CN104318836A - Computer-controlled power factor compensation demonstration and experiment device and experiment method - Google Patents

Computer-controlled power factor compensation demonstration and experiment device and experiment method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104318836A
CN104318836A CN201410611729.2A CN201410611729A CN104318836A CN 104318836 A CN104318836 A CN 104318836A CN 201410611729 A CN201410611729 A CN 201410611729A CN 104318836 A CN104318836 A CN 104318836A
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China
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power
power factor
circuit
experiment
factor compensation
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CN201410611729.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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顾子明
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江苏工程职业技术学院
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Publication of CN104318836A publication Critical patent/CN104318836A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09BEDUCATIONAL OR DEMONSTRATION APPLIANCES; APPLIANCES FOR TEACHING, OR COMMUNICATING WITH, THE BLIND, DEAF OR MUTE; MODELS; PLANETARIA; GLOBES; MAPS; DIAGRAMS
    • G09B23/00Models for scientific, medical, or mathematical purposes, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes
    • G09B23/06Models for scientific, medical, or mathematical purposes, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes for physics
    • G09B23/18Models for scientific, medical, or mathematical purposes, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes for physics for electricity or magnetism
    • G09B23/183Models for scientific, medical, or mathematical purposes, e.g. full-sized devices for demonstration purposes for physics for electricity or magnetism for circuits

Abstract

The invention discloses a computer-controlled power factor compensation demonstration and experiment device and experiment method. The experiment device comprises an automatic power compensation controller, a power port of the automatic power compensation controller is electrically connected with the mains supply through an air switch, a spiral fuse and a voltage meter, a current port of the automatic power compensation controller is connected with an input current meter which is connected with a capacitive current meter and a reactive current meter, the capacitive current meter and the reactive current meter are connected in parallel, the capacitive current meter is connected with a compensation capacitor circuit through an adjustable resistor, and the compensation capacitor circuit is a multi-stage shunt compensating circuit formed by connecting a resistor, a capacitor and a relay; the reactive current meter is connected with a load circuit through an adjustable resistor, and the load circuit is a multi-stage shunt load circuit formed by connecting a button switch and an inductor in series; the relay is connected with the automatic power compensation controller. The computer-controlled power factor compensation demonstration and experiment device is reasonable in design and compact in structure, integrates teaching and experiments, and enables students to master teaching contents more easily.

Description

A kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration and experimental provision and experimental technique

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of experiment device for teaching, be specifically related to the demonstration of a kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation and experimental provision and experimental technique.

Background technology

The important substance basis that electric power energy is development social production and uplifts the people's living standard, occupy an important position in national economy, in view of the feature of electrical production, the height of user power utilization power factor, to sending out, making full use of for, consumer, saves energy and improve quality of voltage and have important impact.Power-supply unit is mainly based on fairing, it belongs to non-sinusoidal power receiving equipment, even if the voltage of electric power system is practical sinusoidal wave, the electric current that fairing is taken from electric power system is also nonsinusoidal waveform and has to distort significantly, and occurs harmonic component.This component can not increase active power applied power, and fairing is furnished with saturable reactor, and belong to inductive load, its natural power factor is not high.And other many consumers are mostly the inductive loads such as asynchronous motor, its main transformer natural power factor is low, can not give full play to exerting oneself of existing equipment, and idle component makes idle work on the line between power receiving equipment and genset, cause energy dissipation, enterprise's grid electricity fee cost increases.

In sinusoidal ac circuit, the active-power P of load consumption is relevant with powerfactorcosφ, and cos φ depends on character and the parameter of load.Only when load is pure resistive loads (as incandescent lamp), cos φ=1, the energy of power supply supply load could all utilize.When a large amount of use inductive load, the power factor of whole supply line is always less than 1, and the energy of power supply supply all do not utilized, this is because there is exchange energy in circuit, occurred reactive power Q=UIsin φ, lower power factor will cause following problem:

1, the capacity of generating set can not be fully utilized

Because power-supply device is if the capacity of generator or transformer etc. is all according to rated voltage U and rated current I design, its capacity S=UI, represents the peak power allowing to send or pass through.And active-power P=UIcos φ=Scos φ, obviously, if resistive load, cos φ=1, then generator or transformer can send or transmission active-power P=UIcos φ=UI=S, the capacity of power-supply device is fully utilized.If inductive load, cos φ <1, the then active-power P=UIcos φ <S of generator or transformer output.When S is certain, power factor is lower, and the P that generator sends is just less, and reactive power Q is just larger, then the energy of generator can not make full use of.Such as, the transformer of S=1000KVA, when cos φ=1, just can send the active power of 1000KW, and when load cos φ=0.6, the active power of 600KW can only be had for load consumption, and have the reactive power of 800Kvar to carry out the mutual conversion of energy to ability.

