CN104335938B - A kind of method of siganus guttatus seed cultivation - Google Patents

A kind of method of siganus guttatus seed cultivation Download PDF

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CN104335938B
CN104335938B CN201410455822.9A CN201410455822A CN104335938B CN 104335938 B CN104335938 B CN 104335938B CN 201410455822 A CN201410455822 A CN 201410455822A CN 104335938 B CN104335938 B CN 104335938B
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fry
siganus guttatus
pond
day
seed cultivation
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CN104335938A (en
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邹雄
章龙珍
刘鉴毅
夏连军
赵峰
王妤
张涛
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East China Sea Fishery Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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East China Sea Fishery Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of method of siganus guttatus seed cultivation, belong to siganus guttatus cultivation field, comprise following step: transport, the preparation of standard crude pool, thick totally 4 steps of cultivating of fry workshop mark of seedling, fry are cultivated in fry pond. Technological merit of the present invention is: shorten fry pond seedling raise period, improve outdoor ponds utilization rate; Reduce throwing something and feeding of biological feed, tame in advance the artifical compound feed of throwing something and feeding, reduce seedling cost; Fry neat specification after indoor mark is thick, growth is fast, anti-stress ability is strong, survival rate is high. Technology maturation, safety, easily grasp, can be by raiser's digestion and grasping fast, and be applicable to carry out seed large-scale artificial and breed, be expected to promote health, the fast development of China siganus guttatus artificial seed breeding process.

Description

A kind of method of siganus guttatus seed cultivation
Technical field
The invention belongs to siganus guttatus cultivation field, particularly a kind of method of siganus guttatus seed cultivation.
Background technology
Siganus guttatus (Siganusguttatus is commonly called as golden tiger spot) is under the jurisdiction of Perciformes, siganidae, siganus, its meatMatter deliciousness, protein content is high, is rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid, is of high nutritive value, and liked by consumers in general.The sub-fishing gear of filling enamel has the features such as omnivorousness, eurysalinity, eurythermic, under field conditions (factors) taking macro as food, is also seawaterRare ominivore-fish in breed variety, meets the demand of the current healthy aquaculture mode development of China. Basket fish is as oneGood new cultivation object, exploitation prospect is wide.
Sub-fish egg-laying season of filling enamel is the annual 4-7 month, and the lunar calendar of every month is laid eggs for No. seven to No. nine, and siganus guttatus pond at presentThe pattern of growing seedlings, has growing-seedling period long (35-40 days); Biological feed feeding volume is large, and seedling cost is high; As Articial bait makingFeeding volume is improper, causes the problems such as bad water, fish body difference is large.
The applicant is devoted to the research that siganus guttatus is propagated artificially always, has applied for Chinese patent, and number of patent application isCN201110401417.5, application publication number is CN102487866A, and open day is 2012.06.13, and denomination of invention is" a kind of artificial culture siganus guttatus parent scale natural propagation method ", discloses a kind of artificial culture siganus guttatus parentThe method of scale natural propagation, under artificial culture condition, the juvenile fish of 1.5-3cm becomes after parent population, by artificial regulatory skillThe natural propagation of art and preferably parent population, the optimization to parent population feeding environment in feeding process, the optimization of bait, promotes parent population strongThe growth of health, the suitable increase natural bait of antenatal selection, appropriate change feeding environment, promotes parent population gonad maturity, and producesBefore parent population feeding environment is carried out to natural way purification, the sterilization of postpartum to parent population feeding environment, protects the survival of positive parent population, carriesThe output of high juvenile fish, for the development of siganus guttatus aquaculture industryization provides large batch of high-quality seed. But the cultivating condition of seed alsoNeed to be groped.
