each contrast passage, complete the uniformity compensation of frequency to phased-array radar radio-frequency channel receiving course and phase place.
3, a compensation method for phased-array radar radio-frequency channel phase equalization, for compensating the frequency of phased-array radar radio-frequency channel receiving course and emission process and phase place; The method comprises the steps:
Described emission process:
Step one, from N × M transmission channel of phased-array radar selected one as transmitted-reference passage, other passages are as transmitting contrast passage;
Step 2, the expression formula s of the rf broadband signal to be sent obtained will be converted in transmitted-reference passage by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal refthe expression formula s contrasting and converted the rf broadband signal to be sent obtained in passage by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is launched with i-th icarry out coherent, obtain the difference on the frequency f launching contrast passage relative to i-th of transmitted-reference passage adjust_iand phase differential expression formula:
f adjust_i=k(Δt c_i+Δt L_i) (13)
Wherein, Δ t c_ifor transmitted-reference passage and i-th launch the transmission delay differences of the radiofrequency signal contrasting passage and Δ tc_i=t c_ref-t c_i, Δ t l_ifor transmitted-reference passage and i-th launch the transmission delay differences of the intermediate-freuqncy signal contrasting passage and Δ t l_i=t l_ref-t l_i, for transmitted-reference passage with i-th launch the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator contrasting passage first differ and f iintermediate-freuqncy signal carrier frequency, f cbe radiofrequency signal carrier frequency, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate, t l_reffor the transmission delay of transmitted-reference passage intermediate-freuqncy signal, t c_reffor the transmission delay of transmitted-reference channel radio frequency signal, for the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of transmitted-reference passage, be i-th first phase of launching the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of contrast passage;
Step 3, the expression formula s of the radiofrequency signal to be sent obtained will be converted in transmitted-reference passage by single point-frequency signal ref' launch with i-th the expression formula s contrasting and converted the radiofrequency signal to be sent obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal i' carry out coherent, obtain the phase differential Φ launching contrast passage relative to i-th of transmitted-reference passage i; Then two kinds of different frequency f i-1and f i-2phase differential Φ corresponding to single point-frequency signal i-1and Φ i-2expression formula be respectively:
Formula (15) and formula (16) are subtracted each other and obtain:
Δt L _ i + Δt c _ i = Φ i - 1 - Φ i - 2 2 π ( f I - 1 - f I - 2 ) - - - ( 17 )
Formula (17) is substituted into formula (15) obtain:
Step 4, launch to transmitted-reference passage and i-th single point-frequency signal that contrast passage inputs two different frequencies successively, by measure or the mode of signal transacting obtains twice input time, launch the phase differential Φ of contrast passage relative to i-th of transmitted-reference passage i-1and Φ i-2, utilize the Φ obtained i-1and Φ i-2and the frequency of single point-frequency signal adopts formula (17) and formula (18) to obtain Δ t l_i+ Δ t c_iwith
Step 5, the Δ t that step 4 is obtained l_i+ Δ t c_iwith substitution formula (13) and formula (14), obtain the difference on the frequency f launching contrast passage relative to i-th of transmitted-reference passage adjust_iand phase differential
Step 6, when transmitting, i-th launch contrast passage centering wideband digital signal carry out digital-to-analog conversion frequently before, first with the difference on the frequency f that step 5 obtains adjust_iand phase differential centering frequently wideband digital signal carries out frequency and phase compensation;
All carry out the process of step 2 ~ step 6 for each contrast passage of launching, complete the uniformity compensation of frequency to phased-array radar radio-frequency channel emission process and phase place.
