CN104303753B - A kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method - Google Patents

A kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method Download PDF

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CN104303753B
CN104303753B CN201410516880.8A CN201410516880A CN104303753B CN 104303753 B CN104303753 B CN 104303753B CN 201410516880 A CN201410516880 A CN 201410516880A CN 104303753 B CN104303753 B CN 104303753B
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chinese yam
hollow brick
soil
nutritive cube
hole
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CN104303753A (en
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范茂瑄
罗波
陈凌云
王世杰
李春泉
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范茂瑄
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • A01G9/029Receptacles for seedlings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, belong to the cultivation technique field of crops. It is barren for soil, many containing sandstone, plot is irregular, and is not easy to the long yam planting method in mechanization plantation and the plot of gathering, and comprises and ploughing and young growth area. The method comprises utilizes the nutritive cube of special drilling to carry out season seeding to Chinese yam bulbil, realizes early spring and transplants; On yam planting ground, raw soil layer excavates more than 900 millimeters U-shaped trenches; In U-shaped trench, lay PVC filter pipe and stack the formation of multilayer hollow brick by heap modular system and exceed 900mm hole; Then bury with reserved topsoil ridging the vertical hole top that above-mentioned Chinese yam seedling frame is formed to aforementioned hollow brick, and the recovery of Chinese yam young plant and the maintaining method of hole. The inventive method had both ensured its sufficient nutrition breathing, had also greatly avoided disease and pest and profile variation, and uniformity and the quality of product improve greatly.

Description

A kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method
Technical field
The invention belongs to the cultivation technique field of Chinese yam, be specifically related to a kind of long yam planting method that is applicable to barren soil.
Background technology
Chinese yam, is often referred to Chang Mount medicine, is China and the traditional stem tuber vegetables of many countries. Long yam planting is the traditional sources of finance of many hill farmers, but industrialization and urbanization that China is advancing rapidly,, with the structure of labour force and the attitude to labour that will thoroughly change mountainous rural area, the planting type that grows wild that can greatly reduce labour intensity is just generally adopted.
Chang Mount medicine, formal name used at school Dioscoreapolystachya, has another name called Chinese yam rhizome, Chinese yam, Chinese yam, field potato, Buddhist palm potato etc., is a main category for Chinese yam, plant classification is: plant kingdom, Angiospermae, Monocotyledonae, Dioscoreales, Dioscoreaceae, Dioscorea (Dioscorea, comprises Chinese yam, fragrant taro etc., and part kind is commonly called as Yam).
According to morphological feature, Chinese yam idioplasm resource is divided into 4 large kinds by gardening: Chang Mount medicine (Dioscoreapolystachya), Dioscarea persimilis Prain et Burkill. (Dioscoreapersimilis), mountain potato (Dioscoreafordii) and ginseng potato (Dioscoreaalata). This Chinese yam of 4 types differs greatly in leaf portion and underground stem tuber proterties, is easy to distinguish.
Chang Mount medicine is also commonly called as Chinese yam, Chinese yam system (Dioscoreaopposita), and perennial winding liana, underground is cylindrical meat stem tuber, not etc., not etc., quality 300-3000g is not etc. for long 50-150cm for common diameter 2-10cm. Representational as Shanxipingyao's Chang Mount medicine, Jiaozhuo, Henan iron rod yam, Jiaxiang, Shandong fine, soft fur Chang Mount medicine, Yunnan sieve time Chinese yam etc. Vegetables for the column Chang Mount medicine of emphasis pin of the present invention taking Shanxipingyao's Chang Mount medicine, Jiaxiang, Shandong fine, soft fur Chang Mount medicine, Yunnan sieve time Chinese yam etc. as representative.
Chang Mount medicine is distributed widely in China northeast, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, the ground such as (height above sea level 150-850 rice), Jiangsu, Zhejiang (height above sea level 450-1000 rice), Jiangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Hubei, Hunan, In Northern Guangxi, Guizhou, Eastern Yunnan the north (height above sea level 1500-2500 rice), Sichuan (height above sea level 500-700 rice), In Eastern Gansu (height above sea level 950-1100 rice), Southern Shaanxi (height above sea level 350-1500 rice) on the south Huaihe River, Anhui. Also there are distribution in Korea, Japan.
Chang Mount medicine stem tuber is medicine-food two-purpose food materials, important stem tuber vegetables, also be the particularly local specialities in mountain area of multiple Far-away Backward Areas, more famous have Erlongshan Mountains, Yaan, a Sichuan Chinese yam, From Anshun of Guizhou Chinese yam, Yunnan sieve time Chinese yam, Yaoan, Yunnan Chinese yam, Feng County, Jiangsu Chinese yam, Guannan, Jiangsu Chinese yam rhizome, Ruichang, Jiangxi Chinese yam, Gaoyang, Gaoyang, Hebei fiber crops Chinese yam, the white Chinese yam in Anping, Hebei, Lixian County, Hebei fiber crops Chinese yam, Jiaozhuo, Henan RHIIZOMA DIOSCOREAE from Henan of China, Henan temperature line iron rod yam, Xiangyang, Hubei Chinese yam, Lichuan County, Hubei Chinese yam, state, Weihe River Basin, shaanxi Province Nanhua Chinese yam, Pishan Chinese yam and Pingliang, Gansu Chinese yam etc.
Chinese yam contains the mineral elements such as abundant starch, vitamin and phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, potassium, is all-ages nutriment. Meanwhile, Chinese yam also has the function such as invigorating the spleen, kidney tonifying, benefit essence, and, poor appetite weakness of the spleen and the stomach to animal and human, diabetes, constipation etc. have certain curative effect.
Chinese yam, also also dish of grain, is the traditional important foodstuffs source of China, concerns state food safety. From 2009, the national Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance started to promote " Chinese yam rhizome efficiency cultivation technology for high research and demonstration " plan, and " northing is planted in south, and north is planted and moved westwards " strategy is wherein by the industry certainly, and industrialization process enters fast traffic lane.
Chang Mount medicine is to belong to high temperature short-day plant, and preference temperature is 20-30 DEG C, does not bloom below for 15 DEG C, and 10 DEG C of stem tubers can rudiment. Chang Mount medicine happiness light, cold resistance is poor, should in good, the loose fertile soil of draining, grow. The tradition of Chang Mount medicine is planted large more options sandy loam and is ploughed.
Traditional long yam planting is to utilize Chinese yam young plant to do seedling. Chinese yam young plant comprises the young plant that be bred as the first year by bulbil, or cuts out lower halter young plant when the edible stem tuber of results Chinese yam, or silently young plant from the sanction of Chinese yam stem tuber top, all belongs to vegetative propagation.