2, the loss of circuit is increased

When voltage U and output power P mono-timing of generator, by known power factor is lower, and line current I is larger, and the power attenuation of transmission line of electricity is larger.So the raising of power factor, can make generating set be fully used, electric energy also can be made to be saved in a large number simultaneously.

Improve power factor and mainly contain two kinds of methods:

1. improve natural power factor, the capacity of choose reasonable electrical equipment also reduces the reactive power of taking, and is the basic measures improving power factor, can improves natural power factor like this.Because the inductive load such as motor, transformer takes the maximum consumer of reactive power, the capacity selected is large, and power factor and plant efficiency all can be very low, and this is uneconomic.

2. improve power factor, adopt artificial compensation's method, adopt the equipment (shnt capacitor) of supply reactive power, artificial compensation is carried out to the reactive power needed for consumer, to improve power factor.

The improvement of power factor is the problem comparatively paid close attention in business electrical, is also the content of more difficult grasp in Students ' Learning, and in a word, the necessity understanding auto power-factor compensating has three:

1, the needs of teaching and experiment:

In Circuit theory, circuit power factor problem relates to more, the comparatively abstract content of knowledge, improve power factor is again method comparatively practical in actual power system simultaneously, this problem to be made clear, allow student understand, only have and classroom instruction is combined with experimental teaching, laboratory should be had to intersect and carry out, just can obtain ideal teaching efficiency, and allow student really grasp this knowledge and to use this technology.Carried out the teaching of the concepts such as applied power, active power, reactive power and complex power in classroom instruction after, by power factor problem, above many power concepts are organically combined, select the problem of improvement power factor most realistic in electric power system, multiple thinking is adopted to carry out analytical calculation, student is made to understand power factor problem all sidedly, so the device developing the improvement power factor of a set of simulation factory and enterprise actual motion is must needing of teaching and experiment.

2, the needs of training student practical operation technical ability:

At present, in factory and enterprise, the device improving power factor has several, but grasping the principle of work of its a kind of device, working method, operational applications etc. just can be handy in factory's practical operation, also for employment adds a kind of technical ability, especially to the student of electricity specialty, or the needs of employment.

3, the actual needs of enterprise:

At present, the power factor of some business electrical is seriously on the low side, and its generating set selected, converting equipment, consumer are all almost inductive load, all take the higher equipment of reactive power, select capacity all bigger than normal, therefore must adopt artificial compensation's method, adopt the equipment (shnt capacitor) of supply reactive power, in order to improve power factor.The needs of enterprise also just make student must grasp this technology.

Summary of the invention

Goal of the invention: the object of the invention is to solve deficiency of the prior art, provides a kind of reasonable in design, is demonstrated and experimental provision and experimental technique by the conputer controlled power factor compensation that teaching and experiment combine.

Technical scheme: a kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration of the present invention and experimental provision, comprise automated power compensating controller, the power port of described automated power compensating controller passes through air switch, fuse cutout and voltage table are electrically connected with civil power, the electric current port of described automated power compensating controller is connected with input current table, described input current list catenation has capacity current table parallel with one another and inductance current table, described capacity current table is connected with building-out capacitor circuit by adjustable resistance, described building-out capacitor circuit is by resistance, the plural parallel stage compensating circuit that electric capacity and relay are connected to form, described inductance current table is connected with load circuit by adjustable resistance, and described load circuit is the plural parallel stage load circuit formed after being connected by pushbutton switch and inductance, described relay is connected with automated power compensating controller simultaneously.

As optimization, described automated power compensating controller adopts JKG2C type reactive power self-compensating controlling device.

As optimization, described automated power compensating controller is made up of CPU (central processing unit), storer, input interface circuit, output interface circuit, power supply, keyboard switch and knob.

As optimization, described relay adopts JZ7-44 type auxiliary reclay.