Described receiving course:
Step 1, from N × M receiving cable of phased-array radar selected one as receiving reference channel, other passages are as reception contrast passage;
Step 2, will receive in reference channel and convert by the rf broadband signal received the expression formula s obtaining intermediate frequency broadband signal ddc_refreceive to contrast in passage and convert by the rf broadband signal received the expression formula s obtaining intermediate frequency wideband digital signal with i-th ddc_icarry out coherent, obtain the difference on the frequency f receiving contrast passage relative to i-th that receives reference channel ddc_adjust_iand phase differential expression formula:
f ddc_adjust_i=k(Δt' c_i+Δt' L_i) (19)
Wherein, Δ t' c_ithe transmission delay differences of the radiofrequency signal contrasting passage is received and Δ t' for receiving reference channel and i-th c_i=t' c_ref-t' c_i, Δ t' l_ithe transmission delay differences of the intermediate-freuqncy signal contrasting passage is received and Δ t' for receiving reference channel and i-th l_i=t' l_ref-t' l_i, for receive reference channel with i-th receive the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator contrasting passage first differ and f iintermediate-freuqncy signal carrier frequency, f cbe radiofrequency signal carrier frequency, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate, t' l_reffor receiving the transmission delay of reference channel intermediate-freuqncy signal, t' c_reffor receiving the transmission delay of reference channel radiofrequency signal, for receiving the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of reference channel, be i-th first phase receiving the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of contrast passage;
Step 3, the expression formula s' being converted the intermediate-freuqncy signal to be received obtained in reference channel by single point-frequency signal will be received ddc_refthe expression formula s' contrasting and converted the intermediate-freuqncy signal to be received obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal is received with i-th ddc_icarry out coherent, obtain the phase differential Φ ' receiving contrast passage relative to i-th that receives reference channel i; Then two kinds of different frequency f' i-1and f' i-2phase differential Φ ' corresponding to single point-frequency signal i-1with Φ ' i-2expression formula be respectively:
Formula (21) and formula (22) are subtracted each other and obtain:
Δt ′ L _ i + Δt ′ c _ i = Φ ′ i - 1 - Φ ′ i - 2 2 π ( f ′ I - 1 - f ′ I - 2 ) - - - ( 23 )
Formula (23) is substituted into formula (21) obtain:
Step 4, receive to receiving reference channel and i-th single point-frequency signal that contrast passage inputs two different frequencies successively, by measure or the mode of signal transacting obtains twice input time the phase differential Φ ' receiving contrast passage relative to i-th that receives reference channel i-1with Φ ' i-2, utilize the Φ ' obtained i-1with Φ ' i-2and the frequency of single point-frequency signal adopts formula (23) and formula (24) to obtain Δ t' l_i+ Δ t' c_iwith
Step 5, the Δ t' that step 4 is obtained l_i+ Δ t' c_iwith substitution formula (19) and formula (20), obtain the difference on the frequency f' receiving contrast passage relative to i-th that receives reference channel adjust_iand phase differential
Step 6, the difference on the frequency f' adopting step 5 to obtain adjust_iand phase differential the frequency of digital controlled oscillator that contrast passage uses is received and phase place compensates to i-th;
All carry out step 2 ~ process of step 6 for each contrast passage that receives, complete the uniformity compensation of frequency to phased-array radar radio-frequency channel emission process and phase place.
Beneficial effect:
1, the present invention is by calculating difference on the frequency f adjust_iand phase differential the compensation of frequency and phase place is carried out at the beginning of centering frequency range band digital signal transmission.Make the frequency of the rf broadband signal after each passage process identical with phase place.So, just can improve targetedly at the beginning of intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is launched due to different communication channel delay property difference cause each channel signal cannot the problem of correlative accumulation.This solution, unlike traditional solution, carries out compensation of delay by delay line in transmitting procedure, Yin Wendu or other reasons can not change offset thus, thus need not double counting.And each offset is all got by mathematic(al) representation accurate Calculation, precision is high.
2, similarly, in receiving course, pass through frequency and the phase place of each passage NCO of adjustment in the present invention, make the frequency of the intermediate frequency broadband signal after each passage process identical with phase place.So, after intermediate frequency broadband signal receives by the adjustment of NCO just can improve targetedly due to different communication channel delay property difference cause each channel signal cannot the problem of correlative accumulation.And each offset is all got by mathematic(al) representation accurate Calculation, precision is high.