The general soil depth of selecting of the edible stem tuber plantation of traditional Chang Mount medicine exceedes the sandy loam of 1 meter, taking the traditional planting technology that digs zanjon as main. High except dropping into threshold, outside cost height, such soil is also extremely rare, and not only cost is fast rise trend, realize scale plantation, and most areas are almost optional without ground. On the other hand, non-staple food grain producing region, particularly backward area, stay-at-home women, old man have become the labour who is mainly engaged in plant husbandry, and the intensity of work quality and suitable work all decreases sharply, and is also difficult to adapt to traditional Chinese yam and deep-cuts with Chinese yam gather.
The development of tradition Chang Mount medicine exists labour intensity large always, particularly excavates difficulty large, and production cost is high, the problem that finished product uniformity is poor; Selection of land condition harshness, optional land used rareness, corresponding cost of land height is also the key factor of restriction development; Go up fast in the price of labour power, staple food grain land used is increasingly well sold and in short supply, and market is further harsh instantly to the uniformity of Chinese yam finished product, how to realize the low labour intensity production of low cost Chang Mount medicine and becomes further important.
A lot of innovation implantation methods about Chang Mount medicine are disclosed in existing document, for example holing cultivating, sleeve pipe cultivation, cellar for storing things formula cultivation, soilless culture, the cultivation of unsettled method etc., but these cultivation techniques are all subject to the restriction of certain condition, to the restriction of soil alternative condition too much, facilities and equipment is required too high, or seedling-raising technique was required severe, or required tight to labour's attainment, be not suitable for very much at wide geographic area, particularly outlying backward mountainous areas spread.
In addition, traditional yam planting utilizes Chinese yam young plant to do seedling. When comprising the young plant that is bred as by bulbil the first year, results Chinese yam stem tuber, Chinese yam young plant cuts out lower halter young plant, the silently young plant from cut out on Chinese yam stem tuber top, and its common feature is that reproductive speed is low, is unfavorable for breeding Rapid Popularization, cost also remains high.
On the tendril of one strain Chinese yam, conventionally can produce then the bulbil that 15-30 grain differs in size, original reproductive speed or desirable, but because bulbil has dormancy, traditional approach is to sow by bulbil the first year, can grow up to then " the little Chinese yam " of 30-300 gram, this " little Chinese yam " is exactly the young plant in the coming year, is the early stage growth of Chinese yam, particularly in early days long root, climing provide nutrition and moisture supply are provided.
Experiment showed, that bulbil stature is larger, land fertility is better, or thin planting as far as possible, and the stature of " little Chinese yam " (young plant) produced the first year is just larger, and the Chinese yam seedling in the coming year is also just more strong, but this has also caused cost rising, and timeliness is also barely satisfactory.
In bulbil, containing a kind of special material---batatasins, is that other parts of Chinese yam are unexistent. Batatasins also only just has in the skin of bulbil, and this material is to suppressing growth and promoting that the effect of dormancy is very strong. Though bulbil is to be grown up to by the metamorphosis of ground axillalry bud, it must could be sprouted through lamination. After cortex maturation, batatasins polymerization amount is maximum; The bulbil of dormancy completely, along with the prolongation content of lamination time reduces. Therefore, the bulbil of freshly harvested, can not work as kind of a use.
Therefore how overcoming the deficiencies in the prior art is problems that current yam cultivation technical field is needed solution badly.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is in order to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method is provided, the method is given full play to the biological nature of Chang Mount medicine, adopts made safe controllable environment and brand-new planting type and theory, has realized the stable high yield of Chinese yam under low cost condition.
The technical solution used in the present invention is as follows:
A kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, comprises the steps:
A, utilize nutritive cube to grow seedlings to the edible stem tuber of Chinese yam bulbil or Chinese yam, obtain substituting the seedling of traditional Chinese yam young plant;
B, the soil of selecting suitable potato to grow, and it is prepared, push the dark arable layer for 28-32cm aside, then cutting depth is 900-950mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 400-420mm, topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, drainpipe aperture 2-3cm;
D, stack multilayer hollow brick by heap modular system, hollow brick aperture alignment, height of formation exceedes 900 millimeters of holes;
The vertical hole top that e, seedling frame that step a is obtained form to steps d hollow brick, buries cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, carries out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control during cultivation;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
After g, the lower Chinese yam stem tuber of sanction, in nutritive cube, extract Chinese yam halter young plant collection utilization in the other direction;
H, artificial hole is safeguarded to extend service life.
The nutritive cube that utilizes in technical solution of the present invention described in step a is grown seedlings while being early spring and is taked nutritive cube to grow seedlings in greenhouse kind the edible stem tuber of Chinese yam bulbil or Chinese yam, excessively wipe out its tendril and directly transplant frost season one, directly utilize its root system to enter commodity Chinese yam growth period, this not only can reduce costs, also increase the growth period of edible Chinese yam stem tuber, improve quality, and be conducive to produce in wrong season Chinese yam supply market. This also can accelerate breeding reproductive speed greatly.
Common nutritive cube is to contain compared with the ﹑ of multiple nutrient matter to cultivate the alms bowl shape thing that crop seedling is used. After mixing according to a certain percentage with earth or Ni Tan ﹑ fertilizer and water etc., put into bowl making apparatus tool to make; Also useful plastic grain forms through blowing processing and fabricating.
Nutritive cube described in technical solution of the present invention is the plastic nutritional alms bowl of corrosion-resistant, degradable, firm and durable, nutritive cube is in side and cut bottom and perforate, bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, it is 0.9-1.1cm hole that side is opened 10-14 diameter at random, is beneficial to Chinese yam main management and supports coring growth and knot potato; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium, and while growing seedlings, every strain Chinese yam seedling need adopt 8-10g special fertilizer for potatoes.
For ensureing that nursery stage forms sufficient root system development for three months, nutritive cube size Selection bore × be highly the model of 120 × 150mm left and right.
Concrete method for culturing seedlings is as follows:
To the method for culturing seedlings of the edible stem tuber of Chinese yam for selecting bore × highly nurse young plants in hothouses for the nutritive cube of 119-121 × 149-151mm eats stem tuber to Chinese yam, artificial germination before growing seedlings, while growing seedlings, adopt special fertilizer for potatoes, the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 8g; Seedling raise period is when after the frost of end, 80% tendril length is for 9-12cm;
Be that the nutritive cube of 99-101 × 138-142mm is nursed young plants in hothouses to bulbil to the method for culturing seedlings of Chinese yam bulbil for selecting bore × highly, before growing seedlings, manually break bulbil dormancy vernalization, while growing seedlings, adopt special fertilizer for potatoes, the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 10g; Seedling raise period is when after the frost of end, 80% tendril length is for 9-12cm.
Directly utilize its root system of above-mentioned incubation Chinese yam seedling to enter commodity Chinese yam growth period, this not only can reduce costs, and has also increased the growth period of edible Chinese yam stem tuber, improves quality, and is conducive to produce in wrong season Chinese yam supply market.
The present invention needs nutritive cube in the time transplanting, to have certain intensity. Before climing rattan maturation, after transplanting, play a supportive role at artificial hole upper end the first two months, ensure that again generally to have tens main feeding roots to extend to smoothly nutritive cube external, and can enter smoothly in artificial hole when knot potato, so nutritive cube will in side and cut bottom and perforate.