As optimization, described electric capacity adopts CZJ type fan electric capacity, and the size of this electric capacity is 2uf, and rated voltage is 630V.

As optimization, described inductance adopts rated power to be the inductance type ballast of 20W.

As optimization, the size of described resistance is 1K Ω.

The present invention also discloses the demonstration of a kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation and the test method of experimental provision, comprise the steps:

(1) each pushbutton switch in load circuit is disconnected, the keyboard switch on automated power compensating controller is allocated to " automatically " position, then the air switch that closes observes each meter reading and instruction situation;

(2) adjustable resistance be connected with load circuit is threaded to suitable intermediate value correct position, and drops into each pushbutton switch successively, all the other same steps (1);

(3) keyboard switch is allocated to " manually " position and " throwing " position, all the other same steps (2);

(4) keyboard switch is allocated to " manually " position and " cutting " position, all the other same steps (2);

(5) keyboard switch is allocated to " test " position, viewing electric capacity drops into the bright of pilot lamp and puts out situation.

Beneficial effect: reasonable in design of the present invention, compact conformation, combines teaching and experiment, thus makes student more easily grasp the content of courses.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is experimental provision internal circuit principle assumption diagram of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the guidance panel schematic diagram of experimental provision of the present invention.

Fig. 3 is the theory diagram of automated power compensating controller of the present invention.

Fig. 4 is the course of work schematic diagram of automated power compensating controller of the present invention.

Fig. 5 is the equivalent electrical circuit of daylight lamp experimental circuit.

Fig. 6 is that feasibility analysis circuit diagram is selected in load.

Fig. 7 is the determination experiment circuit diagram of inductance value and resistance value in fluorescent lamp ballast.

Fig. 8 is building-out capacitor experimental circuit.

Embodiment

For a better understanding of the present invention, below technical scheme of the present invention is further elaborated.

A kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration and experimental provision as depicted in figs. 1 and 2, comprise automated power compensating controller, power port (the US1 of described automated power compensating controller, US2) by air switch K1, fuse cutout RU and voltage table V is electrically connected with civil power, electric current port (the IS1 of described automated power compensating controller, IS2) input current Table A 1 is connected with, described input current Table A 1 is connected with capacity current Table A 2 parallel with one another and inductance current Table A 3, described capacity current Table A 2 is connected with building-out capacitor circuit by adjustable resistance W1, described building-out capacitor circuit is by resistance (R1-R10), the plural parallel stage compensating circuit that electric capacity (C1-C10) and relay (KM1-KM10) are connected to form, described inductance current Table A 3 is connected with load circuit by adjustable resistance W2, and described load circuit is the plural parallel stage load circuit formed after being connected by pushbutton switch (K2-K5) and inductance (T1-T4), described relay (KM1-KM10) is connected with automated power compensating controller simultaneously.

Experimental provision of the present invention mainly comprises automated power compensating controller, load circuit and building-out capacitor circuit, is described further below to the selection of above-mentioned critical piece and feasibility:

(1) selection of automated power compensating controller

The controller core element of automatic power compensator of the present invention is made up of single-chip microcomputer, preferably adopts JKG2C type reactive power self-compensating controlling device.Power factor compensation demonstration screen chief component in automated power compensating controller has CPU (central processing unit), storage unit, input interface circuit, composition such as part such as output interface circuit (A/D, D/A) circuit, power supply etc.Its controlling functions is completed according to the instruction sequences execution program be stored in its storer that keyboard switch etc. sends.As shown in Figure 3, the course of work as shown in Figure 4 for its specific works theory diagram.

The control of reactive power compensating is the switching according to power factor height situation of change (the automatically controlling) building-out capacitor arranged.China's electric power system is the three-phase alternating current of 50HZ, as long as the zero-crossing timing therefore recording load phase voltage and phase current is poor, can try to achieve the value of power factor angle, i.e. φ=2 π (t/T)

In formula: φ---power factor angle value, t---electric current and voltage zero-crossing timing is poor,

T---50HZ ac period

Phase sample is that Phase Processing hardware circuit has been combined with software, and Phase Processing circuit function produces the square-wave signal K with the proportional relation of phase angle of voltage, electric current according to the phase system of voltage and electric current.Concrete generation way is: when voltage signal is by positive zero passage, square-wave signal becomes high level from low level: when current signal is by positive zero passage, square-wave signal becomes low level from high level.