3, the present invention is no matter in receiving course or emission process, all utilizes the reference channel of each process and contrast passage coherent, and utilizes single-point audio signalprocessing, the therefrom many parameters of cancellation, make computation process become simple, feasible.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 (a) realizes block diagram for the emission process of existing intermediate frequency radio-frequency channel phase equalization compensation method.
Fig. 1 (b) realizes block diagram for the emission process of existing intermediate frequency radio-frequency channel phase equalization compensation method.
Fig. 2 is the two dimensional phased array antenna schematic diagram of invention radio-frequency channel phase equalization compensation method.
Fig. 3 is that the emission process of invention radio-frequency channel phase equalization compensation method realizes block diagram.
Fig. 4 is that the receiving course of invention radio-frequency channel phase equalization compensation method realizes block diagram.
embodiment
To develop simultaneously embodiment below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, describe the present invention.
The invention provides the phase equalization compensation method of a kind of radio-frequency channel, its basic thought is:
Emission process: utilize reference channel and the difference on the frequency contrasted between passage and phase differential as the offset before intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is launched, finally make each passage rf broadband signal after treatment identical.
Receiving course: utilize reference channel and the difference on the frequency contrasted between passage and phase differential as the offset of the frequency and phase place that adjust NCO, finally make with passage intermediate frequency broadband signal after treatment identical.
Described compensation method is divided into emission process to phased-array radar radio-frequency channel and receiving course two kinds of compensation methodes;
Wherein, the compensation method in described emission process, comprises following steps:
Step one, as in Fig. 2 square arrangement two dimensional surface phased array antenna, have M submatrix in X-direction, there is N number of submatrix in direction.From N × M transmission channel of phased-array radar, select one as transmitted-reference passage, other passages are as transmitting contrast passage; Launch contrast passage i to represent, and i belongs to (1 ~ N × M-1);
Step 2, intermediate frequency wideband digital signal become simulating signal through DAC, and after intermediate frequency transmission path carries out the filtering of simulation up-conversion, signal is input to radio-frequency channel, form certain particular beam be directed to space environment by aerial radiation through suitable weighting.If intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is bandwidth is B, chirp rate is the linear FM signal of K, obtains the expression formula s of rf broadband signal to be sent after a series of transmission ref:
Wherein, f iintermediate-freuqncy signal carrier frequency, f cbe radiofrequency signal carrier frequency, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate, t l_reffor the transmission delay of transmitted-reference passage intermediate-freuqncy signal, t c_reffor the transmission delay of transmitted-reference channel radio frequency signal, for the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of transmitted-reference passage;
Choose i-th and launch contrast passage and the expression formula s obtaining rf broadband signal to be sent after a series of transmission i(t),
T l_ifor launching the transmission delay of contrast passage intermediate-freuqncy signal, t c_ifor launching the transmission delay of contrast channel radio frequency signal, be i-th first phase of launching the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of contrast passage;
Step 3, the expression formula s of the rf broadband signal to be sent obtained will be converted in transmitted-reference passage by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal refthe expression formula s contrasting and converted the rf broadband signal to be sent obtained in passage by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is launched with i-th icarry out coherent, obtain the expression formula after coherent:
Wherein, value be tending towards 0, ignore.
