CN104279946A - Calibration method for spherical surface displacement measurement through electrical vortex sensor - Google Patents

Calibration method for spherical surface displacement measurement through electrical vortex sensor Download PDF

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CN104279946A
CN104279946A CN201410473255.XA CN201410473255A CN104279946A CN 104279946 A CN104279946 A CN 104279946A CN 201410473255 A CN201410473255 A CN 201410473255A CN 104279946 A CN104279946 A CN 104279946A
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calibration
sensor
displacement
semisphere
measurement
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CN104279946B (en
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王永青
廉盟
刘海波
盛贤君
贾振元
王凤彪
郭东明
康仁科
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Dalian University of Technology
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Abstract

The invention discloses a calibration method for spherical surface displacement measurement through an electrical vortex sensor, belongs to the field of precision measurement and relates to calibration methods for measuring the distance between a spherical surface part and the end face of the probe of the sensor through the electrical vortex sensor. According to the method, measurement calibration is carried out on displacements of multiple sets of spherical surfaces of different curvatures, and a calibration curved surface of spherical surface displacement measurement through the electrical vortex sensor is established based on the calibration data. The method comprises the steps that, firstly, the electrical vortex displacement sensor is clamped and fixed to a machine tool main shaft, a hemispherical calibration piece used for calibration is clamped to a machine tool workbench, centering of the probe of the sensor is carried out on multiple sets of hemispherical calibration pieces of different curvatures, the machine tool main shaft drives the probe of the electrical vortex displacement sensor to move, displacement calibration within the range ability of the electrical vortex displacement sensor is completed, and the calibration curved surface of spherical surface displacement measurement through the electrical vortex sensor is established by adopting the least square method. According to the calibration method for the spherical surface displacement measurement through the electrical vortex sensor, output calibration of displacement measurement of the spherical surfaces with any curvature, the measurement precision of curved surface displacement is improved, accuracy is high and practicability is high.

Description

A kind of scaling method of current vortex sensor sphere displacement measurement
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of precision measurement, relate to the scaling method utilizing electric vortex sensor measuring spherical parts to sensor probe end face distance.
Background technology
The high precision key components and parts in enormous quantities with complex-curved feature is there is in Aero-Space and nuclear industry, because actual shape of metal basal plane (i.e. soft coating equal thickness machining benchmark) can not represent by original design in its Digital manufacturing, on-machine measurement is needed to obtain.Eddy current detection because having nonmetallic materials transmission is good, measurement range is wide, highly sensitive, resolution is high, fast response time, interference resistance by force, not by the advantage such as impact of the media such as greasy dirt, for the Metal Substrate planar survey under not visible state provides effective way.The principle of work of current eddy current displacement sensor is based on the mutual inductance effect between coil and flat board, only can ensure result precision at measurement plane.Therefore, current vortex sensor is studied very necessary to the measuring accuracy improving curved surface to the measuring error of different curvature curved surface.
Eddy current displacement sensor, in practical engineering application, when having curved surface features when measured conductor surface on-plane surface, represents curved surface features with curvature parameters.Although the distance between target measuring point and eddy current displacement sensor does not change, but because the eddy current produced in tested part is certain area distribution, the space distribution of current vortex field will change, thus cause the impedance of probe coil comparatively to measure identical in-plane displancement comparing and change, the output voltage of eddy current displacement sensor metering circuit is changed.Namely now the measurement result of eddy current displacement sensor can not represent the actual range of target measuring point, there is error of curvature.Through experimental verification, when measured surface is sphere, when radius-of-curvature is 20mm, error of curvature will can reach 0.05mm for eddy current displacement sensor measuring error, can not meet the accuracy requirement of measurement.And in actual measurement process, the curved surface features that tested part ubiquity is a large amount of, especially in complex-curved precision measurement process, error of curvature becomes one of key factor restricting high-accuracy measurement, the measuring accuracy of serious restriction eddy current displacement sensor and usable range.Therefore, the Measurement and calibration technology of curved surface part displacement seems particularly important.