High-land is chosen in soil in technical solution of the present invention described in step b, irrigation and drainage are convenient, the plot of hidding and sunny side, then arranges arable layer, chooses de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, and the overweight mold of viscosity is mixed to sand to reach the degree that is applicable to farming, do not encourage to deep-cut comprehensively.
It is before frost and snow arrives then that concrete steps are prepared in soil in technical solution of the present invention described in step b, by arable layer loam ridging, exposes the wide raw soil layer of 0.9-1.1m by row spacing 2m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is surveyed to soil and join fertilizer, and ted sterilizing pesticide.
In technical solution of the present invention, in steps d, use the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, remaining soil is sneaked into arable layer soil after sorting out stone.
Hollow brick in technical solution of the present invention described in steps d is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is single hole or diplopore, aperture 10-12cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 1.5-4.5MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 5-15mm to make.
The concrete hollow block that this soft clay haydite is made is called Haydite bricks, and it has light weight, the advantage such as high-strength, heat insulation, moistureproof, is not only desirable construction material, is also the ideal material of manually manufacturing Chinese yam hole growing environment.
With haydite hollow brick building block system stacking method manufacture of intraocular hole, draining, ventilative, insulation, environmental protection, damages easily and repairs, and can be used for laying field road after breakage, or for code block field bund, can be used for sandy land after pulverizing, the ecology that is conducive to plough protection.
In the time of the concrete hollow block man made hole that utilizes soft clay haydite to make, consistency from top to bottom, building block system stack, do not need bonding, do not need yet airtight, ensure upper end a little more than raw soil layer ground in case flow soil enter in hole.
Stop up drainpipe for avoiding flattening, complete after drainpipe, before piling up hollow brick, can fill out in drainpipe both sides earth or sandstone, then pile up hollow brick.
The growth of Chinese yam stem tuber needs sufficient breathing, need under draining good environment, grow. Settling mode of the present invention is, in the U-shaped trench bottom of having excavated, lays a PVC perforated pipe, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet, and when ensureing waterlogging occurs, the ponding in the hole of hollow brick formation can be got rid of at short notice.
Opposite direction in technical solution of the present invention described in step g is extracted Chinese yam halter young plant in nutritive cube, and nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, and avoids hole to be clogged by surface dust, in order to using the coming year again.
The method of in technical solution of the present invention, artificial hole being safeguarded is to carry out the coming year before step e operation, draws out sand foreign material in hollow brick hole with instrument, changes badly damaged hollow brick, and then carries out new round plantation.
In technical solution of the present invention, further preferably described hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, comprises the steps:
A, select bore × be highly the nutritive cube of 100 × 140mm, in side with cut bottom and perforate, bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and side is opened 12 diameter 1cm holes at random; Lunar calendar the tenth day of lunar month in the first month of the lunar year takes nutritive cube to nurse young plants in hothouses to sieve time Chinese yam bulbil, and before growing seedlings, artificial breaking dormancy vernalization, adopt special fertilizer for potatoes while growing seedlings, and the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 9g; When seedling raise period is the long 9-12cm of being of the lunar calendar rear 80% tendril in Clear and Bright; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium;
B, selection high-land, irrigation and drainage are conveniently, the soil of the suitable potato growth of hidding and sunny side, lunar calendar twelfth month, arranges it, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, clay will be mixed sand, then press row spacing 2m by topsoil ridging, push the dark arable layer for 28-32cm aside, expose the wide raw soil layer of 0.9-1.1m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is mixed thoroughly by soil and farm manure 2:1, teds sterilizing pesticide; Cutting depth is 900-950mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 400-420mm, and topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, aperture 1.5cm, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet;
D, above ditch internal drainage pipe, pile up four layers of hollow brick one row that 220-240mm is high by heap modular system code, the alignment of hollow brick aperture, form the artificial vertical hole of the above degree of depth of 900mm, then with the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, after sorting out stone, remaining soil sneaks into arable layer soil, every mu forms row row spacing 2m, the vertical hole of spacing in the rows 200mm, and density reaches every mu of 8410 strains; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is diplopore, aperture 10-12cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 1.5-4.5MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 5-15mm to make;
After e, lunar calendar Clear and Bright, the seedling that step a is obtained is wiped out the vertical hole top that the direct transplantation frame of long tendril forms to steps d hollow brick, bury cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, according to topography and geomorphology, during cultivation, carry out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
G, cut out after lower Chinese yam stem tuber in the other direction and to extract Chinese yam halter young plant from nutritive cube and collect and utilize, smoothly nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, avoid the hole soil filling of being fallen apart, in order to using again the coming year;
H, the coming year are drawn out sand foreign material in hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, carry out new round plantation.
In technical solution of the present invention, further preferably described hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, comprises the steps:
A, select the nutritive cube of bore × be highly 120 × 150mm to nurse young plants in hothouses to the edible stem tuber of sieve time Chinese yam, nutritive cube is in side and cut bottom and perforate, and bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and side is opened 11 diameter 1cm holes at random; Artificial germination before growing seedlings, adopts special fertilizer for potatoes while growing seedlings, the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 9g; When seedling raise period is the long 9-12cm of being of the lunar calendar rear 80% tendril in Clear and Bright; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium;
B, selection high-land, irrigation and drainage are conveniently, the soil of the suitable potato growth of hidding and sunny side, lunar calendar twelfth month, arranges it, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, clay will be mixed sand, then press row spacing 2m by topsoil ridging, push the dark arable layer for 28-32cm aside, expose the wide raw soil layer of 0.9-1.1m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is mixed thoroughly by soil and farm manure 2:1, teds sterilizing pesticide; Cutting depth is 900-950mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 400-420mm, and topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, aperture 1.5cm, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet;
D, above ditch internal drainage pipe, pile up four layers of hollow brick one row that 220-240mm is high by heap modular system code, the alignment of hollow brick aperture, form the artificial vertical hole of the above degree of depth of 900mm, then with the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, after sorting out stone, remaining soil sneaks into arable layer soil, every mu forms row row spacing 2m, the vertical hole of spacing in the rows 200mm, and density reaches every mu of 8410 strains; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is diplopore, aperture 10-12cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 1.5-4.5MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 5-15mm to make;
After e, lunar calendar Clear and Bright, the seedling that step a is obtained is wiped out the vertical hole top that the direct transplantation frame of long tendril forms to steps d hollow brick, bury cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, according to topography and geomorphology, during cultivation, carry out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
G, cut out after lower Chinese yam stem tuber in the other direction and to extract Chinese yam halter young plant from nutritive cube and collect and utilize, smoothly nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, avoid the hole soil filling of being fallen apart, in order to using again the coming year;
H, the coming year are drawn out sand foreign material in hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, carry out new round plantation.