Thus, the difference on the frequency f launching contrast passage relative to i-th of transmitted-reference passage is just obtained adjust_iand phase differential expression formula:
f adjust_i=k(Δt c_i+Δt L_i) (2-4)
Wherein, Δ t c_ifor transmitted-reference passage and i-th launch the transmission delay differences of the radiofrequency signal contrasting passage and Δ t c_i=t c_ref-t c_i, Δ t l_ifor transmitted-reference passage and i-th launch the transmission delay differences of the intermediate-freuqncy signal contrasting passage and Δ t l_i=t l_ref-t l_i, for transmitted-reference passage with i-th launch the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator contrasting passage first differ and
The mode that step 4, employing correct, obtains the offset of phase place and the frequency caused due to each interchannel time-delay characteristics difference in emission process.Changing frequency into by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is f 1single point-frequency signal, i.e. B=0, K=0.Substitute into the phase differential Φ obtaining two passages in expression formula (2-4), (2-5) 1:
Intermediate frequency wideband digital signal being changed into frequency is again f 2single point-frequency signal, obtain the phase differential Φ of two passages equally 2:
Φ in formula 1, Φ 2can be obtained by the method for reference instrument or signal transacting, formula (2-6) subtracts formula (2-7) and obtains Δ t l_i+ Δ t c_i:
Δt L _ i + Δt c _ i = Φ 1 - Φ 2 2 π ( f 1 - f 2 ) - - - ( 2 - 8 )
Result formula (2-8) is brought in formula (2-6), namely obtains bring formula (2-4), (2-5) again into, obtain frequency and phase compensation value.
Step 5, in order to ensure the efficiency of compensation precision and compensation, therefore the frequency that step 3 is obtained and phase compensation value, compensate in intermediate frequency wideband digital signal algorithm expression formula, so, just frequently just passage is contrasted to the transmitting except transmitted-reference passage at the beginning of wideband digital signal in the transmission and carried out the compensation of frequency and phase place, ensure that the precision of compensation.Thus, the phase place completing i-th transmission channel unanimously compensates.
Step 6, all carry out the method for step one to step 6 for each transmitting contrast passage, complete the uniformity compensation of frequency to phased-array radar emission process and phase place.
Described receiving course is:
Step 1, as the two dimensional surface phased array antenna of square arrangement in Fig. 2, have M submatrix in X-direction, there is N number of submatrix in direction.From N × M transmission channel of phased-array radar, a selected conduct receives reference channel, and other passages are as reception contrast passage; Receive contrast passage i to represent, and i belongs to (1 ~ N × M-1);
The rf broadband signal that step 2, antenna receive carry out through radio-frequency channel analog down namely with radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator after analog frequency mixing filtering, directly being gathered by high-speed ADC, utilized by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal digital deramping local oscillator centering frequency wideband digital signal to go tiltedly, utilizing NCO to carry out Digital Down Convert to removing the intermediate frequency wideband digital signal tiltedly.If rf broadband signal is bandwidth is B, chirp rate is the linear FM signal of K, obtains rf broadband signal s after a series of transmission ddc_ref(t):
Wherein, f iintermediate-freuqncy signal carrier frequency, f cbe radiofrequency signal carrier frequency, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate, t l_reffor receiving the transmission delay of reference channel intermediate-freuqncy signal, t c_reffor receiving the transmission delay of reference channel radiofrequency signal, for receiving the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of reference channel;
Choose i-th and receive contrast passage and the expression formula s obtaining rf broadband signal after a series of transmission i(t):
T l_ifor receiving the transmission delay of contrast passage intermediate-freuqncy signal, t c_ifor receiving the transmission delay of contrast channel radio frequency signal, be i-th first phase receiving the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of contrast passage;
Step 2, will receive in reference channel and convert by the rf broadband signal received the expression formula s' obtaining intermediate frequency wideband digital signal ddc_refreceive to contrast in passage and convert by the rf broadband signal received the expression formula s' obtaining intermediate frequency wideband digital signal with i-th ddc_icarry out coherent, obtain the difference on the frequency f receiving contrast passage relative to i-th that receives reference channel ddc_adjust_iand phase differential expression formula:
f ddc_adjust_i=k(Δt' c_i+Δt' L_i) (2-11)
