CN104285756B - A kind of cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method - Google Patents

A kind of cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104285756B
CN104285756B CN201410480706.2A CN201410480706A CN104285756B CN 104285756 B CN104285756 B CN 104285756B CN 201410480706 A CN201410480706 A CN 201410480706A CN 104285756 B CN104285756 B CN 104285756B
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cuttings
furrow
canopy
cultivating
seedling
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CN201410480706.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104285756A (en
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张卫民
彭晓玲
钟春城
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广西壮族自治区金秀瑶族自治县科学技术情报研究所
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/02Cultivation of hops or vines

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method, comprise the selection in nursery base, the construction in nursery base and the step such as cuttage and management.The method has carried out breakthrough improvement to normal cutting propagation method, and by first carrying out culture fluid immersion to cuttage bar before cuttage, the grape seedlings survival rate that the inventive method can be made to cultivate significantly improves, and well developed root system, grow after transplanting fast.For scale, industrialization plantation amur grape provide important evidence.

Description

A kind of cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of cultivation of plants technology, particularly a kind of cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method.
Background technology
Amur grape has another name called V. amurensis, be Vitaceae fallen leaves lianas, for perennial liana climbs fruit tree, hairy grape stem is more than 15 meters, bark crineous or bronzing, rattan crawls or helps on other trees, bryony tree tendril top and leaf to life, single leaf alternate, bottle green, width egg shape, autumn, leaf often reddened, amur grape has disease-resistant, cold-resistant, that moisture-resistant power is strong feature, is excellent cold-resistant stock, has very strong growing ability in wild environment.
The fruit of amur grape has the real original and local flavor of uniqueness, and the amino acid contained by it, mineral matter and vitamins and other nutritious components are can not comparing of all grape varieties of existing cultivation.In recent years, along with people's back to nature, pursue improving constantly of original flavor theory, increasing to the demand of amur grape, cause amur grape resource to be subject to unauthorized and excessive mining, heavy damage, output is fewer and feweri, price is more and more higher, 10-20 unit of now having risen violently/kilogram, and out of stock in spite of rising price.Therefore, in order to protect and develop these precious resources of amur grape, people have attempted the method for many cultivation amur grapes.Cuttage and seedling culture is simple and easy to do because having, grow fast, transplanting survival rate is high, low cost and other advantages and generally being favored, but there is difficulty of taking root in cuttage seeding, final-period management Process control conditions is difficult to the technological difficulties such as grasp, and therefore the artificial cultivation of most of amur grape all can not form the growing and cultivation management mode of a set of standard, specification.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is for the problems referred to above existing for prior art, provide a kind of cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method, the manual scale planting of amur grape can be realized, for the plantation of standardization amur grape provides thinking.
The technology of the present invention content is achieved in that
Cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method of the present invention, comprises the steps:
(1) selection in nursery base: select sunshine time shorter or that intensity of illumination is more weak place to do nursery base, and selected area has a good transport service, hydroelectric facility is complete; Nice and cool, the partially cloudy places such as limit, mountain, woodland, lowland or pile behind become optimal selection.
(2) construction in nursery base
A. build sun-shading rain-proof shed: first base is flattened, then put up a shed, the size of canopy is determined according to nursery scale; Building method is: first bamboo chip, reinforcing bar or iron pipe are curved half-moon-shaped, and then, arrangement is fixed into frame at regular intervals, assigns on the ground, finally covers transparent plastic sheeting for farm use and sunshade net; Sun-shading rain-proof shedly be similar to vegetable greenhouse booth, not only can keep out wind and rain at canopy tumor growth and resist extraneous force majeure, ensure that the growing environment of amur grape is not influenced by the adverse circumstances, meanwhile, in greenhouse can at any time, accurately, fixed point, as required regulate roxburgh anoectochilus terminal bud growth required for the operation such as water, fertilizer, medicine.
Play furrow: b. wholely according to the width of canopy wholely, after determining the quantity of furrow, ditch and width, play furrow.