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Institute Of Oceanology, has applied for that denomination of invention is for " artificial breeding method of a kind of basket fish ", itsWhat relate to is not siganus guttatus, but macula lutea basket fish (Siganuscanaliculatus) and brown basket fish (SiganusFuscescens), it is high that these two kinds of fishes just incubate the individual death rate small, that young irritability causes by force, and parent has been taked in this inventionFish is formed, water treatment, stage bait feeding, postlarva are prepared, cultivated in cultivation, artificial induced spawning and hatching, larval culture pondThe technical measures of transport, have realized parent population supply and have produced with the batch production of growing seedlings, and form Gunther parent fish spawning rate and reach more than 65%, flatAll spawning and fertilization rate reaches more than 85%, artificial breeding survival rate 10.7%-27%. But, due to siganus guttatus and macula lutea basketThere is larger difference just incubating the aspect such as individual build, young nutritional need in sub-fish, brown basket fish, cannot adopt similar sideMethod, preferably can write the problem that the method as adopted causes. (referring to Chinese Patent Application No. beCN201210395600.3, application publication number is CN103070094A, open day is 2013.05.01)
Therefore, research how in producing, improve outdoor ponds utilization rate in the artificial seed in batches of siganus guttatus, reduce seedling cost,The method that cultivate neat specification, grow soon, anti-stress ability is strong, survival rate is high, is necessary.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of method of siganus guttatus seedling cultivation, the method has can improve outdoor ponds useRate; Reduce seedling cost; Cultivate neat specification, growth is fast, anti-stress ability is strong, the advantage of the high seed of survival rate.
A kind of method that the invention provides siganus guttatus seed cultivation, comprising:
(1) pond rearing fry emerges: after fry hatching, cultivate about 25 days in outdoor ponds, postlarva body reaches 1.5-1.8cmTime, postlarva scale is grown completely, can draw in the net to emerge;
(2) transport of fry: the long postlarva physique for 1.5-1.8cm of body a little less than, be not suitable for cooling transport, traffic density is20000-30000 tail/m3, in container, place gas stone, shading transport;
(3) preparation of standard crude pool: adopt indoor half buried cement pit as the thick pond of cultivating of mark, cultivate after sterilizing in pond and inject through husky mistakeSeawater after filter, height of water level is 1m, salinity 27~32 ‰, dissolved oxygen keeps the > 4mg/L (standard of every square of 1 gas headAerating device is installed), cultivate pond and keep available light, and according to 3 tails/m2Density is thrown in Penaeus Vannmei;
(4) fry workshop mark is thick cultivates: first to fry disinfection, after fry is stable, the artificial cooperation of throwing something and feeding completely raisesMaterial, repeatedly throws something and feeds on a small quantity, and day feeding volume is controlled at the 6-8% of fry body weight. Every day, quantity of exchanged water was 200%, within every 5 days, used fishSeedling screens. Indoor mark by 25 days is slightly cultivated, and fry can reach 3.5cm left and right (3.0-4.0cm), can descend pondThe pool or net cage carry out adult fish culture.
Fry starts bait for 6 days and transforms before drawing in the net to emerge in described step (1), throws something and feeds to the eel of protein content >=45%Powder transforms, and before drawing in the net to emerge, the biological feed feeding volume of the 6th day is 80% of fish body weight, reduces the previous day later every day and throws something and feeds20% biological feed feeding volume of amount, 6:00,12:00 and the 18:00 of every day are sprinkled into eel powder, throw something and feed at every turn and account for whole day33.3% of feeding volume, carries out the domestication of bait to fry.
In described step (1), after fry hatching, cultivate about 25 days in outdoor ponds, be 25 ± 5 days.
In described step (1), eel powder is strong horse board eel compound feed (elver).
In described step (1), the time of drawing in the net is 6:00 in morning left and right, and mesh size is 20 orders.
In described step (2), according to the standard of every square of 4 gas heads, aerating device is installed, dissolved oxygen keeps > 4mg/L.
In described step (2), adopt black puggaree to carry out shading to cask, make light intensity≤1000Lx.
Area 14~the 16m of indoor half buried cement pit in described step (3)2, be 1.5~1.8m deeply.
In described step (3), seawater water temperature is 28.5-30.5 DEG C.
The thick pond of cultivating of described step (3) acceptance of the bid adopts 40mg/L liquor potassic permanganate to soak 30min disinfection.
In described step (3), in order to remove excessive bait of throwing something and feeding and the dead fry that catches an illness, in cultivation pond, throw in South AmericaWhite shrimp, specification is that 6-10cm body is long.