Compared with prior art, its beneficial effect is in the present invention:The inventive method is to have a large population and a few land for south, plot barren, the easy waterlogging mostly that can be used for yam planting, the deficiency that is not easy to mechanized operation, utilize the advantage that illumination abundance, precipitation are abundant, growth period is long, with the theory of industrialized agriculture, soil is arranged, form made hole, and improve growing seedlings, realized on the one hand the target of utilizing Chinese yam kind (bulbil) to generate then instead of generating edible Chinese yam stem tuber for traditional 2 years, the fast numerous popularization of breeding is achieved; Realized on the other hand that the stem tuber part of Chinese yam is unsettled grows in underground opening, both ensured that its sufficient nutrition breathes, also greatly avoided disease and pest and profile variation, uniformity and the quality of product improve greatly:
By section, the middle regions of the Yunnan Province, Yunnan traditional category sieve time Chinese yam, in general mountain region comparison, special advantage is:
Tradition density is generally 4000-4500 strain, and the present invention can reach 8300-8500 strain;
Tradition output is average individual plant 600g, and difference of the present invention is little;
Tradition individual plant difference is large, and individual plant 95% is distributed in 300-1800g, and the present invention is distributed in 500-1200g;
Traditional homogeneity of product is poor, serious bending, a trouble, the about 30-40% of disease and pest rate, 7-10% of the present invention;
It is serious that Traditional Method is excavated infringement, digging disconnectedly to dig business and lead about 20-25%, 2-6% of the present invention.
In recent years popular punching plants, utilizes shallow raw groove plantation to compare, and These parameters is also obviously good.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail.
Embodiment 1
A kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, comprises the steps:
A, select bore × be highly the nutritive cube of 99 × 138mm, in side with cut bottom and perforate, bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and side is opened 10 diameter 0.9cm holes at random; Lunar calendar the tenth day of lunar month in the first month of the lunar year takes nutritive cube to nurse young plants in hothouses to sieve time Chinese yam bulbil, and before growing seedlings, artificial breaking dormancy vernalization, adopt special fertilizer for potatoes while growing seedlings, and the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 8g; When seedling raise period is the long 9-12cm of being of the lunar calendar rear 80% tendril in Clear and Bright; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium;
B, selection high-land, irrigation and drainage convenience, the soil of the suitable potato growth of hidding and sunny side, lunar calendar twelfth month, arranges it, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, clay will be mixed sand, then presses row spacing 1.8m by topsoil ridging, push the dark arable layer for 28cm aside, expose the wide raw soil layer of 0.9m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is mixed thoroughly by soil and farm manure 2:1, teds sterilizing pesticide; Cutting depth is 900mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 400mm, and topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, aperture 1cm, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet;
D, above ditch internal drainage pipe, pile up four layers of hollow brick one row that 220-240mm is high by heap modular system code, the alignment of hollow brick aperture, form the artificial vertical hole of the above degree of depth of 900mm, then with the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, after sorting out stone, remaining soil sneaks into arable layer soil, every mu forms row row spacing 1.8m, the vertical hole of spacing in the rows 200mm, and density reaches every mu of 8410 strains; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is diplopore, aperture 10cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 1.5MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 5mm to make;
After e, lunar calendar Clear and Bright, the seedling that step a is obtained is wiped out the vertical hole top that the direct transplantation frame of long tendril forms to steps d hollow brick, bury cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, according to topography and geomorphology, during cultivation, carry out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
G, cut out after lower Chinese yam stem tuber in the other direction and to extract Chinese yam halter young plant from nutritive cube and collect and utilize, smoothly nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, avoid the hole soil filling of being fallen apart, in order to using again the coming year;
H, the coming year are drawn out sand foreign material in aforementioned hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, carry out new round plantation.
Wherein, the concrete steps that the rich water described in step e is managed and protected are Chinese yam every 667m of emerging2Carbon ammonium 20kg and calcium superphosphate 15kg can spread manuer in holes; Enter tendril and potato piece growth period, when underground stem tuber starts to expand rapidly, every 667m2Execute carbon ammonium 25kg, calcium superphosphate 20kg and plant ash 50kg; The management of watering of Chinese yam, should note keeping ground moistening in the tuber growth Sheng phase, does not non-irrigatedly fill with.
Described preventing disease pest control concrete steps are: get rid of before climing and spray 300 times of zineb in basal part of stem, and prevention anthracnose, later every 7 days spray medicines 1 time, spray 2 times; As heavy rain or cloudy weather for several days running, should fill spray immediately mid-July after it's clearing up; Mid-August, carry out insect pest preventing and controlling according to plant growing way and appearance, at the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of foliage-spray 1% urea and 0.25%, within every 10 days, spray once, continuous spraying 3 times is in case plant early ageing; Grub, cutworm, after three ages, larva mixes fresh paulownia leaves poison bait in stacking at dusk with the phoxim of 500 times 50%, every 667m2120 heaps, 50 grams, every heap; Food sawfly should carry out integrated control according to its life habit: the 1. meticulous winter pupa of eliminating wholely; 2. improve field microclimate and alleviate the degree that causes harm; 3. catch and kill larvae and eggs; 4. contain and send out phase and ovum and hatch the high honeybee phase and add 20% with 1000 times of liquid of 90% trichlorphon and carry out clever 4 milliliters of good fortune and carry out foliar spray adult.
Embodiment 2
A kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, comprises the steps:
A, select bore × be highly the nutritive cube of 101 × 142mm, in side with cut bottom and perforate, bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and side is opened 14 diameter 1.1cm holes at random; Lunar calendar the tenth day of lunar month in the first month of the lunar year takes nutritive cube to nurse young plants in hothouses to sieve time Chinese yam bulbil, and before growing seedlings, artificial breaking dormancy vernalization, adopt special fertilizer for potatoes while growing seedlings, and the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 10g; When seedling raise period is the long 9-12cm of being of the lunar calendar rear 80% tendril in Clear and Bright; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium;
B, selection high-land, irrigation and drainage convenience, the soil of the suitable potato growth of hidding and sunny side, lunar calendar twelfth month, arranges it, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, clay will be mixed sand, then presses row spacing 2.2m by topsoil ridging, push the dark arable layer for 32cm aside, expose the wide raw soil layer of 1.1m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is mixed thoroughly by soil and farm manure 2:1, teds sterilizing pesticide; Cutting depth is 950mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 420mm, and topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, aperture 3cm, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet;
D, above ditch internal drainage pipe, pile up four layers of hollow brick one row that 220-240mm is high by heap modular system code, the alignment of hollow brick aperture, form the artificial vertical hole of the above degree of depth of 900mm, then with the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, after sorting out stone, remaining soil sneaks into arable layer soil, every mu forms row row spacing 2m, the vertical hole of spacing in the rows 200mm, and density reaches every mu of 8410 strains; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is single hole, aperture 12cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 4.5MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 15mm to make;
After e, lunar calendar Clear and Bright, the seedling that step a is obtained is wiped out the vertical hole top that the direct transplantation frame of long tendril forms to steps d hollow brick, bury cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, according to topography and geomorphology, during cultivation, carry out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
G, cut out after lower Chinese yam stem tuber in the other direction and to extract Chinese yam halter young plant from nutritive cube and collect and utilize, smoothly nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, avoid the hole soil filling of being fallen apart, in order to using again the coming year;
H, the coming year are drawn out sand foreign material in aforementioned hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, carry out new round plantation.