C. in canopy, automatic spraying device is installed.
(3) cuttage and management
A. cutting time: before sprouting to spring next year bud after grape maturity annual September.
B. cuttings is chosen and is processed: choose the life in 1 year of complete aging lignification or 2 years raw branches, and require that growth is sturdy, eye is full, branch without damage by disease and insect makes skewer fringe, spike length 15-20cm, containing 2 joints, the otch of skewer fringe lower end will near joint portion or axil portion, and distance is 0.1-0.3cm; Otch can not with scissors or secateurs, with sharp blade or razor, cut sth. askew by 45° angle, impose uniformity without examining individual cases and break or reverse side tiltedly partial application again, to ensure that otch is level and smooth, few damaged, the skewer fringe cut is bundled into bundle aliging end to end in time, 1-2 hour is soaked in the one end of burying in culture fluid, carries out culture fluid immersion treatment.
Described culture fluid recipe ingredient is: copper sulphate 0.01-0.1g/L+ zinc sulphate 0.01-0.1g/L+ ammonium molybdate 0.01-0.1g/L+ ferrous sulfate 0.01-0.1g/L+ manganese sulphate 0.01-0.1g/L+ boric acid 0.01-0.1g/L+ methyl α-naphthyl acetate 0.3-0.5g/L+ heteroauxin 0.1-0.2g/L+ thiophanate methyl 0.2-0.5g/L+ Macrogol 6000 0.2-1g/L+ white sugar 2.5 ~ 3.5g/L+ must 1.5 ~ 3.5g/L.
C. cottage method:
Method one: enter in furrow by oblique for the cuttings handled well skewer, cuttings eye on the upside of branch, and will expose furrow face 1-2cm.
Method two: above-mentioned the bury culture fluid of one end and the yellow mud of cuttings that soaked is mixed yellow mud, one end that rear yellow mud parcel cuttings is buried, and trench digging is tiltedly planted.Note, unpolluted loess that must be fresh, do not give germ contamination, improve survival rate.
D. management after inserting: moisturizing of will often spraying water after cuttage completes, every day 1-2 time, and will in good time adjust according to Changes in weather situation the height that the plastic sheeting for farm use of cool canopy both sides and screened postive roll, to keep ventilating, to be incubated, moisturizing; In addition monthly will spray 1-2 bactericide, just can apply fertilizer, and erase lateral bud after taking root half a year, short firmly climing robust growth, namely Second Year can be moved to field planting.
Amur grape is very easily subject to causing harm of damage by disease and insect in process of growth, therefore, in good time, timely grape damage by disease and insect is prevented and treated very necessary, amur grape common disease and pest has anthracnose, downy mildew, brown spot, anthrachose of grape, two spotted spider mite, two asterophyllite cicada etc., main pesticide control based on cultural control, as rational close planting, avoid the excessive disease caused of humidity, meanwhile, timely weeding, prevents careless vector-borne insect from causing harm.
The method playing furrow described in step (2) is wholely: in the base of the wide 4m of canopy, and the furrow wide according to 3 railway carriage or compartment 80cm and the wide ditch of 4 40cm or the wide furrow of 4 railway carriage or compartment 60cm and the wide ditch two kinds of modes of 5 32cm play furrow; Then at the bottom of furrow, spread the thick cinder of one deck 10cm or river sand, then the cutting medium mixed thoroughly by thin river sand 50% and yellow sand loam 50% of the thick 15cm of layer overlay, then sterilizing and the process of desinsection protection against rodents are carried out to matrix.
Described in step (2), transparent plastic sheeting for farm use and sunshade net can automatic deploying and retractings.
Described in step (3), insulation, moisturizing by installing automatic warm moisture control system to realize in canopy.
Technical solution of the present invention has following marked improvement and advantage relative to traditional technology:
One, the cuttage and seedling culture of amur grape of the present invention, with culture fluid or heteroauxin process cuttage seeding, can effective hestening rooting, improve seedling gesture, simultaneously, containing film forming components such as polyethylene glycol in culture fluid, after immersion, have obvious filming function, and film forming is fast, root growing way can be obviously promoted after transplanting, slow seedling is fast, easily survives, and containing farm chemical ingredients in culture fluid, after coating resistance against diseases is improved to plant absorption medicament and have remarkable help, be not vulnerable to disease infestation in the later stage, strong sprout, growing way is good.