Wherein, Δ t' c_ithe transmission delay differences of the radiofrequency signal contrasting passage is received and Δ t' for receiving reference channel and i-th c_i=t' c_ref-t' c_i, Δ t' l_ithe transmission delay differences of the intermediate-freuqncy signal contrasting passage is received and Δ t' for receiving reference channel and i-th l_i=t' l_ref-t' l_i, for receive reference channel with i-th receive the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator contrasting passage first differ and
The mode that step 3, employing correct, obtains the changes values of phase place and the frequency caused due to each interchannel time-delay characteristics difference in receiving course.Changing frequency into by rf broadband signal is f' i-1single point-frequency signal, i.e. B=0, K=0.Substitute into the phase differential Φ ' obtaining two passages in expression formula (2-11), (2-12) i-1:
Rf broadband signal being changed into frequency is again f' i-2single point-frequency signal, obtain the phase differential Φ ' of two passages equally i-2:
Φ ' in formula i-1, Φ ' i-2can be obtained by the method for reference instrument or signal transacting, formula (2-13) subtracts formula (2-14) and obtains:
Δt ′ L _ i + Δt ′ c _ i = Φ ′ i - 1 - Φ ′ i - 2 2 π ( f ′ I - 1 - f ′ I - 2 ) - - - ( 2 - 15 )
Result formula (20) is brought in formula (18), namely obtains
Step 4, the Δ t' that step 3 is obtained l_i+ Δ t' c_iwith substitution formula (2-11) and formula (2-12), obtain the difference on the frequency f receiving contrast passage relative to i-th that receives reference channel ddc_adjust_iand phase differential
Step 5, the intermediate frequency wideband digital signal be converted to after analog frequency mixing, by ADC i-th passage, utilize digital deramping local oscillator to go tiltedly, and recycling NCO carries out down-converted to removing the intermediate frequency wideband digital signal tiltedly.Adopt the difference on the frequency f' that step 4 obtains adjust_iand phase differential the frequency of digital controlled oscillator use i-th contrast passage and phase place compensate;
The NCO expression formula receiving reference channel is selected to be benchmark:
Wherein, f lfor the IF-FRE value of NCO, τ rfor the retardation of digital deramping local oscillator reference signal;
The difference on the frequency f then will calculated ddc_adjust_iand phase differential to the NCO expression formula s after the i-th channel compensation nco_i_compfor
Thus, the frequency by adjusting each passage NCO makes the signal after each passage process identical with phase place.
All carry out step 2 ~ process of step 5 for each contrast passage that receives, complete the uniformity compensation of frequency to phased-array radar radio-frequency channel emission process and phase place.
In sum, these are only preferred embodiment of the present invention, be not intended to limit protection scope of the present invention.Within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment done, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. a compensation method for phased-array radar frequency and phase equalization, is characterized in that, for compensating the frequency of phased-array radar radio-frequency channel emission process and phase place; The method comprises the steps:
Step one, from N × M transmission channel of phased-array radar selected one as with reference to passage, other passages passage as a comparison;
Step 2, with reference to the expression formula s being converted the rf broadband signal to be sent obtained in passage by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal refthe expression formula s being converted the rf broadband signal to be sent obtained in passage by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is contrasted with i-th icarry out coherent, obtain the difference on the frequency f of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel adjust_iand phase differential expression formula:
f adjust_i=k(Δt c_i+Δt L_i) (1)
Wherein, Δ tc_ifor reference channel and i-th contrast the transmission delay differences of the radiofrequency signal of passage and Δ t c_i=t c_ref-t c_i, Δ t l_ifor reference channel and i-th contrast the transmission delay differences of the intermediate-freuqncy signal of passage and Δ t l_i=t l_ref-t l_i, for reference channel with i-th contrast the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of passage first differ and f iintermediate-freuqncy signal carrier frequency, f cbe radiofrequency signal carrier frequency, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate, t l_reffor the transmission delay of reference channel intermediate-freuqncy signal, t c_reffor the transmission delay of reference channel radiofrequency signal, for the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of reference channel, it is the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of i-th contrast passage;
Step 3, with reference to the expression formula s being converted the radiofrequency signal to be sent obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal ref' contrast with i-th the expression formula s being converted the radiofrequency signal to be sent obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal i' carry out coherent, obtain the phase differential Φ of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel i; Then two kinds of different frequency f i-1and f i-2phase differential Φ corresponding to single point-frequency signal i-1and Φ i-2expression formula be respectively:
Formula (3) and formula (4) are subtracted each other and obtain:
Δt L _ i + Δt c _ i = Φ i - 1 - Φ i - 2 2 π ( f I - 1 - f I - 2 ) - - - ( 5 )
Formula (5) is substituted into formula (3) obtain:
Step 4, input single point-frequency signal of two different frequencies successively to reference channel and i-th contrast passage, by measure or the mode of signal transacting obtains twice input time, relative to the phase differential Φ of i-th contrast passage of reference channel i-1and Φ i-2, utilize the Φ obtained i-1and Φ i-2and the frequency of single point-frequency signal adopts formula (5) and formula (6) to obtain Δ t l_i+ Δ t c_iwith
Step 5, the Δ t that step 4 is obtained l_i+ Δ t c_iwith substitution formula (1) and formula (2), obtain the difference on the frequency f of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel adjust_iand phase differential
Step 6, when transmitting, i-th contrast passage centering be before wideband digital signal carries out digital-to-analog conversion frequently, first with the difference on the frequency f that step 5 obtains adjust_iand phase differential centering frequently wideband digital signal carries out frequency and phase compensation;
All carry out the process of step 2 ~ step 6 for each contrast passage, complete the uniformity compensation of frequency to phased-array radar radio-frequency channel emission process and phase place.
2. a compensation method for phased-array radar frequency and phase equalization, is characterized in that, for compensating the frequency of phased-array radar intermediate-frequency channel receiving course and phase place; The method comprises the steps:
Step 1, from N × M receiving cable of phased-array radar selected one as with reference to passage, other passages passage as a comparison;
Step 2, with reference to being converted the expression formula s obtaining intermediate frequency wideband digital signal in passage by the rf broadband signal that receives ddc_refcontrast in passage and convert by the rf broadband signal received the expression formula s obtaining intermediate frequency wideband digital signal with i-th ddc_icarry out coherent, obtain the difference on the frequency f of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel ddc_adjust_iand phase differential expression formula:
f ddc_adjust_i=k(Δt' c_i+Δt' L_i) (7)
Wherein, Δ t' c_ifor reference channel and i-th contrast the transmission delay differences of the radiofrequency signal of passage and Δ t' c_i=t' c_ref-t' c_i, Δ t' l_ifor reference channel and i-th contrast the transmission delay differences of the intermediate-freuqncy signal of passage and Δ t' l_i=t' l_ref-t' l_i, for reference channel with i-th contrast the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of passage first differ and f iintermediate-freuqncy signal carrier frequency, f cbe radiofrequency signal carrier frequency, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate, t' l_reffor the transmission delay of reference channel intermediate-freuqncy signal, t' c_reffor the transmission delay of reference channel radiofrequency signal, for the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of reference channel, it is the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of i-th contrast passage;
Step 3, with reference to the expression formula s' being converted the intermediate-freuqncy signal to be received obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal ddc_refthe expression formula s' being converted the intermediate-freuqncy signal to be received obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal is contrasted with i-th ddc_icarry out coherent, obtain the phase differential Φ ' of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel i; Then two kinds of different frequency f' i-1and f' i-2phase differential Φ ' corresponding to single point-frequency signal i-1with Φ ' i-2expression formula be respectively:
Formula (9) and formula (10) are subtracted each other and obtain:
Δt ′ L _ i + Δt ′ c _ i = Φ ′ i - 1 - Φ ′ i - 2 2 π ( f ′ I - 1 - f ′ I - 2 ) - - - ( 11 )
Formula (11) is substituted into formula (9) obtain:
Step 4, input single point-frequency signal of two different frequencies successively to reference channel and i-th contrast passage, by measure or the mode of signal transacting obtains twice input time the phase differential Φ ' of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel i-1with Φ ' i-2, utilize the Φ ' obtained i-1with Φ ' i-2and the frequency of single point-frequency signal adopts formula (11) and formula (12) to obtain Δ t' l_i+ Δ t' c_iwith
Step 5, the Δ t' that step 4 is obtained l_i+ Δ t' c_iwith substitution formula (7) and formula (8), obtain the difference on the frequency f' of i-th contrast passage relative to reference channel adjust_iand phase differential
Step 6, the difference on the frequency f' adopting step 5 to obtain adjust_iand phase differential the frequency of digital controlled oscillator use i-th contrast passage and phase place compensate;
All carry out step 2 ~ process of step 6 for each contrast passage, complete the uniformity compensation of frequency to phased-array radar radio-frequency channel receiving course and phase place.