In described step (4), the sterilization of fry adopts the PVP-I of 1% available iodine, and addition is by adding in every cubic metre of waterEnter 0.5ml (while sterilization, in standard crude pool, in water, the concentration of PVP-I is 0.5ppm); Described fry is stable refer to fry cluster,Body colour is normal, decorative pattern is bright-coloured.
In described step (4), the mark crude density of fry is that 2cm is 2500 tails/m below3, 2-2.5cm is 2000 tails/m3、2.5-3cm is 1500 tails/m3, 3-3.5cm is 1000 tails/m3
Thick feed Feeding time every day of cultivating fry of described step (4) acceptance of the bid is 6:00,9:00,12:00,13:00 and 18:00, throw something and feed at every turn and account for 20% of whole day feeding volume.
In described step (4) mark of fry thick in for reducing fish body difference in size, should change suitable feed in good time. Fry 2cmBelow for grow seedlings precious micro-No. 1,2-2.5cm of strong horse board compound fish bait used specially for pseudosciaena crocea grows seedlings precious 00 for strong horse board compound fish bait used specially for pseudosciaena croceaNumber, 2.5-3cm grows seedlings precious No. 0,3-3.5cm for strong horse board compound fish bait used specially for pseudosciaena crocea seedling stage for strong horse board compound fish bait used specially for pseudosciaena croceaSpecial No. 001.
The survival pressure causing with the growth of specification for fear of seed in described step (4) is urgent, and every 5 days to fryScreen, the rear same specification of screening is put into same cultivation pond and is cultivated.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is as follows:
The present invention is emerged by shifting to an earlier date pond, shortens fry pond seedling raise period, improves outdoor ponds utilization rate; Reduce simultaneouslyThe feeding volume of biological feed, tames the artifical compound feed of throwing something and feeding in advance, reduces seedling cost. In the thick process of indoor mark, pass through to throwPut Penaeus Vannmei, the fish body of removing residual bait and catching an illness dead; Adjust the measure such as agreeable to the taste bait, sieve seedling in good time; The fish of cultivatingSeedling neat specification, growth are soon, anti-stress ability is strong, survival rate is high. This technology maturation, safety, easily grasp, can be byFast digestion and grasping of raiser, and be applicable to carry out seed large-scale artificial and breed, be expected to promote China siganus guttatus peopleHealth, the fast development of the work of work seed breeding.
Detailed description of the invention
In order to be technological means of the present invention, feature, to reach with effect and be easy to understand, below in conjunction with specific embodiment,Further set forth the present invention, but enforcement of the present invention is not limited in this.
The method of 1 one kinds of siganus guttatus seed cultivation of embodiment
(1) pond rearing fry emerges:
In April, 2014, siganus guttatus natural spawning, carries out the cultivation in early stage of fry in outdoor ponds after fry hatching membrane,Within after membrane the 19th day, start bait and transform (6 days before drawing in the net to emerge start bait and transform), this macrura reevesii body size is 1.2cmLeft and right. While throwing something and feeding, evenly spread people's eel powder (strong horse board eel compound feed elver), the 19th day biology after membrane to cultivating pondBait feeding amount is 80% of fish body weight, reduces afterwards 20% biological feed feeding volume of feeding volume the previous day every day, membraneWithin latter the 19th day, start the eel powder of can whole day throwing something and feeding to the 24th day, 6:00,12:00 and the 18:00 of every day are sprinkled into eel powder,Throw something and feed at every turn and account for 33.3% of whole day feeding volume, fry moves about in groups in pond. Now fry size is the long 1.5-1.8cm of body,Body is by scale, and body colour is by the original transparent black decorative pattern that becomes. The 25th day morning, 6:00, used 20 order net sheets to draw in the net, altogether220,000 tails of emerging.