The width of fixed time interval △ t to the positive level of square-wave signal K utilizing microprocessor to produce counts, and record count value n, so phase differential X is X=2 π n/N, N=T/ △ t. in formula

From circuit theory, when load is inductive load, current lagging voltage, delayed the more X is larger, and X perseverance is less than pi/2; When load is capacitive load, electric current leading voltage, X perseverance is greater than 3 pi/2s.X not only can reflect the size of power-factor angle as can be seen here, but also can judge that idle load is capacitive or perception, can judge to owe to mend or cross to mend.Also the value of switching capacitance can be determined according to the size at phasing degree.It is more than control principle summary.

Two compare, additional many hardware and softwares and the interference protection measure that are made up of single-chip microcomputer, the power factor compensating controller making it form has that work is more stable, dependable performance, the advantage that highly sensitive, antijamming capability strong, volume is less, consumed power is low, and working method adopts switching cycle to control, can ensure that the number of operations of contactor, capacitor is identical, extend the serviceable life of contactor, capacitor, so preferred monolithic processor controlled power factor compensation controller.

The operation of this automated power compensating controller and technical performance index:

1. brief introduction: the features such as the machine has that volume is little, lightweight, perfect in shape and function, anti-interference ability are strong, stable and reliable operation, compensation are accurate.

2. functional characteristics introduction:

1) storage chip has power failure memory function.Namely, after this compensator power cut-off, parameter and program automatic Memory, never lose; Again during power transmission, this compensator is still by parameter and the program operation control of original subscriber's sets itself;

2) LED numerical monitor power factor of electric network, indication range: delayed (0.00 ~ 0.99), advanced (0.00 ~ 0.99).

3) by panel button setting cos Φ value, delay adjustments value, the setting of overvoltage setting value.Simple and clear man-machine conversation, makes operation very convenient.

4) when line voltage exceedes the machine overvoltage setting value, digital cos Φ automatically changes and is shown as the current magnitude of voltage of electrical network, automatically excises the capacitance dropped into step by step fast simultaneously.

5) differentiate sampling current polarity (namely automatically identifying polarity), and automatically switch.Give to install, debug and use and bring great convenience.

6), time when sampled signal line open circuit or without input sampling current signal, native digital cos Φ shows 0.CC automatically.

7) output action program is the first disjunction of first connecting, the periodic duty mode first connected of first disjunction.

8) have manual/auto switching, when putting automatic, the machine is from motion tracking power factor of electric network and reactive current, and control capacitor automatically drops into or excises, when putting manual, the machine can realize hand throw or hand cut.

9) advanced, delayed, overvoltage, the instruction of undercurrent LED light is had.

10) antijamming capability is strong, can resist the disturbing pulse of the amplitude 2000V directly inputted from electrical network.

3. service condition

1) ambient temperature is no more than+40 DEG C, and in 24 hours, medial temperature is no more than+35 DEG C, and minimum environment temperature is not less than-10 DEG C.

2) relative air humidity is not more than 85% (25 DEG C time).

3) surrounding environment, exists without inflammable and explosive medium, is as good as electric dust and corrosive gas existence.

4) voltage ripple of power network scope is not more than the machine rated voltage ± 10%.

4. main specifications and technical parameter:

1) JKG2C exports and counts (4 ~ 20), can control Capacitor banks number (4 ~ 10) road, periodic duty mode.

2) compensator setting valve and adjustable extent:

Power-factor cos Φ value 0.97:0.7 ~ 0.98 continuously knob regulates setting

The continuous knob of overvoltage protection value 430V:400 ~ 440V regulates setting

The continuous knob of every road switching time delay 5S:1 ~ 10S regulates setting

3) basic parameter:

Rated operational voltage: 220VAC ± 10%, 50HZ

Current sampling: exchange 0 ~ 5A

Output contact capacity: alternating current 220V × 5A or 380V × 3A

Dielectric strength: exchange 3000V

Duty: continuous duty

Weight: about 1.0 kilograms

(2) selection of controlled device (load) and feasibility analysis

Daylight lamp (containing ballast resistor) circuit is exactly a typical RL series circuit, and it is in series by ballast resistor and fluorescent tube.The electric current of ballast resistor is identical with the electric current (now in starter, electric capacity does not connect) flowing through fluorescent tube, Fig. 5 is equivalent circuit diagram, ballast resistor is an actual inductance, is equivalent to the series connection of a resistance R ' and ideal inductance L (pure inductance), and fluorescent tube is a resistive load R.Under voltage U stable case, available multimeter records respectively the effective value at place.

