CN104283478B  A kind of Over Electric Motor with PMSM current control system and control method  Google Patents
A kind of Over Electric Motor with PMSM current control system and control method Download PDFInfo
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 CN104283478B CN104283478B CN201410588607.6A CN201410588607A CN104283478B CN 104283478 B CN104283478 B CN 104283478B CN 201410588607 A CN201410588607 A CN 201410588607A CN 104283478 B CN104283478 B CN 104283478B
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to Over Electric Motor with PMSM (PMSM) curren tracing control method, particularly relate to a kind of base In generalized predictive control (GPC) and the PMSM electric current used for electric vehicle with strong tracking and robustness of sliding formwork disturbance observer Control system and control method.
Background technology
Along with energy shortage and the aggravation of problem of environmental pollution, electric automobile becomes the main development of 21 century auto industry Direction.Efficiency is high, specific power is big, power factor is high, reliability is high and is easy to maintenance etc., electronic because having for permagnetic synchronous motor The applications such as automobile have been considered to have the great potential competed mutually with asynchronous motor.Although PMSM has abovementioned advantage, But when electric automobile runs, road conditions are complicated, and working environment is complicated and changeable, the performance requirement that it drives electric system is the harshest, That adds that motor itself has is nonlinear, and multivariate, the characteristic such as close coupling, traditional vector control method based on PI is the most not Requirement high performance to motor can be met.Therefore, the control theory of some advanced persons, such as: modified feedback linearization control, sliding formwork controls, Self Adaptive Control, the method such as Reverse Step Control, it is applied to this domain variability and achieves many achievements in research, but these methods are to electricity The dependency of machine parameter is strong, and for the Parameters variation of motor, load disturbance etc., the method for design disturbance observer is widely used in During motor controls, by estimating disturbed value, and in the Compensation Design of controller, suppressing Parameters variation, load disturbance etc. is made The motor speed become, the fluctuation of torque.In recent years, Model Predictive Control is as a kind of new control strategy, because it has control Effective, strong robustness, optimize model exactness is less demanding etc., more and more paid attention to.Model Predictive Control profit The output of future time instance is predicted with the inputoutput data of system, then by optimizing containing output variable and the cost of reference locus Function, obtains Predictive control law, and has been supplied in the control fields such as robot, motor, power inverter.Equally, model prediction Control method also demonstrates its effectiveness in PMSM control, but currently for the control of permagnetic synchronous motor, is to use mostly PREDICTIVE CONTROL based on system discrete time model, and consider system constraints, realize by solving quadratic programming problem Line optimizes, although improves PMSM control performance, there is computationally intensive problem simultaneously, to the configuration requirement of control system relatively Height, limits its application in the contour dynamic non linear system of power drive system.
Summary of the invention
For solving the deficiency that prior art exists, the invention discloses a kind of Over Electric Motor with PMSM electric current control System processed and control method, the method based on continuoustime generalised predictive control and sliding formwork disturbance observer used for electric vehicle forever Magneticsynchro current of electric control method, it is achieved the fast and stable of electric current is followed the tracks of, is that a kind of utilization advanced algorithm realizes current of electric The new method controlled.