2005, Tsing-Hua University goes into business and proposes the displacement measurement of the eddy current effect march surface parts utilizing the special-shaped coils consistent with tested curve form in paper " finite element analysis of Gap Between Curved Plates eddy current detection " that Yongping, Ding Tianhuai etc. deliver at " sensing technology journal ", but the method manufacturing cost is higher, and the general applicability of coil is poor.2013, School of Information Technology of Northcentral University Hu Peng describes a kind of measuring method of spherical metal part nonmetallic coating thickness in master thesis " the curved surface coating thickness measuring precision analysis based on dull and stereotyped standardization ", namely directly measures the thickness of curved surface coating according to calibration result during electric vortex sensor measuring plane.The method seriously limits the curvature range of tested part, and measuring accuracy can not ensure.The research of Chinese scholars and mechanism not yet mentions that utility eddy current displacement sensor measures the measuring accuracy technique and method of arbitrary surface part distance.
Summary of the invention
The technical matters that the present invention mainly solves is the deficiency overcoming above-mentioned curved face measurement method, be difficult to guarantee problem for measuring accuracy during the displacement of electric vortex sensor measuring curved surface part, invent a kind of scaling method being applicable to eddy current displacement sensor sphere displacement measurement.The method is based on the displacement measurement nominal data of sensor to many group different curvature spheres, and set up the error of curvature calibration curved surface of spherical parts displacement measurement, practical value is high, applied range.Sensor can complete the repeatedly calibration measurements to the displacement of different curvature spherical parts under clamped one time, ensures calibration process rapidly and efficiently; And the curvature restriction of this scaling method to spherical parts is few, and usable range is wide; The centering process of this outer sensor as the important step of this method, using in sphere along major axes orientation peak as target measurement point, ensure the accuracy of calibration result as the displacement of sphere using the displacement of target measuring point; Adopt " displacement-curvature-output " of the displacement of least square fitting electric vortex sensor measuring different curvature hemisphere-shaped workpiece to calibrate curved surface, ensure that calibration result precision, realize the compensation of the displacement measurement errors to any curvature sphere.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention is a kind of scaling method of current vortex sensor sphere displacement measurement, the method carries out measurement demarcation for the displacement of many group different curvature spheres, sets up the calibration curved surface of current vortex sensor sphere displacement measurement based on nominal data.First eddy current displacement sensor is clamped on machine tool chief axis, by the rotary table of the semisphere calibration element clamping for calibrating at lathe band T-slot, then the semisphere calibration element of many group different curvature is carried out to the centering process of sensor probe, ensure that the measurement initial position of sensor to be on tested curved surface directly over target measuring point, and the axis of sensor is along the normal direction of experiment measured surface, machine tool chief axis drives electric vortex displacement sensor probe to move, complete the displacement calibrating in its range ability, least square method is adopted to set up the calibration curved surface of current vortex sensor sphere displacement measurement, the concrete steps of current vortex sensor hemisphere face displacement measurement scaling method are as follows:
First step current vortex sensor is installed
Current vortex sensor probe 6 is fixed in the middle of dull and stereotyped 4 by himself screw thread and 2 sensor probe attaching nuts 12, dull and stereotyped 4 are connected with switching device 2 with nut 5 by 4 bolts 3, finally switching device 2 is directly clamped on machine tool chief axis 1 by expansion set, completes the installation of sensor;
The clamping of second step semisphere calibration element
Semisphere calibration element 7 is placed on and is with on the rotary table 11 of T-slot and is clamped by two unit clamps 10, by pressing plate 9 compressing fixture 10 of bolt, complete the clamping of calibration element;
The centering process of the 3rd step sensor