Namely the available cosine law obtains the power factor of daylight lamp.Data U=220V below for recording in the experiment of 220V, 8W daylight lamp, U1=65V, U2=207V, then the power factor of this daylight lamp is:

In experiment, the data that we measure with multimeter, after also can be observed the suitable capacitor C of RL series circuit parallel connection one, can significantly improve power factor.Selection result: in Fig. 5, rectifier is inductive load and meets above-mentioned requirements, but the rated current that the rectifier of the daylight lamp of 8W adds fluorescent tube is that about 0.12A is less than normal, even if the electric current not using fluorescent tube to pass through now also can not increase a lot, thus decision select the rectifier of 20W be we by control object (inductive load).

Because it coordinates with 20W fluorescent tube, U n=250V, I n=0.37A, Cos φ=0.35, Sin φ=0.94, estimation:

R L + R = P I N 2 = U N I N cos &phi; I N 2 = 220 &times; 0.35 0.37 = 208 &Omega; ,

X L = &omega;L = Q I N 2 = U N I N sin &phi; I N 2 = 220 &times; 0.94 0.37 = 559 &Omega; , Consumed power on R is about 20W: result of calculation: L=559/314=1.78H, R l=208-146=62 Ω.

If entirely dropped into as load by 4, ballast resistor in the demonstration screen of automated power compensating controller, make W2=0 Ω, wiring as shown in Figure 6.

The calculated results should be: U n=220V is superimposed upon X l Σ=X l/ 4 R l Σ=R l/ 4 two ends,

X =X L/4=140Ω?R =R L/4=16Ω

Then I N = U N R L&Sigma; 2 + V L&Sigma; 2 = 220 140 2 + 16 2 = 1.7 A

cos &phi; = R L&Sigma; R L&Sigma; 2 + X L&Sigma; 2 = 16 140 2 + 16 2 = 0.11

Actual presentation screen reading is: I n=1.7A COS φ=0.11 is identical with result of calculation.

(3) selection of building-out capacitor and feasibility analysis

The withstand voltage of capacitor should be 2 ~ 3 times of supply voltage, and capacitor two ends will add discharge loop, will select discharge resistance value while selecting electric capacity.Initial option result: select the rated voltage of single electric capacity to be 380V, electric capacity is 2uf, needs such electric capacity 10 altogether, point 10 tunnels compensate, and primary election discharge resistance value is 1K Ω.

If all load is 4 rectifiers, as shown in Figure 6.Its Pmin=UIcos φ

Wherein: I N = U N R L&Sigma; 2 + V L&Sigma; 2 = 220 140 2 + 16 2 = 1.7 A

cos &phi; = R L&Sigma; R L&Sigma; 2 + X L&Sigma; 2 = 16 140 2 + 16 2 = 0.11

Pmin=220*1.7*0.11=40W, now will by COS φ 1=0.11 brings up to COS φ 2=0.98 substitutes into formula: C = P min ( tg&phi; 1 - tg&phi; 2 ) &omega; U 2 = 23 &mu;F .

If load is whole ballast resistor+W2=50 Ω, I=1.4A, COS φ=0.43, Pmax=220*1.4*0.43=132W now will by COS φ 1=0.43 brings up to COS φ 2=0.98 substitutes into formula:

Comprehensively above-mentioned two building-out capacitor amounts are between 17 ~ 23 μ f, if get Co=2 μ f, then can throw building-out capacitor way is between 8 ~ 12 tunnels, therefore gets intermediate value 10 road device input control as compensation.

So far, automated power compensating controller, load circuit and building-out capacitor circuit are determined all, therefore form the circuit theory diagrams of experimental provision of the present invention as shown in Figure 1.Carry out wiring layout according to the schematic diagram of Fig. 1, form experimental provision of the present invention, its panel is arranged as shown in Figure 2.

1. this experimental provision specifically primarily of four parts composition:

(1) screen is compensated: its input quantity is voltage, the magnitude of current, and its output quantity is cos Φ value and shows.