For achieving the above object, the concrete scheme of the present invention is as follows:
A kind of Over Electric Motor with PMSM current control method, comprises the following steps:
Step one: utilize rotating speed/position detecting module to obtain rotational speed omega and the angular position theta of permagnetic synchronous motor, by position Angle θ value is input in the second coordinate transformation module and the 3rd coordinate transformation module, by the rotational speed omega value of motor and given motor Tachometer value ω_{r}It is input in PI control module, obtains q shaft current reference value through PI computing
Step 2: utilize current sensor to collect the biphase output electric current i of permagnetic synchronous motor_{a}And i_{b}And will output electricity Stream i_{a}And i_{b}It is input in the first coordinate transformation module, first exports the null principle of threephase current sum according to motor, try to achieve Third phase electric current i_{c}, then utilize motor threephase current i_{a}, i_{b}And i_{c}, through coordinate transform, obtain under biphase rest frame Electric current i_{α}And i_{β}, the i that finally will try to achieve in the first coordinate transformation module_{α}, i_{β}And angular position theta is input to the second coordinate transform Module obtains i_{d}And i_{q}。
Step 3: q shaft current reference value will be obtained through PI computing in step oneGiven d shaft current reference valueWith And second i that obtain of coordinate transformation module_{d}, i_{q}It is input to predictive current control module and obtains output voltage values；By i_{d}, i_{q}And Permagnetic synchronous motor tachometer value ω is input to sliding formwork disturbance observer module, obtains permanent magnetism through sliding formwork disturbance observer module same The estimated value of step motor disturbanceWith
Step 4: output voltage values step 3 obtained deducts the estimated value of permagnetic synchronous motor disturbanceWithObtain Control voltage signal u_{d}, u_{q}, by u_{d}, u_{q}And θ is input to the 3rd coordinate transformation module and obtains u_{α}And u_{β}；
Step 5: by u_{α}And u_{β}It is input to space vector pulse width modulation module, obtains six road pwm signal outputs, and by PWM Signal controls inverter, inverter the threephase output voltage obtained is to drive the operation of permagnetic synchronous motor.
Described permagnetic synchronous motor mathematical model under dq synchronous rotating frame is expressed as:
u_{d}=L_{d}di_{d}/dt+R_{s}i_{d}n_{p}ωL_{q}i_{q}f_{d}
(1)
u_{q}=L_{q}di_{q}/dt+R_{s}i_{q}+n_{p}ωL_{d}i_{d}+n_{p}ωΦf_{q}
In formula, L_{d}And L_{q}For the stator inductance under dq synchronous rotating frame, i_{d}, i_{q}, u_{d}, u_{q}It is respectively under dq coordinate system Stator current and voltage, R_{s}For stator resistance, n_{p}For number of polepairs, ω is rotor mechanical angle speed, and Φ is the magnetic that permanent magnet produces Chain, f_{d}, f_{q}For the disturbance quantity caused by Parameters variation.
The mathematical model of described permagnetic synchronous motor is expressed as nonlinear system, writ state variable x=[L_{d}i_{d} L_{q}i_{q}]^{T}, defeated Enter variable u=[u_{d} u_{q}]^{T}, disturbance quantity d=[f_{d} f_{q}]^{T}, output variable y=h (x)=[i_{d} i_{q}]^{T}, obtain nonlinear system:
Wherein,
Definition cost function
In described step 3, for not considering the nominal system of disturbance d, system output i_{d}, i_{q}Relative order to input is ρ =1, take the control rank r=0 of system input, and will outputρ derivation is arrived in the 0 of time, prediction is exportedAt t Moment presses Taylor series expansion, until ρ+r time:
Then above formula (3) is expressed asForm, in like manner, with reference to output by Taylor series expansion
Obtain
Order
For making cost function minimize, the predictive current control thus obtaining nominal system is restrained:
Wherein,
In described step 3, in the case of considering actual disturbance quantity d, the generalized predictive control rule of system is expressed as
Wherein,
The detailed process of asking for of described compound disturbance observation value is:
First structure sliding formwork disturbance observer
In formula, s=[s_{1} s_{2}]^{T},I.e.I= 1,2
Obtained by formula (6)
Take the Lyapunov function of sliding formwork disturbance observerMake ξ=f+d=[ξ_{1} ξ_{2}]^{T}, thenDefinitionIf
ChooseThen
A kind of Over Electric Motor with PMSM current control system, including:
Rotating speed/position detecting module, for detecting tachometer value ω and the angular position theta of permagnetic synchronous motor；
Current sensor, is used for gathering permagnetic synchronous motor biphase output electric current i_{a}And i_{b}And it is input to the first coordinate transform Module；