First, mobile machine tool main shaft 1 is along X-axis negative sense, Y-axis negative sense, and Z axis forward leaves semisphere calibration element 7, then, makes sensor probe 6 with certain speed of feed v 1vertical rotary table 11 surface close to band T-slot, during rotary table 11 surface contact of probe end face with band T-slot, stops the feeding of machine tool chief axis 1, records the coordinate figure z of lathe now main shaft z-axis 0, main shaft 1 is raised to z along z-axis forward 1=z 0+ H+0.02, H are the height of tested semisphere calibration element 7, and the displacement measured when ensureing sensor centering is in its measurement range.In thick centering process, Non-follow control lathe main shaft 1 drives sensor probe 6 by the central point of range estimation close to semisphere calibration element 7 sphere, and during stopping, the starting coordinate position recording now sensor centering is (x 0, y 0, z 1), pin machine tool chief axis Z axis and Y direction motionless, machine tool chief axis 1 along X-axis forward with certain speed v 2displacement l 1, inner sensor feedback voltage level during simultaneously gathering this with sample frequency f, after machine tool chief axis 1 stops, finding the time coordinate t of value of feedback minimum value x, calculate the mid point X of the X-direction of semisphere zero standard locking member 1for x 0+ t x× v 2; When in like manner finding the mid point of Y direction of semisphere calibration element, the time coordinate t of feedback voltage level minimum value y, the mid point y of the Y direction of semisphere calibration element 1for y 0+ t y× v 2;
4th step different curvature semisphere calibration element displacement calibrating is measured
(x under machine tool chief axis 1 is moved to coordinate system 1, y 1, z 1) some place, initial measurement displacement is 0.02mm.Sensor probe 6 is constantly promoted along Z axis with specific stepping range in range ability, and probe constantly increases with the gap of surface of test piece, after each stepping completes, and n group different measuring distance t under record certain curvature radius r ithe output signal value y of sensor i.The radius-of-curvature r of semisphere calibration element iscope be the minimum ball radius surface that can survey of current vortex sensor to the spherical radius that has the greatest impact by radius-of-curvature, and to wait semisphere calibration element of the way selection many groups of semidiameter calibration to measure, measuring process repeat above-mentioned experimental procedure second and third, four steps;
5th step sets up error of curvature calibration curved surface
Based on " displacement-curvature-output " data point (t of the sphere calibration element of the different curvature radius obtained in calibration process i, r i, y i) i=1,2 ..., N, altogether N group, set up the calibration curved surface of the semisphere calibration element displacement of electric vortex sensor measuring different curvature radius, surface equation is:
y = Σ j = 0 n ( Σ i = j m c j , i - j t i - j r j ) - - - ( 1 )
Wherein, t is for measuring displacement, and r is spherical radius, and y is output voltage, and c represents the multinomial coefficient of surface equation, and m is the top step number of t, and n is the top step number of r.
Adopt least square method to set up calibration curved surface y, the total error Q of fitting surface result is:
Q = Σ k = 1 N [ y k - Σ j = 0 n ( Σ i = j m c j , i - j t i - j r j ) ] 2 - - - ( 2 )
Make total error Q minimum, be summed up as the extreme-value problem of the multivariate function, i.e. c j, i-jshould meet:
∂ Q ∂ c j , i - j = 0 - - - ( 3 )
First by data point (t i, r i, y i) i=1,2 ..., N, substitutes into the mathematic(al) representation that formula (2) obtains Q, then Q is substituted into composition equation with many unknowns group in formula (3), can solve coefficient c by system of equations j, i-jvalue, substitute into formula (1) the calibration curved surface mathematic(al) representation of matching.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: to the displacement measurement scaling method of different curvature hemisphere face calibration element rapidly and efficiently, degree of accuracy is high for eddy current displacement sensor; The displacement measurement of current vortex sensor to any curvature sphere that be established as of sphere displacement measurement calibration curved surface provides the foundation that calibrates for error, and achieves the Measurement accuracy of sensor to the displacement of any curvature sphere.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Accompanying drawing 1-hemisphere-shaped workpiece standardization experimental apparatus scheme of installation, accompanying drawing 2-sensor probe clamping schematic diagram, accompanying drawing 3-centering process reference position schematic diagram.Wherein: 1-machine tool chief axis, 2-switching device, 3-bolt, 4-is dull and stereotyped, 5-nut, 6-sensor probe, 7-semisphere calibration element, 8-hold-down bolt, 9-pressing plate, 10-unit clamp, 11-is with the rotary table of T-slot, 12-sensor probe attaching nut, the X-axis in X, Y, Z-XYZ coordinate system, Y-axis and Z axis.