3. a compensation method for phased-array radar radio-frequency channel phase equalization, is characterized in that, for compensating the frequency of phased-array radar radio-frequency channel receiving course and emission process and phase place; The method comprises the steps:
Described emission process:
Step one, from N × M transmission channel of phased-array radar selected one as transmitted-reference passage, other passages are as transmitting contrast passage;
Step 2, the expression formula s of the rf broadband signal to be sent obtained will be converted in transmitted-reference passage by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal refthe expression formula s contrasting and converted the rf broadband signal to be sent obtained in passage by intermediate frequency wideband digital signal is launched with i-th icarry out coherent, obtain the difference on the frequency f launching contrast passage relative to i-th of transmitted-reference passage adjust_iand phase differential expression formula:
f adjust_i=k(Δt c_i+Δt L_i) (13)
Wherein, Δ t c_ifor transmitted-reference passage and i-th launch the transmission delay differences of the radiofrequency signal contrasting passage and Δ t c_i=t c_ref-t c_i, Δ t l_ifor transmitted-reference passage and i-th launch the transmission delay differences of the intermediate-freuqncy signal contrasting passage and Δ t l_i=t l_ref-t l_i, for transmitted-reference passage with i-th launch the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator contrasting passage first differ and f iintermediate-freuqncy signal carrier frequency, f cbe radiofrequency signal carrier frequency, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate, t l_reffor the transmission delay of transmitted-reference passage intermediate-freuqncy signal, t c_reffor the transmission delay of transmitted-reference channel radio frequency signal, for the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of transmitted-reference passage, be i-th first phase of launching the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of contrast passage;
Step 3, the expression formula s of the radiofrequency signal to be sent obtained will be converted in transmitted-reference passage by single point-frequency signal ref' launch with i-th the expression formula s contrasting and converted the radiofrequency signal to be sent obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal i' carry out coherent, obtain the phase differential Φ launching contrast passage relative to i-th of transmitted-reference passage i; Then two kinds of different frequency f i-1and f i-2phase differential Φ corresponding to single point-frequency signal i-1and Φ i-2expression formula be respectively:
Formula (15) and formula (16) are subtracted each other and obtain:
Δt L _ i + Δt c _ i = Φ i - 1 - Φ i - 2 2 π ( f I - 1 - f I - 2 ) - - - ( 17 )
Formula (17) is substituted into formula (15) obtain:
Step 4, launch to transmitted-reference passage and i-th single point-frequency signal that contrast passage inputs two different frequencies successively, by measure or the mode of signal transacting obtains twice input time, launch the phase differential Φ of contrast passage relative to i-th of transmitted-reference passage i-1and Φ i-2, utilize the Φ obtained i-1and Φ i-2and the frequency of single point-frequency signal adopts formula (17) and formula (18) to obtain Δ t l_i+ Δ t c_iwith
Step 5, the Δ t that step 4 is obtained l_i+ Δ t c_iwith substitution formula (13) and formula (14), obtain the difference on the frequency f launching contrast passage relative to i-th of transmitted-reference passage adjust_iand phase differential
Step 6, when transmitting, i-th launch contrast passage centering wideband digital signal carry out digital-to-analog conversion frequently before, first with the difference on the frequency f that step 5 obtains adjust_iand phase differential centering frequently wideband digital signal carries out frequency and phase compensation;
All carry out the process of step 2 ~ step 6 for each contrast passage of launching, complete the uniformity compensation of frequency to phased-array radar radio-frequency channel emission process and phase place.