First coordinate transformation module, for by biphase output electric current i_{a}And i_{b}Obtain at biphase static seat through coordinate transform Electric current i under mark system_{α}And i_{β}；
Second coordinate transformation module, for by i_{α}, i_{β}And angular position theta becomes through the biphase static coordinate to biphase rotation Get i in return_{d}And i_{q}；
PI speed ring controller, for motor speed value ω and the given motor that rotating speed/position detecting module are obtained Tachometer value ω_{r}Q shaft current reference value is obtained through PI computing
Electric current loop PREDICTIVE CONTROL module, for by q shaft current reference valueGiven d shaft current reference valueAnd second The i that coordinate transformation module obtains_{d}, i_{q}It is predicted computing and obtains output voltage values；
Sliding formwork disturbance observation module, for just i_{d}, i_{q}And motor speed value ω is as input, obtains through observer The estimated value of permagnetic synchronous motor disturbanceWith
3rd coordinate transformation module, for being individually subtracted disturbance by the output voltage values that electric current loop PREDICTIVE CONTROL module obtains Estimated valueWithThe control voltage signal u obtained_{d}, u_{q}, and θ rotates to biphase static coordinate transform through biphase Obtain u_{α}And u_{β}；
Space vector pulse width modulation module, for by u_{α}And u_{β}It is calculated six road pwm signal outputs, and by pwm signal control Inverter processed, thus obtains threephase output voltage to drive the operation of motor.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
The present invention uses generalized forecast control method based on sliding formwork disturbance observer to substitute electric current during conventional vector controls The PI control method of ring, the controller obtained regulation parameter is few, controls to be more easy to regulation than PI, and the present invention uses based on continuously The forecast Control Algorithm of time model, compared with the forecast Control Algorithm based on discrete model considering constraint, has amount of calculation Little, low to the configuration requirement of controller, it is easier to the advantages such as realization, the introducing of sliding formwork disturbance observer adds the antiinterference of system Dynamic performance, when system parameter variations, the disturbed value of the effective estimating system of energy, and for the Front feedback control of controller, System is made to have stronger robust performance.
1, use advanced continuoustime generalised predictive control method for the electric current of Over Electric Motor with PMSM In tracing control, having controller design simple, amount of calculation is little, controls the advantages such as effective.
2, for adapting to the parameter perturbation that during electric automobile runs, severe working condition brings to electric machine control system, in conjunction with Sliding formwork disturbance observer method estimates disturbance quantity, and for the compensation control of electric current so that system has stronger robustness Energy.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Accompanying drawing explanation
The overall structure block diagram of the carried control method of Fig. 1 present invention；
D shaft current aircraft pursuit course when Fig. 2 a load torque and the parameter of electric machine are constant；
Q shaft current aircraft pursuit course when Fig. 2 b load torque and the parameter of electric machine are constant；
Dq shaft current tracking error curve when Fig. 2 c load torque and the parameter of electric machine are constant；
D shaft current aircraft pursuit course during the change of Fig. 3 a load torque；
Q shaft current aircraft pursuit course during the change of Fig. 3 b load torque；
Dq shaft current tracking error curve during the change of Fig. 3 c load torque；
Phase current curve during the change of Fig. 3 d load torque；
D shaft current aircraft pursuit course during the change of Fig. 4 a parameter of electric machine；
Q shaft current aircraft pursuit course during the change of Fig. 4 b parameter of electric machine；
Dq shaft current tracking error curve figure during the change of Fig. 4 c parameter of electric machine；
In figure, 1, current sensor, the 2, first coordinate transformation module, the 3, second coordinate transformation module, 4, rotating speed/position inspection Survey module, 5, PI speed ring controller, 6, electric current loop PREDICTIVE CONTROL module, 7, sliding formwork disturbance observation module, the 8, the 3rd coordinate becomes Die change block, 9, space vector pulse width modulation module, 10, inverter, 11, permagnetic synchronous motor.