Wherein, the concrete steps that the rich water described in step e is managed and protected are Chinese yam every 667m of emerging2Carbon ammonium 20kg and calcium superphosphate 15kg can spread manuer in holes; Enter tendril and potato piece growth period, when underground stem tuber starts to expand rapidly, every 667m2Execute carbon ammonium 25kg, calcium superphosphate 20kg and plant ash 50kg; The management of watering of Chinese yam, should note keeping ground moistening in the tuber growth Sheng phase, does not non-irrigatedly fill with.
Described preventing disease pest control concrete steps are: get rid of before climing and spray 300 times of zineb in basal part of stem, and prevention anthracnose, later every 10 days spray medicines 1 time, spray 3 times; As heavy rain or cloudy weather for several days running, should fill spray immediately mid-July after it's clearing up; Mid-August, carry out insect pest preventing and controlling according to plant growing way and appearance, at the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of foliage-spray 1% urea and 0.25%, within every 10 days, spray once, continuous spraying 4 times is in case plant early ageing; Grub, cutworm, after three ages, larva mixes fresh paulownia leaves poison bait in stacking at dusk with the phoxim of 500 times 50%, every 667m2120 heaps, 100 grams, every heap; Food sawfly should carry out integrated control according to its life habit: the 1. meticulous winter pupa of eliminating wholely; 2. improve field microclimate and alleviate the degree that causes harm; 3. catch and kill larvae and eggs; 4. contain and send out phase and ovum and hatch the high honeybee phase and add 20% with 1000 times of liquid of 90% trichlorphon and carry out clever 4 milliliters of good fortune and carry out foliar spray adult.
Embodiment 3
A kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, comprises the steps:
A, select bore × be highly the nutritive cube of 100 × 140mm, in side with cut bottom and perforate, bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and side is opened 12 diameter 1cm holes at random; Lunar calendar the tenth day of lunar month in the first month of the lunar year takes nutritive cube to nurse young plants in hothouses to sieve time Chinese yam bulbil, and before growing seedlings, artificial breaking dormancy vernalization, adopt special fertilizer for potatoes while growing seedlings, and the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 9g; When seedling raise period is the long 9-12cm of being of the lunar calendar rear 80% tendril in Clear and Bright; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium;
B, selection high-land, irrigation and drainage convenience, the soil of the suitable potato growth of hidding and sunny side, lunar calendar twelfth month, arranges it, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, clay will be mixed sand, then presses row spacing 2m by topsoil ridging, push the dark arable layer for 30cm aside, expose the wide raw soil layer of 1m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is mixed thoroughly by soil and farm manure 2:1, teds sterilizing pesticide; Cutting depth is 920mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 410mm, and topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, aperture 1.5cm, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet;
D, above ditch internal drainage pipe, pile up four layers of hollow brick one row that 220-240mm is high by heap modular system code, the alignment of hollow brick aperture, form the artificial vertical hole of the above degree of depth of 900mm, then with the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, after sorting out stone, remaining soil sneaks into arable layer soil, every mu forms row row spacing 2m, the vertical hole of spacing in the rows 200mm, and density reaches every mu of 8410 strains; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is diplopore, aperture 11cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 3MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 7mm to make;
After e, lunar calendar Clear and Bright, the seedling that step a is obtained is wiped out the vertical hole top that the direct transplantation frame of long tendril forms to steps d hollow brick, bury cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, according to topography and geomorphology, during cultivation, carry out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
G, cut out after lower Chinese yam stem tuber in the other direction and to extract Chinese yam halter young plant from nutritive cube and collect and utilize, smoothly nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, avoid the hole soil filling of being fallen apart, in order to using again the coming year;
H, the coming year are drawn out sand foreign material in aforementioned hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, carry out new round plantation.
Wherein, the concrete steps that the rich water described in step e is managed and protected are Chinese yam every 667m of emerging2Carbon ammonium 20kg and calcium superphosphate 15kg can spread manuer in holes; Enter tendril and potato piece growth period, when underground stem tuber starts to expand rapidly, every 667m2Execute carbon ammonium 25kg, calcium superphosphate 20kg and plant ash 50kg; The management of watering of Chinese yam, should note keeping ground moistening in the tuber growth Sheng phase, does not non-irrigatedly fill with.
Described preventing disease pest control concrete steps are: get rid of before climing and spray 300 times of zineb in basal part of stem, and prevention anthracnose, later every 8 days spray medicines 1 time, spray 2 times; As heavy rain or cloudy weather for several days running, should fill spray immediately mid-July after it's clearing up; Mid-August, carry out insect pest preventing and controlling according to plant growing way and appearance, at the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of foliage-spray 1% urea and 0.25%, within every 10 days, spray once, continuous spraying 3 times is in case plant early ageing; Grub, cutworm, after three ages, larva mixes fresh paulownia leaves poison bait in stacking at dusk with the phoxim of 500 times 50%, every 667m2120 heaps, 77 grams, every heap; Food sawfly should carry out integrated control according to its life habit: the 1. meticulous winter pupa of eliminating wholely; 2. improve field microclimate and alleviate the degree that causes harm; 3. catch and kill larvae and eggs; 4. contain and send out phase and ovum and hatch the high honeybee phase and add 20% with 1000 times of liquid of 90% trichlorphon and carry out clever 4 milliliters of good fortune and carry out foliar spray adult.
Embodiment 4
A kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, comprises the steps:
A, select the nutritive cube of bore × be highly 119 × 149mm to nurse young plants in hothouses to the edible stem tuber of sieve time Chinese yam, nutritive cube is in side and cut bottom and perforate, and bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and side is opened 10 diameter 0.9cm holes at random; Artificial germination before growing seedlings, adopts special fertilizer for potatoes while growing seedlings, the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 8g; When seedling raise period is the long 9-12cm of being of the lunar calendar rear 80% tendril in Clear and Bright; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium;
B, selection high-land, irrigation and drainage convenience, the soil of the suitable potato growth of hidding and sunny side, lunar calendar twelfth month, arranges it, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, clay will be mixed sand, then presses row spacing 1.8m by topsoil ridging, push the dark arable layer for 28cm aside, expose the wide raw soil layer of 0.9m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is mixed thoroughly by soil and farm manure 2:1, teds sterilizing pesticide; Cutting depth is 900mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 400mm, and topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, aperture 1cm, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet;
D, above ditch internal drainage pipe, pile up four layers of hollow brick one row that 220-240mm is high by heap modular system code, the alignment of hollow brick aperture, form the artificial vertical hole of the above degree of depth of 900mm, then with the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, after sorting out stone, remaining soil sneaks into arable layer soil, every mu forms row row spacing 2m, the vertical hole of spacing in the rows 200mm, and density reaches every mu of 8410 strains; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is single hole, aperture 10cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 1.5MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 5mm to make;
After e, lunar calendar Clear and Bright, the seedling that step a is obtained is wiped out the vertical hole top that the direct transplantation frame of long tendril forms to steps d hollow brick, bury cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, according to topography and geomorphology, during cultivation, carry out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
G, cut out after lower Chinese yam stem tuber in the other direction and to extract Chinese yam halter young plant from nutritive cube and collect and utilize, smoothly nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, avoid the hole soil filling of being fallen apart, in order to using again the coming year;
H, the coming year are drawn out sand foreign material in aforementioned hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, carry out new round plantation.