Embodiment
Describe embodiments of the present invention in detail with technical scheme by reference to the accompanying drawings, the calibration process of eddy current displacement sensor spherical surface measurement is described.According to the scope of consulting associated materials determination spherical diameter, select diameter be respectively SR10, SR15, SR20, SR25, SR30, SR35, SR40mm etc. the semisphere calibration element of radial span, surfaceness is Ra0.08.The range ability of eddy current displacement sensor is 0 ~ 2mm, and the linearity is ± 0.5%.Data collecting card is 16 A/D conversions, the sample frequency of the highest 250kHz.Before measurement demarcation starts, sensor probe is fixed on machine tool chief axis Z axis by clamp assembly; Tested semisphere calibration element is placed on machine tool horizontal workbench by fixture; Sensor is connected with PC by terminal strip, data collecting card.
The first step, before displacement sensor probe 6 and semisphere calibration element 7 clamping, first ensures that machine tool chief axis is in home, to avoid collision.As shown in Figure 1, sensor probe 6 is fixed in the middle of dull and stereotyped 4 by 2 sensor probe attaching nuts 12, dull and stereotyped 4 are connected with switching device 2 with nut 5 by uniform 4 bolts 3, and switching device 2 is directly clamped on machine tool chief axis 1 by expansion set, completes the installation of sensor.
Sphere diameter is that the semisphere calibration element 7 of SR10mm is placed on the rotary table 11 of band T-slot by second step, and calibration element is by the clamping of two unit clamp 10 symmetries, and uses pressing plate 9 compressing fixture 10 with bolt, completes the clamping of semisphere calibration element.
3rd step, mobile machine tool main shaft 1 is along X-axis negative sense, Y-axis negative sense, and Z axis forward leaves semisphere calibration element 7.Then, make sensor probe 6 with the surface of the vertical rotary table 11 close to band T-slot of certain speed of feed 50mm/min, when after certain primary feed, sensor probe end face with band T-slot rotary table 11 surface contact time, stop the feeding of machine tool chief axis 1, record the coordinate figure 37.607 of lathe now machine tool chief axis z-axis.Then, machine tool chief axis 1 is raised to z along z-axis forward 1=57.627, calibration element height is 20mm.In thick centering process, Non-follow control lathe main shaft 1 drives sensor probe 6 to be demarcated the central point of 7 spheres close to semisphere by range estimation, and position view during stopping as shown in Figure 3.The coordinate position recording now sensor is (-210.546,-69.353,57.627), pin machine tool chief axis, Z axis and Y direction motionless, machine tool chief axis 1 along X-axis forward with certain speed 60mm/min displacement 10mm, and inner sensor feedback voltage level during simultaneously gathering this with sample frequency 1000Hz, after machine tool chief axis puts stopping in place, find the time coordinate 1485ms of value of feedback minimum value, calculate the mid point x of the X-direction of semisphere calibration element 1for-200.061; When in like manner finding the mid point of Y direction of semisphere calibration element, the time coordinate 2912ms of feedback voltage level minimum value, the mid point y of the Y direction of semisphere calibration element 1for-66.723.
4th step, determines that the measurement starting point of sensor is for (-200.061 ,-66.723,57.627), thinks that initial measurement displacement is 0.02mm.Under machine tool chief axis is moved to lathe coordinate system (-200.061,-66.723,57.627) some place, sensor probe 6 is constantly promoted along Z axis with the step-length of 0.08mm in range ability, the gap on sensor probe and calibration element surface constantly increases, after each stepping completes, the output signal value of record sensor.Change the semisphere calibration element of SR15, SR20, SR25, SR30, SR35, SR40mm successively, often change one group need repeat above-mentioned experimental procedure second and third, four steps.The nominal data of current vortex sensor to the semisphere calibration element displacement measurement timing signal of different curvature radius listed by table 1.