(2) fry transport:
Due to fry physique now a little less than, should adopt normal temperature transport, prevent that fry stress be dead. The vehicle of employing with water tankCarry out short-distance transport, in water tank, hang up the net cage that 20 order net sheets are made, average every square of 4 gas stones (Fengxin permanent peace gas stoneCo., Ltd's full corundum gas stone (40*40*4)), it is more than 4mg/L keeping oxygen content. Traffic density is 30000 tails/m3,In transportation, can adopt black sunshade net shading transport, light intensity is 800Lx, transports altogether 8 times, and transport survival rate is92.5%。
(3) standard crude pool is prepared:
Indoor mark is slightly cultivated pond, long 5m, wide 3m, degree of depth 1.5m. Establish altogether 15 gas heads (standard install aerating device,(Fengxin Heng Anqi stone Co., Ltd full corundum gas stone (40*40*4)), establishes 1 for average every square, and maintenance oxygen content is 4mg/LAbove. Before using, adopt 40mg/L liquor potassic permanganate to soak 30min disinfection. Inject fresh sand and filter seaWater, height of water level is 1m. Cultivating workshop water temperature is 28.5-30.5 DEG C, and seawater salinity is in 32. Enter in fish forebay and throw in 45The long Penaeus Vannmei of tail 6-10cm body.
(4) fry workshop mark is thick cultivates:
The fry of 38000 tail left and right is thrown in each cultivation pond, and the PVP-I 7ml of full pool spilling head 1% available iodine, makes water simultaneouslyBody PVP-I concentration reaches 0.5ppm. Owing to drawing in the net to damage fish body, by disinfecting the same day, people throws something and feeds after fry is stableWork feed (strong horse board compound fish bait used specially for pseudosciaena crocea is grown seedlings precious micro-No. 1). The feedstuff feeding time be every day 6:00,9:00,12:00,13:00 and 18:00, throw something and feed at every turn and account for 20% of whole day feeding volume. Every day, quantity of exchanged water was 200%, ensured good water quality. OftenWithin 5 days, screen and change pond together with prawn with fry, former cultivation pond is with re-using after potassium permanganate sterilization. By 25It indoor mark is slightly cultivated, and the thick cultivation of mark 3.5cm left and right fry 210,000, can descend pond or net cage to carry out adult fish culture altogether.
Wherein the mark crude density of fry is that 2cm is 2500 tails/m below3, 2-2.5cm is 2000 tails/m3, 2.5-3cm is1500 tails/m3, 3-3.5cm is 1000 tails/m3
During the mark of fry is thick, for reducing fish body difference in size, should change suitable feed in good time. Fry 2cm is below for strong horse board is largeGrow seedlings precious micro-No. 1,2-2.5cm of yellow croaker mixed feed for grow seedlings precious No. 00,2.5-3cm of strong horse board compound fish bait used specially for pseudosciaena crocea isStrong horse board compound fish bait used specially for pseudosciaena crocea is grown seedlings precious No. 0,3-3.5cm for special No. 001 of strong horse board compound fish bait used specially for pseudosciaena crocea seedling stage.
(5) fry rearing result
In April, 2014-July, siganus guttatus natural spawning, outside raising chamber, native pool area is 3 mu, indoor total seedling water210 squares, the pond rearing time is 25 days, grows seedlings 4 batches according to as above method, cultivates altogether 3-4cm siganus guttatus 110Ten thousand tails.
Reference examples
In April, 2013-July, siganus guttatus natural spawning, outside raising chamber, native pool area is 3 mu, its cultivation result is:
(1) reduced outdoor ponds utilization rate
In order to cultivate the fry that is applicable to pond or net cage adult fish culture, the pond rearing time needs 35 days-40 days, only can educate2 batches of seedlings, greatly reduce outdoor ponds utilization rate, cultivate 3-3.5cm siganus guttatus 600,000 tails.
(2) increased the feeding volume of biological feed
Outdoor ponds water body is large, and fry density is large, as the artifical compound feed of only throwing something and feeding, will inevitably cause the size of fry poorDifferent large, therefore must throw something and feed after artifical compound feed, supplement a certain amount of biological feed, increase seedling cost.
(3) increased the risk that disease occurs
As fry fails to sell on time, also need to support temporarily indoor. During indoor temporary supporting, water body is little, fry quantity is many,And bait feeding amount is large, can produces a large amount of residual baits and ight soil, as not throw in the Penaeus Vannmei of some, not in time clearThe residual bait of reason part, ight soil and the fish body of catching an illness dead, must cause variation water quality large, increased the possibility that disease occurs.