Wherein, the concrete steps that the rich water described in step g is managed and protected are Chinese yam every 667m of emerging2Carbon ammonium 20kg and calcium superphosphate 15kg can spread manuer in holes; Enter tendril and potato piece growth period, when underground stem tuber starts to expand rapidly, every 667m2Execute carbon ammonium 25kg, calcium superphosphate 20kg and plant ash 50kg; The management of watering of Chinese yam, should note keeping ground moistening in the tuber growth Sheng phase, does not non-irrigatedly fill with.
Described preventing disease pest control concrete steps are: get rid of before climing and spray 300 times of zineb in basal part of stem, and prevention anthracnose, later every 7 days spray medicines 1 time, spray 2 times; As heavy rain or cloudy weather for several days running, should fill spray immediately mid-July after it's clearing up; Mid-August, carry out insect pest preventing and controlling according to plant growing way and appearance, at the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of foliage-spray 1% urea and 0.25%, within every 10 days, spray once, continuous spraying 3 times is in case plant early ageing; Grub, cutworm, after three ages, larva mixes fresh paulownia leaves poison bait in stacking at dusk with the phoxim of 500 times 50%, every 667m2120 heaps, 50 grams, every heap; Food sawfly should carry out integrated control according to its life habit: the 1. meticulous winter pupa of eliminating wholely; 2. improve field microclimate and alleviate the degree that causes harm; 3. catch and kill larvae and eggs; 4. contain and send out phase and ovum and hatch the high honeybee phase and add 20% with 1000 times of liquid of 90% trichlorphon and carry out clever 4 milliliters of good fortune and carry out foliar spray adult.
Embodiment 5
A kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, comprises the steps:
A, select the nutritive cube of bore × be highly 121 × 151mm to nurse young plants in hothouses to the edible stem tuber of sieve time Chinese yam, nutritive cube is in side and cut bottom and perforate, and bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and side is opened 14 diameter 1.1cm holes at random; Artificial germination before growing seedlings, adopts special fertilizer for potatoes while growing seedlings, the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 10g; When seedling raise period is the long 9-12cm of being of the lunar calendar rear 80% tendril in Clear and Bright; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium;
B, selection high-land, irrigation and drainage convenience, the soil of the suitable potato growth of hidding and sunny side, lunar calendar twelfth month, arranges it, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, clay will be mixed sand, then presses row spacing 2.2m by topsoil ridging, push the dark arable layer for 32cm aside, expose the wide raw soil layer of 1.1m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is mixed thoroughly by soil and farm manure 2:1, teds sterilizing pesticide; Cutting depth is 950mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 420mm, and topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, aperture 3cm, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet;
D, above ditch internal drainage pipe, pile up four layers of hollow brick one row that 220-240mm is high by heap modular system code, the alignment of hollow brick aperture, form the artificial vertical hole of the above degree of depth of 900mm, then with the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, after sorting out stone, remaining soil sneaks into arable layer soil, every mu forms row row spacing 2m, the vertical hole of spacing in the rows 200mm, and density reaches every mu of 8410 strains; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is diplopore, aperture 12cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 4.5MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 15mm to make;
After e, lunar calendar Clear and Bright, the seedling that step a is obtained is wiped out the vertical hole top that the direct transplantation frame of long tendril forms to steps d hollow brick, bury cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, according to topography and geomorphology, during cultivation, carry out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
G, cut out after lower Chinese yam stem tuber in the other direction and to extract Chinese yam halter young plant from nutritive cube and collect and utilize, smoothly nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, avoid the hole soil filling of being fallen apart, in order to using again the coming year;
H, the coming year are drawn out sand foreign material in aforementioned hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, carry out new round plantation.
Wherein, the concrete steps that the rich water described in step g is managed and protected are Chinese yam every 667m of emerging2Carbon ammonium 20kg and calcium superphosphate 15kg can spread manuer in holes; Enter tendril and potato piece growth period, when underground stem tuber starts to expand rapidly, every 667m2Execute carbon ammonium 25kg, calcium superphosphate 20kg and plant ash 50kg; The management of watering of Chinese yam, should note keeping ground moistening in the tuber growth Sheng phase, does not non-irrigatedly fill with.
Described preventing disease pest control concrete steps are: get rid of before climing and spray 300 times of zineb in basal part of stem, and prevention anthracnose, later every 10 days spray medicines 1 time, spray 3 times; As heavy rain or cloudy weather for several days running, should fill spray immediately mid-July after it's clearing up; Mid-August, carry out insect pest preventing and controlling according to plant growing way and appearance, at the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of foliage-spray 1% urea and 0.25%, within every 10 days, spray once, continuous spraying 4 times is in case plant early ageing; Grub, cutworm, after three ages, larva mixes fresh paulownia leaves poison bait in stacking at dusk with the phoxim of 500 times 50%, every 667m2120 heaps, 100 grams, every heap; Food sawfly should carry out integrated control according to its life habit: the 1. meticulous winter pupa of eliminating wholely; 2. improve field microclimate and alleviate the degree that causes harm; 3. catch and kill larvae and eggs; 4. contain and send out phase and ovum and hatch the high honeybee phase and add 20% with 1000 times of liquid of 90% trichlorphon and carry out clever 4 milliliters of good fortune and carry out foliar spray adult.