Detailed description of the invention:
The present invention is described in detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
As it is shown in figure 1, a kind of Over Electric Motor with PMSM current control method, comprise the following steps:
1) in PMSM running, rotational speed omega and the position of permagnetic synchronous motor is obtained through rotating speed/position detecting module 4 Angle setting θ, and θ value is input in the second coordinate transformation module 3 and the 3rd coordinate transformation module 8, the permanent magnet synchronous electric that will obtain Machine tachometer value ω and given motor speed value ω_{r}It is input in PI speed ring controller 5, obtains q shaft current through PI computing Reference value
2) the motor biphase output electric current i that current sensor 1 will collect_{a}And i_{b}It is input to for three phase static to biphase First coordinate transformation module 2 of static coordinate transform, first according to threephase current sum equal to zero, tries to achieve third phase electric current i_{c}, and through coordinate transform, obtain the electric current i under biphase rest frame_{α}And i_{β}, then i_{α}, i_{β}And angular position theta is input to Second coordinate transformation module 3, carries out the biphase static coordinate transform to biphase rotation and obtains i_{d}And i_{q}。
3) the q shaft current reference value that PI speed ring controller 5 is obtainedGiven d shaft current reference valueAnd second The i that coordinate transformation module 3 obtains_{d}, i_{q}It is input to predictive current control module 6, through the predictive current control device being described below, Obtain output voltage values.By i_{d}, i_{q}And motor speed value ω is input to sliding formwork disturbance observer module 7, obtain through observer The estimated value of motor disturbanceWith
4) by the 3rd) output voltage values that obtains in step deducts the control voltage signal u that the disturbed value of estimation obtains_{d}, u_{q}, with And θ is input to obtain u for biphase the 3rd coordinate transformation module 8 rotating to biphase static coordinate transform_{α}And u_{β}。
5) by u_{α}And u_{β}It is input to space vector pulse width modulation module 9 i.e. SVPWM module, obtains six road PWM letters of controller Number output, and by pwm signal control inverter 10, thus obtain threephase output voltage to drive the operation of motor.
In test, der Geschwindigkeitkreis uses PI to control, and electric current loop uses generalized forecast control method, and uses sliding formwork disturbance to see Survey device and estimate that disturbed value controls for the compensation of electric current loop.The present invention uses i at electric current loop_{d}The control method of=0, result of the test As in Figure 24.
Fig. 2 is given motor speed 800rmp, and load torque is 0.5N m, in the case of the parameter of electric machine is constant with load, Motor dq shaft current aircraft pursuit course, Fig. 2 a is d shaft current aircraft pursuit course, and Fig. 2 b is q shaft current aircraft pursuit course, and Fig. 2 c is dq axle electricity Stream tracking error curve, as seen from the figure, motor output electric current can be good at following the tracks of given dq shaft current curve.
Fig. 3 is given motor speed 800rmp, and load torque is 0.5N m, and when t=1s, load torque is by 0.5N m Becoming current curve during 1N m, Fig. 3 a is d shaft current aircraft pursuit course, and Fig. 3 b is q shaft current aircraft pursuit course, and Fig. 3 c is dq axle Current track error curve, Fig. 3 is phase current curve during load torque change, goes out from the experimental results, and load torque changes Time, dq shaft current has good tracking performance.
In order to verify that the current control method that the present invention proposes does not mates time control at motor actual parameter and controller parameter The robust performance of device processed, becomes the parameter of electric machine set in controller: R_{st}=0.5*R_{s}, L_{dt}=0.75*L_{d}, L_{qt}=0.75* L_{q}, Φ_{t}=1.2* Φ, Fig. 4 are the current tracking curve after corresponding parameter of electric machine change, and wherein, Fig. 4 a is that d shaft current is followed the tracks of Curve, Fig. 4 b is q shaft current aircraft pursuit course, and Fig. 4 c is dq shaft current tracking error curve, as seen from the figure, when in controller The parameter of electric machine change after, electric current still is able to quickly follow the tracks of given current curve, test result indicate that, the electric current in the present invention with Track control method has good robust control performance.
Predictive current control module 6 and sliding formwork disturbance observer module 7 are as follows:
Initially with continuous time model generalized forecast control method, according to system continuous time model, utilize Taylor's level Number launches the system output in prediction finite timedomain, is tried to achieve the generalized predictive control rate of system by the cost function of definition.