Two, the cuttage and seedling culture method of amur grape of the present invention, carry out in greenhouse, can have ready conditions and control temp. and humidity change, greenhouse can make amur grape endanger from bad weather simultaneously, meanwhile, improve many to labor author working environment, from Exposure to Sunlight, the hardship that drenches with rain, and automation mechanized operation equipment turn improves efficiency, alleviates labour intensity.
Three, the cuttage and seedling culture method of amur grape of the present invention, after cuttage and seedling culture, easily survives, have that clear superiority, growing way are vigorous relative to traditional plantlet in vitro or transplanted seedling, the maturing stage in advance, output increased and rich in nutrition content.
Four, the cuttage and seedling culture method of amur grape of the present invention, field management step, link accurately, put in place, choose the life in 1 year of complete aging lignification or 2 years raw branches, require that growth is sturdy, eye is full, and the branch without damage by disease and insect makes skewer fringe, easily heal after otch, and then carry out root process and nursed, can take root rapidly, rejuvenate.
Five, the cuttage and seedling culture method of amur grape of the present invention, to use in seedling process culture fluid, canopy matrix and with fertile, reasonable with medicine composition, through experimental verification repeatedly, for the optimum formula ratio of amur grape in cuttage, seedling raising process, under orderly management pattern, be easier to the growth of management and control amur grape, growth, extensive artificial planting is realized for amur grape provide important evidence.
Six, the cuttage and seedling culture method of amur grape of the present invention, all can realize in the South China north, because by the Modulatory character of greenhouse experiment, the reality that amur grape can only be grown up in southern area of China can be changed, introduce amur grape for the South and the North simultaneously and provide help.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, content of the present invention is described in detail:
Embodiment:
Embodiment 1
Inventor has carried out the cottage nursing experiment of amur grape in 2011-2013 years at Nanning Wuming County periphery.
(1) selection in nursery base: to select near military Hua Da road lowland in banana garden to be Experimental Base, this Experimental Base traffic convenience, and water flowing energising, the sunshine time is shorter, is the ground be comparatively applicable to.
(2) construction in nursery base
A. build sun-shading rain-proof shed: first base is flattened, then put up a shed, build canopy A and canopy B according to the specification of 4m*100m is adjacent respectively, building method is: first iron pipe is curved half-moon-shaped, then, be spaced be fixed into frame by 3m, assign on the ground, finally cover transparent plastic sheeting for farm use and sunshade net; Sun-shading rain-proof shedly be similar to vegetable greenhouse booth, not only can keep out wind and rain at canopy tumor growth and resist extraneous force majeure, ensure that the growing environment of amur grape is not influenced by the adverse circumstances, meanwhile, in greenhouse can at any time, accurately, fixed point, as required regulate roxburgh anoectochilus terminal bud growth required for the operation such as water, fertilizer, medicine.
Play furrow: b. wholely according to the width of canopy wholely, after determining the quantity of furrow, ditch and width, play furrow; Wherein canopy A plays furrow according to the wide furrow of 4 railway carriage or compartment 60cm and the wide ditch of 5 32cm, and canopy B plays furrow according to the mode of the wide furrow of 3 railway carriage or compartment 80cm and the wide ditch of 4 40cm; Then the thick cinder of one deck 10cm or river sand is being spread respectively at the bottom of furrow, then the cutting medium mixed thoroughly by thin river sand 50% and yellow sand loam 50% of the thick 15cm of layer overlay, then sterilizing and the process of desinsection protection against rodents are carried out to matrix.
C. in canopy, automatic spraying device is installed, interval 5m, adds passage at spray equipment starting point installation medicine-chest and fertilizer simultaneously, in canopy body entrance, centre and innermost end, plastic sheeting for farm use and sunshade net automatic control system are installed.