Embodiment 6
A kind of hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, comprises the steps:
A, select the nutritive cube of bore × be highly 120 × 150mm to nurse young plants in hothouses to the edible stem tuber of sieve time Chinese yam, nutritive cube is in side and cut bottom and perforate, and bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and side is opened 11 diameter 1cm holes at random; Artificial germination before growing seedlings, adopts special fertilizer for potatoes while growing seedlings, the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 9g; When seedling raise period is the long 9-12cm of being of the lunar calendar rear 80% tendril in Clear and Bright; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium;
B, selection high-land, irrigation and drainage convenience, the soil of the suitable potato growth of hidding and sunny side, lunar calendar twelfth month, arranges it, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, clay will be mixed sand, then presses row spacing 2m by topsoil ridging, push the dark arable layer for 30cm aside, expose the wide raw soil layer of 1m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is mixed thoroughly by soil and farm manure 2:1, teds sterilizing pesticide; Cutting depth is 920mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 410mm, and topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, aperture 1.5cm, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet;
D, above ditch internal drainage pipe, pile up four layers of hollow brick one row that 220-240mm is high by heap modular system code, the alignment of hollow brick aperture, form the artificial vertical hole of the above degree of depth of 900mm, then with the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, after sorting out stone, remaining soil sneaks into arable layer soil, every mu forms row row spacing 2m, the vertical hole of spacing in the rows 200mm, and density reaches every mu of 8410 strains; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is diplopore, aperture 11cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 3MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 7mm to make;
After e, lunar calendar Clear and Bright, the seedling that step a is obtained is wiped out the vertical hole top that the direct transplantation frame of long tendril forms to steps d hollow brick, bury cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, according to topography and geomorphology, during cultivation, carry out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
G, cut out after lower Chinese yam stem tuber in the other direction and to extract Chinese yam halter young plant from nutritive cube and collect and utilize, smoothly nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, avoid the hole soil filling of being fallen apart, in order to using again the coming year;
H, the coming year are drawn out sand foreign material in aforementioned hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, carry out new round plantation.
Wherein, the concrete steps that the rich water described in step e is managed and protected are Chinese yam every 667m of emerging2Carbon ammonium 20kg and calcium superphosphate 15kg can spread manuer in holes; Enter tendril and potato piece growth period, when underground stem tuber starts to expand rapidly, every 667m2Execute carbon ammonium 25kg, calcium superphosphate 20kg and plant ash 50kg; The management of watering of Chinese yam, should note keeping ground moistening in the tuber growth Sheng phase, does not non-irrigatedly fill with.
Described preventing disease pest control concrete steps are: get rid of before climing and spray 300 times of zineb in basal part of stem, and prevention anthracnose, later every 8 days spray medicines 1 time, spray 2 times; As heavy rain or cloudy weather for several days running, should fill spray immediately mid-July after it's clearing up; Mid-August, carry out insect pest preventing and controlling according to plant growing way and appearance, at the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of foliage-spray 1% urea and 0.25%, within every 10 days, spray once, continuous spraying 3 times is in case plant early ageing; Grub, cutworm, after three ages, larva mixes fresh paulownia leaves poison bait in stacking at dusk with the phoxim of 500 times 50%, every 667m2120 heaps, 77 grams, every heap; Food sawfly should carry out integrated control according to its life habit: the 1. meticulous winter pupa of eliminating wholely; 2. improve field microclimate and alleviate the degree that causes harm; 3. catch and kill larvae and eggs; 4. contain and send out phase and ovum and hatch the high honeybee phase and add 20% with 1000 times of liquid of 90% trichlorphon and carry out clever 4 milliliters of good fortune and carry out foliar spray adult.
The concrete performance of technical solution of the present invention:
One, implement ground
Dongzhou Period in Chuxiong Lufeng County Yi Pinglang town Zhong Xingjing villagers' committee
Xuanwei of Yunnan Province country agricultural demonstration zone slab bridge seed multiplication farm
Two, implement people
Dongzhou Period in Chuxiong Lufeng County veteran mountain valley with clumps of trees and bamboo yam planting cooperative society
Xuanwei of Yunnan Province slab bridge seed multiplication farm
Three, kind
Sieve time Chinese yam, general girth diameter 6-15cm, the edible long 60-90cm of stem tuber, 3 tons of left and right of traditional per mu yield;
Sieve time Chinese yam, has another name called Roots Chinese yam, is the long yam variety of main product of Lufeng Yunnan Roots embankment, and cultivation history is long, delicate satiny, the micro-delicate fragrance of taste of, meat large with individuality glutinous tender, of fine quality, measure large and known far and wide.
There is document to record, bronze period, the tribal chief of clan of the ancients of the Yi nationality, distributed over Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou---sieve portion and time portion is transplanted to wild yam on mountain in the fertile sandy loam of the new reclamation of wasteland, through over thousands of year artificial cultivation, optimize and select, during to the Two Jins, cultivated the fine quality in Chinese yam, locals's ancient times is " axe is Chinese yam " or " oxtail Chinese yam ".
Nan Zhao period, i.e. in 96 years of 760-856 Christian era, Nan Zhao Wang Feng gal is different, different try to gain seek, advise the rich three generations of helping prince all marry sieve time solely the rough female of brocade for prince wife, be after, sieve time Chinese yam has obtained imperial high praise and famous.
Product group training giantreed is washed the former seedling of root in Guilin. Guilin domestication giantreed cuttage seeding.
Four, implement area
36 mu of Chinese yams, its Plays is built 10 mu of field of planting cured tobacco crop rotations, 26 mu of the hillsides of suitable planting potato.
Five, performance
Gather on September 1st, 2013 to survey and produce, its target is supply market before the Mid-autumn Festival, and traditional cultivation ratio shifts to an earlier date nearly 60 days maturations.
Six, effect assessment
Tradition density is generally 4000-4500 strain, and the present invention can reach 8300-8500 strain;
Tradition output is average individual plant 600g, the average individual plant 582g of the present invention;
Tradition individual plant difference is large, and individual plant 95% is distributed in 300-1800g, and the present invention is distributed in 530-1160g;
Traditional homogeneity of product is poor, serious bending, a trouble, the about 30-40% of disease and pest rate, 7-10% of the present invention;
It is serious that Traditional Method is excavated infringement, digging disconnectedly to dig business and lead about 20-25%, 2-6% of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method, is characterized in that comprising the steps:
A, utilize nutritive cube to grow seedlings to the edible stem tuber of Chinese yam bulbil or Chinese yam, obtain substituting the seedling of traditional Chinese yam young plant;
B, the soil of selecting suitable potato to grow, and it is prepared, push the dark arable layer for 28-32cm aside, then cutting depth is 900-950mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 400-420mm, topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, drainpipe aperture 2-3cm;
D, stack multilayer hollow brick by heap modular system, hollow brick aperture alignment, height of formation exceedes 900 millimeters of holes;
The vertical hole top that e, seedling frame that step a is obtained form to steps d hollow brick, buries cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, carries out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control during cultivation;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
After g, the lower Chinese yam stem tuber of sanction, in nutritive cube, extract Chinese yam young plant collection utilization in the other direction;
H, artificial hole is safeguarded to extend service life.
2. hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the nutritive cube that utilizes described in step a grows seedlings while being early spring and take nutritive cube to grow seedlings in greenhouse kind Chinese yam bulbil or the edible stem tuber of Chinese yam, cross in frost season one and wipe out its tendril and directly transplant, directly utilize its root system to enter commodity Chinese yam growth period.
3. hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterized in that described nutritive cube is corrosion-resistant degredation plastic nutritive cube, nutritive cube is in side and cut bottom and perforate, bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and it is 0.9-1.1cm hole that side is opened 10-14 diameter at random; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium, and while growing seedlings, every strain Chinese yam seedling need be used 8-10g special fertilizer for potatoes.
4. hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method according to claim 2, is characterized in that:
To the method for culturing seedlings of the edible stem tuber of Chinese yam for selecting bore × highly nurse young plants in hothouses for the nutritive cube of 119-121 × 149-151mm eats stem tuber to Chinese yam, artificial germination before growing seedlings, while growing seedlings, adopt special fertilizer for potatoes, the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 8g; Seedling raise period is when after the frost of end, 80% tendril length is for 9-12cm;
Be that the nutritive cube of 99-101 × 138-142mm is nursed young plants in hothouses to bulbil to the method for culturing seedlings of Chinese yam bulbil for selecting bore × highly, before growing seedlings, manually break bulbil dormancy vernalization, while growing seedlings, adopt special fertilizer for potatoes, the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 10g; Seedling raise period is when after the frost of end, 80% tendril length is for 9-12cm.
5. hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that high-land is chosen in soil described in step b, irrigation and drainage are convenient, the plot of hidding and sunny side, then arable layer is arranged, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, and the overweight mold of viscosity is mixed husky to reach the degree that is applicable to farming; It is before frost and snow arrives then that concrete steps are prepared in described soil, by arable layer loam ridging, exposes the wide raw soil layer of 0.9-1.1m by row spacing 1.8-2.2m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is surveyed to soil and join fertilizer, and ted sterilizing pesticide.
6. hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method according to claim 1, is characterized in that using the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out in steps d, and remaining soil is sneaked into arable layer soil after sorting out stone; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is single hole or diplopore, aperture 10-12cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 1.5-4.5MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 5-15mm to make.
7. hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method according to claim 1, is characterized in that the opposite direction described in step g is extracted Chinese yam young plant in nutritive cube, and nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating.
8. hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the method that step h safeguards artificial hole is to carry out the coming year before step e operation, draw out sand foreign material in hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, and then carry out new round plantation.
9. hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method according to claim 1, is characterized in that comprising the steps:
A, select bore × be highly the nutritive cube of 100 × 140mm, in side with cut bottom and perforate, bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and side is opened 12 diameter 1cm holes at random; Lunar calendar the tenth day of lunar month in the first month of the lunar year takes nutritive cube to nurse young plants in hothouses to sieve time Chinese yam bulbil, and before growing seedlings, artificial breaking dormancy vernalization, adopt special fertilizer for potatoes while growing seedlings, and the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 9g; When seedling raise period is the long 9-12cm of being of the lunar calendar rear 80% tendril in Clear and Bright; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium;
B, selection high-land, irrigation and drainage are conveniently, the soil of the suitable potato growth of hidding and sunny side, lunar calendar twelfth month, arranges it, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, clay will be mixed sand, then press row spacing 2m by topsoil ridging, push the dark arable layer for 28-32cm aside, expose the wide raw soil layer of 0.9-1.1m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is mixed thoroughly by soil and farm manure 2:1, teds sterilizing pesticide; Cutting depth is 900-950mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 400-420mm, and topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, aperture 1.5cm, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet;
D, above ditch internal drainage pipe, pile up four layers of hollow brick one row that 220-240mm is high by heap modular system code, the alignment of hollow brick aperture, form the artificial vertical hole of the above degree of depth of 900mm, then with the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, after sorting out stone, remaining soil sneaks into arable layer soil, every mu forms row row spacing 2m, the vertical hole of spacing in the rows 200mm, and density reaches every mu of 8410 strains; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is diplopore, aperture 10-12cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 1.5-4.5MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 5-15mm to make;
After e, lunar calendar Clear and Bright, the seedling that step a is obtained is wiped out the vertical hole top that the direct transplantation frame of long tendril forms to steps d hollow brick, bury cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, according to topography and geomorphology, during cultivation, carry out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
G, cut out after lower Chinese yam stem tuber in the other direction and to extract Chinese yam young plant from nutritive cube and collect and utilize, smoothly nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, avoid the hole soil filling of being fallen apart, in order to using again the coming year;
H, the coming year are drawn out sand foreign material in hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, carry out new round plantation.
10. hanging type Chang Mount medicine cultural method according to claim 1, is characterized in that comprising the steps:
A, select the nutritive cube of bore × be highly 120 × 150mm to nurse young plants in hothouses to the edible stem tuber of sieve time Chinese yam, nutritive cube is in side and cut bottom and perforate, and bottom is the cutting of chrysanthemum shape, and side is opened 11 diameter 1cm holes at random; Artificial germination before growing seedlings, adopts special fertilizer for potatoes while growing seedlings, the use amount of described special fertilizer for potatoes is every strain 9g; When seedling raise period is the long 9-12cm of being of the lunar calendar rear 80% tendril in Clear and Bright; Wherein, cultivation matrix adopts common seedling medium;
B, selection high-land, irrigation and drainage are conveniently, the soil of the suitable potato growth of hidding and sunny side, lunar calendar twelfth month, arranges it, choose de-stone piece and the lump of earth hardening that ossifys, clay will be mixed sand, then press row spacing 2m by topsoil ridging, push the dark arable layer for 28-32cm aside, expose the wide raw soil layer of 0.9-1.1m; The soil layer of arable layer ridging is mixed thoroughly by soil and farm manure 2:1, teds sterilizing pesticide; Cutting depth is 900-950mm, the U-shaped trench that width is 400-420mm, and topsoil is reserved for subsequent use;
C, in ditch, lay PVC plastic drain-pipe with micropore draining, aperture 1.5cm, and delivery port is imported to discharge outlet;
D, above ditch internal drainage pipe, pile up four layers of hollow brick one row that 220-240mm is high by heap modular system code, the alignment of hollow brick aperture, form the artificial vertical hole of the above degree of depth of 900mm, then with the immature soil backfill hollow brick periphery of digging out, after sorting out stone, remaining soil sneaks into arable layer soil, every mu forms row row spacing 2m, the vertical hole of spacing in the rows 200mm, and density reaches every mu of 8410 strains; Described hollow brick is haydite hollow brick, and described haydite hollow brick is diplopore, aperture 10-12cm, and cylindrical compress strength is 1.5-4.5MPa, and adopts the haydite that diameter specifications is 5-15mm to make;
After e, lunar calendar Clear and Bright, the seedling that step a is obtained is wiped out the vertical hole top that the direct transplantation frame of long tendril forms to steps d hollow brick, bury cultivation with the topsoil ridging that step b is reserved, according to topography and geomorphology, during cultivation, carry out conventional built, field management, rich water and manage and protect and preventing disease pest control;
When f, results, push arable layer aside, mention the unsettled Chinese yam stem tuber of being longer than in hollow brick hole together with nutritive cube;
G, cut out after lower Chinese yam stem tuber in the other direction and to extract Chinese yam young plant from nutritive cube and collect and utilize, smoothly nutritive cube residue is got back in the cell in hollow tile of vacating, avoid the hole soil filling of being fallen apart, in order to using again the coming year;
H, the coming year are drawn out sand foreign material in hollow brick hole with instrument, change badly damaged hollow brick, carry out new round plantation.
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