(2) load: i.e. controlled device, is made up of four inductance type ballasts, and respectively by the K switch on panel 2~ K 5control it whether to access, its main line seals in an adjustable resistance W2, work effects such as regulating P, I.

(3) building-out capacitor: the capacitor composition going out capacitance primarily of 10 as calculated, and respectively by KM 1~ KM 10control its access whether to compensate, also on its main line, seal in an adjustable resistance W1, play the regulating actions such as current limliting.

(4) measure and instruction: measured and indicative input supply voltage value by a voltage table.Input current, load inductance branch current, capacitor loop electric current is measured respectively, for experiment below obtains the use of related data by three reometers.

2. practical operation step:

(1) K is disconnected 2~ K 5, compensation screen upper keyboard switch is allocated to " automatically " position, then the K that closes 1observe each meter reading and instruction situation.

(2) W2 is threaded to suitable intermediate value correct position, drops into K successively 2~ K 5, all the other are with (1).

(3) keyboard switch is allocated to " manually " position and " throwing " position, all the other are with (2).

(4) keyboard switch is allocated to " manually " position and " cutting " position, all the other are with (2).

Keyboard switch is allocated to " test " position, viewing electric capacity drops into the bright of pilot lamp and puts out situation.

In conjunction with experimental principle and the experimental procedure of above-mentioned experimental provision, this experimental provision can carry out following Experiment of Electrical Circuits:

(1) mensuration of inductance value and resistance value in fluorescent lamp ballast

One, experiment purpose:

1, application and the working condition of demonstration screen is understood further.

2, each computing formula of method of R, L value in electric capacity measured by association's power factor meter and volometer.

3, the effect of fluorescent lamp ballast and the implication of name plate rating is familiar with further.

4, the error of result and result of calculation is compared and measured.

Two, instrument and equipment:

1, power factor compensation demonstration screen 1

2,1, multimeter

Three, experimental principle:

Experimental circuit as shown in Figure 7.

1, according to electrotechnics principle, being calculated as follows of L and R is asked for:

Be provided with several switch to close (n=1 ~ 4), main line electric current is I, and the electric current of every ballast resistor is I l.

Voltage table reading is U, and the reading of reometer A1, A3 is I, and the displayed value of power factor is cos Φ.

I=nI l=I1=I=I3 (series connection in circuit)

P=UIcosΦ

Q = UI sin &phi; = UI 1 - ( cos &phi; ) 2

X L&Sigma; = X L n = Q I 2 = 2 &pi;fL n = UI 1 - ( cos &phi; ) 2 I 2 = U 1 - ( cos &phi; ) 2 I

R &Sigma; = R n = P I 2 = UI cos &phi; I 2 = UI cos &phi; I

L = nU 1 - ( cos &phi; ) 2 2 &pi;fI , R = nU cos &phi; I

Four, experiment content and step:

1, by shown in Fig. 7, first K2 ~ K5 is disconnected, by W2=0, more full power source K switch 1.

2, by power factor compensation shield keyboard switch be allocated to " manually " and "." position.

3, close a switch K2, reads the numerical value of cos Φ, power meter, reometer A1, reometer A3, insert in following table.

4, close a switch K3 all the other with 3.

5, close a switch K4 all the other with 3.

6, close a switch K5 all the other with 3.

According to the reading of four kinds of situations, then ask for according to L, R the value that expression formula obtains L and R, then ask for its mean value, be the measured value of L and R of ballast resistor.

(2) building-out capacitor experiment

One, experiment purpose:

1, the method for carrying out parameter measurement with demonstration screen is familiar with further.

2, association's power factor meter and volometer are measured and the value of the electric capacity capacitive reactance XC asked in circuit and electric capacity C.

3, the error between result and electric capacity nominal value is compared and measured.

Two, instrument and equipment:

1, power factor compensation demonstration screen 1

2,1, multimeter

Three, experimental principle:

1, experimental circuit as shown in Figure 8

2, according to electrotechnics principle, being calculated as follows of XC and C is asked for:

Be provided with n relay K M n to close (n=1 ~ 10), W1=0 Ω.

Voltage table reading is U, and the reading of reometer A1, A2 is I1, I2, and the displayed value of power factor is cos Φ=0.