Below the preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrated, but the invention is not limited to described enforcementExample, those of ordinary skill in the art also can make all modification being equal under the prerequisite without prejudice to the invention spiritOr replace, the modification that these are equal to or replacement are all included in the application's claim limited range.

Claims (9)

1. a method for siganus guttatus seed cultivation, comprises the following steps:
(1) pond rearing fry emerges: after fry hatching, cultivate about 25 days in outdoor ponds, postlarva body reaches 1.5-1.8cmTime, postlarva scale is grown completely, can draw in the net to emerge;
(2) transport of fry: by the long body transport of the postlarva shading for 1.5-1.8cm, traffic density is 20000-30000 tail/m3,In container, place gas stone;
(3) preparation of standard crude pool: adopt indoor half buried cement pit as the thick pond of cultivating of mark, cultivate after sterilizing in pond and inject through husky mistakeSeawater after filter, height of water level is 1m, salinity 27 ‰~32 ‰, dissolved oxygen keeps > 4mg/L, and cultivate pond and keep available light,And according to 3 tails/m2Density is thrown in Penaeus Vannmei;
(4) fry workshop mark is thick cultivates: first to fry disinfection, after fry is stable, the artificial cooperation of throwing something and feeding completely raisesMaterial, repeatedly throws something and feeds on a small quantity, and day feeding volume is controlled at the 6-8% of fry body weight; Every day, quantity of exchanged water was 200%, within every 5 days, used fishSeedling screens; Indoor mark by 25 days is slightly cultivated, and fry specification reaches 3.0-4.0cm, can descend pond or net cageCarry out adult fish culture.
2. the method for a kind of siganus guttatus seed cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: fish in described step (1)Seedling starts bait in 6 days before drawing in the net to emerge and transforms, and the eel powder of protein content >=45% of throwing something and feeding transforms, before drawing in the net to emerge the 6thIt biological feed feeding volume is 80% of fish body weight, reduces 20% biological feed of feeding volume the previous day later every day and throws something and feedsAmount, 6:00,12:00 and the 18:00 of every day are sprinkled into eel powder, throw something and feed at every turn and account for 33.3% of whole day feeding volume, to fryCarry out the domestication of bait.
3. the method for a kind of siganus guttatus seed cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described step is drawn in (1)The net time is 6:00 left and right, and mesh size is 20 orders.
4. the method for a kind of siganus guttatus seed cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described step is pressed in (2)Standard according to every square of 4 gas heads is installed aerating device, and dissolved oxygen keeps > 4mg/L; Adopt black puggaree to caskCarry out shading, make light intensity≤1000Lx.
5. the method for a kind of siganus guttatus seed cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: chamber in described step (3)Area 14~the 16m of interior half buried cement pit2, be 1.5~1.8m deeply; In described step (3), seawater water temperature is 28.5-30.5 DEG C.
6. the method for a kind of siganus guttatus seed cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described step (3) acceptance of the bidThe thick pond of cultivating adopts 40mg/L liquor potassic permanganate to soak 30min disinfection.
7. the method for a kind of siganus guttatus seed cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described step (3) is Central-SouthPenaeus vannamei specification is that 6-10cm body is long.
8. the method for a kind of siganus guttatus seed cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: fish in described step (4)The sterilization of seedling adopts the 0.5ppm PVP-I of 1% available iodine, and addition is by adding 0.5ml in every cubic metre of water; DescribedFry is stable refers to that fry cluster, body colour are normal, and decorative pattern is bright-coloured.
9. the method for a kind of siganus guttatus seed cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: fish in described step (4)The mark crude density of seedling is that 2cm is 2500 tails/m below3, 2-2.5cm is 2000 tails/m3, 2.5-3cm is 1500 tails/m3、3-3.5cm is 1000 tails/m3; Thick feed Feeding time every day of cultivating fry of mark be 6:00,9:00,12:00,13:00 and18:00, throws something and feeds at every turn and accounts for 20% of whole day feeding volume.
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