Described receiving course:
Step 1, from N × M receiving cable of phased-array radar selected one as receiving reference channel, other passages are as reception contrast passage;
Step 2, will receive in reference channel and convert by the rf broadband signal received the expression formula s obtaining intermediate frequency broadband signal ddc_refreceive to contrast in passage and convert by the rf broadband signal received the expression formula s obtaining intermediate frequency wideband digital signal with i-th ddc_icarry out coherent, obtain the difference on the frequency f receiving contrast passage relative to i-th that receives reference channel ddc_adjust_iand phase differential expression formula:
f ddc_adjust_i=k(Δt' c_i+Δt' L_i) (19)
Wherein, Δ t' c_ithe transmission delay differences of the radiofrequency signal contrasting passage is received and Δ t' for receiving reference channel and i-th c_i=t' c_ref-t' c_i, Δ t' l_ithe transmission delay differences of the intermediate-freuqncy signal contrasting passage is received and Δ t' for receiving reference channel and i-th l_i=t' l_ref-t' l_i, for receive reference channel with i-th receive the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator contrasting passage first differ and f iintermediate-freuqncy signal carrier frequency, f cbe radiofrequency signal carrier frequency, B is signal bandwidth, and k is chirp rate, t' l_reffor receiving the transmission delay of reference channel intermediate-freuqncy signal, t' c_reffor receiving the transmission delay of reference channel radiofrequency signal, for receiving the first phase of the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of reference channel, be i-th first phase receiving the radio-frequency (RF) local oscillator of contrast passage;
Step 3, the expression formula s' being converted the intermediate-freuqncy signal to be received obtained in reference channel by single point-frequency signal will be received ddc_refthe expression formula s' contrasting and converted the intermediate-freuqncy signal to be received obtained in passage by single point-frequency signal is received with i-th ddc_icarry out coherent, obtain the phase differential Φ ' receiving contrast passage relative to i-th that receives reference channel i; Then two kinds of different frequency f' i-1and f' i-2phase differential Φ ' corresponding to single point-frequency signal i-1with Φ ' i-2expression formula be respectively:
Formula (21) and formula (22) are subtracted each other and obtain:
Δt ′ L _ i + Δt ′ c _ i = Φ ′ i - 1 - Φ ′ i - 2 2 π ( f ′ I - 1 - f ′ I - 2 ) - - - ( 23 )
Formula (23) is substituted into formula (21) obtain:
Step 4, receive to receiving reference channel and i-th single point-frequency signal that contrast passage inputs two different frequencies successively, by measure or the mode of signal transacting obtains twice input time the phase differential Φ ' receiving contrast passage relative to i-th that receives reference channel i-1with Φ ' i-2, utilize the Φ ' obtained i-1with Φ ' i-2and the frequency of single point-frequency signal adopts formula (23) and formula (24) to obtain Δ t' l_i+ Δ t' c_iwith
Step 5, the Δ t' that step 4 is obtained l_i+ Δ t' c_iwith substitution formula (19) and formula (20), obtain the difference on the frequency f' receiving contrast passage relative to i-th that receives reference channel adjust_iand phase differential
Step 6, the difference on the frequency f' adopting step 5 to obtain adjust_iand phase differential the frequency of digital controlled oscillator that contrast passage uses is received and phase place compensates to i-th;
All carry out step 2 ~ process of step 6 for each contrast passage that receives, complete the uniformity compensation of frequency to phased-array radar radio-frequency channel emission process and phase place.
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