Then there is I1=I2=I (reometer A1, A2 series connection in circuit)

(1) X C&Sigma; = X C n = U I &DoubleRightArrow; X C = nU I = 1 2 &pi;fc ,

1 2 &pi;fnU X C = nU I

(2)Q Σ=UI?sin?Φ=UI,

Q &Sigma; = nQ C = n &CenterDot; U 2 X C = nU 2 1 2 &pi;fc = UI ,

Equally C = I 2 &pi;fnU , X C = nU I

Four, experiment content and step:

1, by power factor compensation shield keyboard switch be allocated to " manually " and "." position.

2, by shown in Fig. 8, first K2 ~ K5 is disconnected, by W1=0, then power turn-on K switch 1.

3, all normal after, keyboard switch is allocated to " throwing " position, make after in No. three capacitor C throwings, keyboard switch to be allocated to "." position, read the numerical value of cos Φ, U, A1, A2, insert in (showing 3-2) in table.

4, keyboard switch is allocated to " throwing " position again, make after in the capacitor C throwing of common input No. six, keyboard switch to be allocated to "." position, all the other are with 3.

5, keyboard switch is allocated to " throwing " position again, make after in the capacitor C throwing of common input No. eight, keyboard switch to be allocated to "." position, all the other are with 3.

6, keyboard switch is allocated to " throwing " position again, make after in the capacitor C throwing of common input No. ten, keyboard switch to be allocated to "." position, all the other are with 3.

7, according to measurement result, C and X is calculated cnumerical value, then obtain mean value, be measurement result.

(3) power factor of RL series circuit is measured with multimeter

Daylight lamp (containing ballast resistor) circuit is exactly a typical RL series circuit, and it is in series by ballast resistor and fluorescent tube.The electric current of ballast resistor is identical with the electric current (now in starter, electric capacity does not connect) flowing through fluorescent tube.Fig. 5 is equivalent circuit diagram, and ballast resistor is an actual inductance, and be equivalent to connecting of R ' and L, fluorescent tube is that a resistive load W2 simulates, and its value is R.Under voltage U stable case, available multimeter records the voltage at u, u1, u2 place in Fig. 3 .10 respectively, and U is the effective value of u, and U1 is the effective value of voltage on W2, and U2 is the effective value of voltage u2 on ballast resistor.The COS φ value of demonstration screen can be tried to achieve according to above-mentioned formula.

1, to coordinate multimeter to calculate the power factor value of RL series circuit with demonstration screen as follows in this experiment:

Daylight lamp (containing ballast resistor) circuit is exactly a typical RL series circuit, and it is in series by ballast resistor and fluorescent tube.The electric current of ballast resistor is identical with the electric current (now in starter, electric capacity does not connect) flowing through fluorescent tube.Be daylight lamp experimental provision wiring diagram in Fig. 1 .6, Fig. 5 is equivalent circuit diagram, and ballast resistor is an actual inductance, and be equivalent to connecting of R ' and L, fluorescent tube is that a resistive load W2 simulates, and its value is R.Under voltage U stable case, available multimeter records the voltage at u, u1, u2 place in Fig. 3 .10 respectively, and U is the effective value of u, and U1 is the effective value of voltage on W2, and U2 is the effective value of voltage u2 on ballast resistor.The COS φ value of demonstration screen can be tried to achieve according to above-mentioned formula.

Two, experimental procedure:

1, the keyboard switch that power factor compensation shields is allocated to " manually " and " " position.

2, by shown in Fig. 3 .10, W2 is adjusted to certain position middle, the K1 that closes a switch is energized to RL series circuit.

3, close a switch K2, measures the alternating voltage effective value at u, u1, u2 place with multimeter, and the COS φ value on readout power factor compensation screen, insert in the lump in table 3.3.

4, close a switch K3, measures the alternating voltage effective value at u, u1, u2 place with multimeter, and the COS φ value on readout power factor compensation screen, insert in the lump in table 3.3.

5, close a switch K4, measures the alternating voltage effective value at u, u1, u2 place with multimeter, and the COS φ value on readout power factor compensation screen, insert in the lump in table 3.3.

6, close a switch K5, measures the alternating voltage effective value at u, u1, u2 place with multimeter, and the COS φ value on readout power factor compensation screen, insert in the lump in table 3.3.

7, according to formula, calculate the COS φ value in above-mentioned 2 へ 6 kinds of situations respectively and compare with compensation screen display indicating value.