(3) cuttage and management
A. cutting time: on November 30th, 2011.
B. cuttings is chosen and is processed: choose the life in 1 year of complete aging lignification or 2 years raw branches, and require that growth is sturdy, eye is full, branch without damage by disease and insect makes skewer fringe, spike length 15-20cm, containing 2 joints, the otch of skewer fringe lower end will near joint portion or axil portion, and distance is 0.1-0.3cm; Otch can not with scissors or secateurs, with sharp blade or razor, cut sth. askew by 45° angle, impose uniformity without examining individual cases and break or reverse side tiltedly partial application again, to ensure that otch is level and smooth, few damaged, the skewer fringe cut is bundled into bundle aliging end to end in time, 1-2 hour is soaked in the one end of burying in culture fluid, carries out culture fluid immersion treatment.
Culture fluid recipe ingredient is: copper sulphate 0.01-0.1g/L+ zinc sulphate 0.01-0.1g/L+ ammonium molybdate 0.01-0.1g/L+ ferrous sulfate 0.01-0.1g/L+ manganese sulphate 0.01-0.1g/L+ boric acid 0.01-0.1g/L+ methyl α-naphthyl acetate 0.3-0.5g/L+ heteroauxin 0.1-0.2g/L+ thiophanate methyl 0.2-0.5g/L+ Macrogol 6000 0.2-1g/L+ white sugar 2.5 ~ 3.5g/L+ must 1.5 ~ 3.5g/L.
C. cottage method:
Canopy A cottage method is: enter in furrow by the oblique skewer of skewer fringe handled well, and cuttings eye on the upside of branch, and will expose furrow face 1-2cm.
Canopy B cottage method is: above-mentioned the bury culture fluid of one end and the fresh unpolluted yellow mud of cuttings that soaked is mixed yellow mud, one end that rear yellow mud parcel cuttings is buried, and trench digging is tiltedly planted.
D. management after inserting: moisturizing of will often spraying water after cuttage completes, every day 1-2 time, and will in good time adjust according to Changes in weather situation the height that the plastic sheeting for farm use of cool canopy both sides and screened postive roll, to keep ventilating, to be incubated, moisturizing; In addition monthly will spray 1-2 bactericide, just can apply fertilizer, and erase lateral bud after taking root half a year, short firmly climing robust growth, namely Second Year can be moved to field planting.
E, according to Changes in weather situation, the height that the cloudy canopy both sides plastic sheeting for farm use of Reasonable adjustment and screened postive are rolled, to ensure ventilation suitable in canopy and temp. and humidity, concrete grammar is:
When the comparatively large and continuous sunny of intensity of sunshine, put down sunshade net and spray 2 water.
When running into continuous drying rainfall and being few, spray 1 every day.
When temperature is more than 28 DEG C, open plastic sheeting for farm use suitably ventilation 1-2 times/day and spray 1 water.
When temperature is lower than 18 DEG C, open temperature regulator, regulating and controlling temperature is more than 22 DEG C.
When running into continuous cloudy humidity and being larger, open humidity regulation device, discharge moisture in greenhouse, keep humidity at 70-85%.
F, pest management:
Amur grape is very easily subject to causing harm of damage by disease and insect in process of growth, therefore, in good time, timely grape damage by disease and insect is prevented and treated very necessary, amur grape common disease and pest has anthracnose, downy mildew, brown spot, anthrachose of grape, two spotted spider mite, two asterophyllite cicada etc., main pesticide control based on cultural control, as rational close planting, avoid the excessive disease caused of humidity, meanwhile, timely weeding, prevents careless vector-borne insect from causing harm.
Following medicament can be used rationally to prevent and treat:
With medicament is made to be commercially available agricultural chemicals.
Embodiment 2: effectively improve survival rate and quality by the method for above-mentioned cuttage and seedling culture plantation amur grape:
Above-mentioned cultivation method is used to compare with conventional method domestication wild grape survival rate
Can find out; planting type of the present invention can ensure that the survival rate of grape is up to more than 95%; and traditional cultivation mode is unstable and survival rate is lower; plantation experience for years shows: the cultivation method of this amur grape can be accomplished scale production the needs of grape completely; detecting through relevant department, all reaching criterion of acceptability through cultivating the grape nutrient component of breeding.