By rotor fieldoriented theory, PMSM mathematical model under dq synchronous rotating frame is represented by
u_{d}=L_{d}di_{d}/dt+R_{s}i_{d}n_{p}ωL_{q}i_{q}f_{d}
(1)
u_{q}=L_{q}di_{q}/dt+R_{s}i_{q}+n_{p}ωL_{d}i_{d}+n_{p}ωΦf_{q}
In formula, L_{d}And L_{q}For the stator inductance under dq synchronous rotating frame, i_{d}, i_{q}, u_{d}, u_{q}It is respectively under dq coordinate system Stator current and voltage, R_{s}For stator resistance, n_{p}For number of polepairs, ω is rotor mechanical angle speed, and Φ is the magnetic that permanent magnet produces Chain, f_{d}, f_{q}For the disturbance quantity caused by Parameters variation.The purpose of order invention be the electric current seeking control system for permanentmagnet synchronous motor with Track controller, makes x=[L_{d}i_{d} L_{q}i_{q}]^{T}, u=[u_{d} u_{q}]^{T}, d=[f_{d} f_{q}]^{T}, y=h (x)=[i_{d} i_{q}]^{T}, by permanent magnet synchronous electric The mathematical model of machine is expressed as the form of nonlinear system and obtains
Wherein,
Definition cost function
For not considering the nominal system of disturbance d, system output i_{d}, i_{q}Relative order to input is ρ=1, takes system input Control rank r=0, and will outputρ derivation is arrived in the 0 of time, prediction is exportedIn t by Taylor series Launch, until ρ+r time
Then above formula is expressed asForm, in like manner, with reference to output obtained by Taylor series expansion
Arrive
Order
For making cost function minimize, the predictive current control that thus can obtain nominal system is restrained:
Wherein,
Formula (4) has tried to achieve the electric current control law using generalized predictive control theoretical in the case of not considering disturbance, but in reality Motor for Electric Automobile drive system in, the disturbance of system is inevitable, as working environment change cause motor ginseng Number change modeling is inaccurate, and in the case of considering actual disturbance d, the generalized predictive control rule of system is expressed as:
Wherein,
In formula (5), there is the disturbance quantity of the unknown, in order to try to achieve control law, need to first obtain the value of disturbance quantity, to this end, this Invention devises a kind of novel disturbance observer based on slidingmode method disturbance variable in estimating system.
First structure sliding formwork disturbance observer
In formula, s=[s_{1} s_{2}]^{T},I.e.I= 1,2
Obtained by formula (6)
Take the Lyapunov function of sliding formwork disturbance observerMake ξ=f+d=[ξ_{1} ξ_{2}]^{T}, thenDefinitionIf
ChooseThenThus
Sliding formwork disturbance observer according to the provable structure of Liapunov stability law is asymptotically stable, and sliding formwork is disturbed Inmotion viewing measured valueThe robustness of system is improve by the design of sliding formwork disturbance observer.Although the studies above is demonstrate,proved Understand the stability of sliding formwork disturbance observer, but do not prove that whole hybrid system is at generalized predictive control rule and sliding formwork disturbance observation Stability under device effect.Will be proven below hybrid system stability under generalized predictive control rule (5) effect.
Obtained by formula (2)Make e=y (t)y_{r}, and then can obtain
The error equation of closed loop system is represented byWherein, A=K, B=G_{1}, define sliding formwork disturbance
The observation error of observer is e_{d}=s=xz, is expressed as the error vector of closed loop system
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CN105591575B (en) *  20160111  20171226  同济大学  A kind of direct character control system of nonsalient pole permanent magnet synchronous motor and control method 
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CN105897097B (en) *  20160418  20180323  北方工业大学  Permagnetic synchronous motor current predictive control method and device 
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CN106169893B (en) *  20160722  20180807  扬州大学  A kind of method of permanent magnet synchronous motor sliding moding structure position control 
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CN109687801A (en) *  20190221  20190426  南京工程学院  A kind of permanent magnetic linear synchronous motor dead beat current control method 
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