(4) factory's power factor experiment is improved with power factor compensation screen

One, experiment purpose:

1, the effect in the demonstration each ingredient of screen and real work thereof is familiar with further.

2, method, the principle of factory's auto power-factor compensating is understood.

Two, instrument and equipment:

1, power factor compensation demonstration screen 1

2,1, multimeter

Three, experimental principle:

1, experimental circuit is as shown in fundamental diagram.

2, principle of work: when lagging reactive power in electrical network makes actual cos Φ lower than setting valve higher than setting valve, single-chip microcomputer is by calculating the building-out capacitor amount of needs, and make it put in electrical network, till making cos Φ value reach the scope of setting valve permission.In like manner, when in electrical network, lagging reactive power decreases, when making the electric capacity dropped into be in over-compensation, single-chip microcomputer will send steering order, makes capacitor order excision from electrical network, until cos Φ value reaches the scope that setting valve allows by exit relay.

Four, experiment content and step:

1, first the K switch 1 ~ K5 on power factor compensation demonstration screen is disconnected, then keyboard switch is allocated to " automatically " position.(being position during normal work in the factory).

2, adjust switching time delay knob, switching knob, superpotential knob, set the overvoltage value of switching delay time and cos Φ value and permission.

3, close any two switches of K2 ~ K5, after making the load of input two-way, then the K1 that closes, and W1 is in centre position, observes demonstration screen working condition and compensates screen instruction situation.

4, drop into a road load again, all the other are with 3.

5, drop into a road load again, all the other are with 3.

6, regulate the value of W2, all the other are with 3.

7, disconnect a road load, all the other are with 3.

8, disconnect a road load again, all the other are with 3.

Claims (8)

1. a conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration and experimental provision, comprise automated power compensating controller, it is characterized in that: the power port of described automated power compensating controller passes through air switch, fuse cutout and voltage table are electrically connected with civil power, the electric current port of described automated power compensating controller is connected with input current table, described input current list catenation has capacity current table parallel with one another and inductance current table, described capacity current table is connected with building-out capacitor circuit by adjustable resistance, described building-out capacitor circuit is by resistance, the plural parallel stage compensating circuit that electric capacity and relay are connected to form, described inductance current table is connected with load circuit by adjustable resistance, and described load circuit is the plural parallel stage load circuit formed after being connected by pushbutton switch and inductance, described relay is connected with automated power compensating controller simultaneously.
2. a kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration according to claim 1 and experimental provision, is characterized in that: described automated power compensating controller adopts JKG2C type reactive power self-compensating controlling device.
3. a kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration according to claim 1 and 2 and experimental provision, is characterized in that: described automated power compensating controller is made up of CPU (central processing unit), storer, input interface circuit, output interface circuit, power supply, keyboard switch and knob.
4. a kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration according to claim 1 and experimental provision, is characterized in that: described relay adopts JZ7-44 type auxiliary reclay.
5. a kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration according to claim 1 and experimental provision, is characterized in that: described electric capacity adopts CZJ type fan electric capacity, and the size of this electric capacity is 2uf, and rated voltage is 630V.
6. a kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration according to claim 1 and experimental provision, is characterized in that: described inductance adopts rated power to be the inductance type ballast of 20W.
7. a kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration according to claim 1 and experimental provision, is characterized in that: the size of described resistance is 1K Ω.
8. a kind of conputer controlled power factor compensation demonstration according to claim 1-7 any one and the test method of experimental provision, is characterized in that: comprise the steps:
(1) each pushbutton switch in load circuit is disconnected, the keyboard switch on automated power compensating controller is allocated to " automatically " position, then the air switch that closes observes each meter reading and instruction situation;
(2) adjustable resistance be connected with load circuit is threaded to suitable intermediate value correct position, and drops into each pushbutton switch successively, all the other same steps (1);
(3) keyboard switch is allocated to " manually " position and " throwing " position, all the other same steps (2);
(4) keyboard switch is allocated to " manually " position and " cutting " position, all the other same steps (2);
(5) keyboard switch is allocated to " test " position, viewing electric capacity drops into the bright of pilot lamp and puts out situation.
CN201410611729.2A 2014-11-04 2014-11-04 Computer-controlled power factor compensation demonstration and experiment device and experiment method CN104318836A (en)

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