Claims (5)

1. a cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method, is characterized in that: comprise the steps:
(1) selection in nursery base: select sunshine time shorter or that intensity of illumination is more weak place to do nursery base, and selected area has a good transport service, hydroelectric facility is complete;
(2) construction in nursery base
A. build sun-shading rain-proof shed: first base is flattened, then put up a shed, the size of canopy is determined according to nursery scale; Building method is: first bamboo chip, reinforcing bar or iron pipe are curved half-moon-shaped, and then, arrangement is fixed into frame at regular intervals, assigns on the ground, finally covers transparent plastic sheeting for farm use and sunshade net;
Play furrow: b. wholely according to the width of canopy wholely, after determining the quantity of furrow, ditch and width, play furrow;
C. in canopy, automatic spraying device is installed;
(3) cuttage and management
A. cutting time: before sprouting to spring next year bud after grape maturity annual September;
B. cuttings is chosen and is processed: choose the life in 1 year of complete aging lignification or 2 years raw branches, and require that growth is sturdy, eye is full, branch without damage by disease and insect makes cuttings, spike length 15-20cm, containing 2 joints, the otch of cuttings lower end will near joint portion or axil portion, and distance is 0.1-0.3cm; Otch can not with scissors or secateurs, with sharp blade or razor, cut sth. askew by 45° angle, impose uniformity without examining individual cases and break or reverse side tiltedly partial application again, to ensure that otch is level and smooth, few damaged, the cuttings cut is bundled into bundle aliging end to end in time, 1-2 hour is soaked in the one end of burying in culture fluid, carries out culture fluid immersion treatment;
C. cottage method: method one: oblique for the cuttings handled well skewer is entered in furrow, cuttings eye on the upside of branch, and will expose furrow face 1-2cm; Method two: above-mentioned the bury culture fluid of one end and the yellow mud of cuttings that soaked is mixed yellow mud, one end that rear yellow mud parcel cuttings is buried, and trench digging is tiltedly planted;
D. management after inserting: moisturizing of will often spraying water after cuttage completes, every day 1-2 time, and will in good time adjust according to Changes in weather situation the height that the plastic sheeting for farm use of cool canopy both sides and sunshade net roll, to keep ventilating, to be incubated, moisturizing; In addition monthly will spray 1-2 bactericide, just can apply fertilizer, and erase lateral bud after taking root half a year, short main climing robust growth, namely Second Year can be moved to field planting.
2. cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described in step (3), culture fluid recipe ingredient is: copper sulphate 0.01-0.1g/L+ zinc sulphate 0.01-0.1g/L+ ammonium molybdate 0.01-0.1g/L+ ferrous sulfate
0.01-0.1g/L+ manganese sulphate 0.01-0.1g/L+ boric acid 0.01-0.1g/L+ methyl α-naphthyl acetate 0.3-0.5g/L+ heteroauxin
0.1-0.2g/L+ thiophanate methyl 0.2-0.5g/L+ Macrogol 6000 0.2-1g/L+ white sugar 2.5 ~ 3.5g/L+ must 1.5 ~ 3.5g/L.
3. cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: the method playing furrow described in step (2) is wholely: in the base of the wide 4m of canopy, in the furrow wide according to 3 railway carriage or compartment 80cm and the wide ditch of 4 40cm or the wide furrow of 4 railway carriage or compartment 60cm and wide two kinds, the ditch of 5 32cm, any one mode plays furrow; Then at the bottom of furrow, spread the thick cinder of one deck 10cm or river sand, then the cutting medium mixed thoroughly by thin river sand 50% and yellow sand loam 50% of the thick 15cm of layer overlay, then sterilizing and the process of desinsection protection against rodents are carried out to matrix.
4. cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described in step (2), transparent plastic sheeting for farm use and sunshade net can automatic deploying and retractings.
5. cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described in step (3), insulation, moisturizing by installing automatic warm moisture control system to realize in canopy.
CN201410480706.2A 2014-09-19 2014-09-19 A kind of cuttings of wild grapes seedling-cultivating method CN104285756B (en)

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CN106613722A (en) * 2016-12-01 2017-05-10 都安瑶族自治县技术开发中心 Vitis amurensis planting method
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CN107950573B (en) * 2017-12-20 2021-01-22 安徽省松邦农业科技有限公司 Grape cutting processing method for improving procyanidine content of grapes

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