Table 1 hemisphere-shaped workpiece calibration measurement sensor output signal value y i(V)
5th step, according to data overall distribution situation, chooses m=3 in surface fitting formula (1), n=1, by the data point in table 1 totally 175 groups, substitutes in formula (2), Q is substituted into composition equation with many unknowns group in (3), coefficient c can be solved by system of equations 30=-0.288, c 21=-0.01, c 20=0.677, c 11=-0.006, c 10=3.764, c 0.1=0.0013, c 00=-3.826, coefficient substitutes into the Measurement and calibration curved surface that formula (1) can obtain the displacement of electric vortex sensor measuring different curvature radius sphere, and equation expression formula is:
y=-0.288t 3-0.001t 2r+0.677t 2-0.006tr+3.764t+0.0013r-3.826????????(4)
6th step, for the precision of the sphere displacement calibrating of the semisphere calibration element of SR13.5mm checking calibration curved surface, repeat second and third step of above-mentioned experimental procedure, the initial displacement controlling sensor probe 6 is 0.1mm, constantly promote along Z axis with the step-length of 0.16mm in range ability, until measure end displacement 1.70mm, after each stepping completes, the output signal value of record sensor.Make r=13.5mm in formula (3), arrange the sphere displacement calibrating curve of semisphere calibration element of SR13.5mm is
z=-0.288t 3-0.0135t 2+0.677t 2+3.683t+3.808?????????(5)
The shift value of hemisphere face calibration element substitution equation (5) is obtained its contrast of measuring fitting calibrating result and the actual calibration result exported as shown in table 2.
The hemisphere-shaped workpiece displacement measurement of table 2 SR=13.5mm is demarcated and is exported y i(V)
Carry out analyzing to above-mentioned table 2 and can learn that the calibration result of matching is substantially identical with actual calibration result, maximum error is 0.31v, in the error range of sensor.
Present invention achieves current vortex sensor under clamped one time to the calibration measurements of different curvature spherical parts displacement, data processing, analyze the error variation obtaining the displacement of sensor measurement different curvature curved surface part, realize demarcating the output of any curvature sphere displacement measurement, improve Displacement Measurement of Curve Surface precision, accuracy is high, practical.

Claims (1)

1. a scaling method for current vortex sensor sphere displacement measurement, is characterized in that, the method carries out measurement demarcation for the displacement of many group different curvature spheres, sets up the calibration curved surface of current vortex sensor sphere displacement measurement based on nominal data, first eddy current displacement sensor is clamped on machine tool chief axis, by the rotary table of the semisphere calibration element clamping for calibrating at lathe band T-slot, then the semisphere calibration element of many group different curvature is carried out to the centering process of sensor probe, ensure that the measurement initial position of sensor to be on tested curved surface directly over target measuring point, and the axis of sensor is along the normal direction of experiment measured surface, machine tool chief axis drives electric vortex displacement sensor probe to move, complete the displacement calibrating in its range ability, least square method is adopted to set up the calibration curved surface of current vortex sensor sphere displacement measurement, current vortex sensor sphere displacement measurement scaling method concrete steps are as follows:
First step current vortex sensor is installed
Current vortex sensor probe (6) is fixed in the middle of flat board (4) by himself screw thread and 2 sensor probe attaching nuts (12), dull and stereotyped (4) are connected with switching device (2) with nut (5) by 4 bolts (3), finally, switching device (2) is directly clamped on machine tool chief axis 1 by expansion set, completes the installation of sensor;
The clamping of second step semisphere calibration element
The rotary table (11) semisphere calibration element (7) being placed on band T-slot is gone up and passes through two unit clamp (10) clampings, by pressing plate (9) compressing fixture (10) of bolt, complete the clamping of calibration element;
The centering process of the 3rd step sensor
First mobile machine tool main shaft is along X-axis negative sense, Y-axis negative sense, and Z axis forward leaves semisphere calibration element (7), then, makes sensor probe (6) with certain speed of feed v 1vertical rotary table (11) surface close to band T-slot, during rotary table (11) surface contact of probe end face with band T-slot, stops the feeding of machine tool chief axis (1), records the coordinate figure z of lathe now main shaft z-axis 0, then, machine tool chief axis (1) is raised to z along z-axis forward 1=z 0+ H+0.02, wherein, H is the height of tested semisphere calibration element (7), and the displacement measured when ensureing sensor centering is in its measurement range; In thick centering process, Non-follow control lathe main shaft (1) drives sensor probe (6) by the central point of range estimation close to semisphere calibration element (7) sphere, during stopping, the starting coordinate position recording now sensor centering is (x 0, y 0, z 1), pin machine tool chief axis Z axis and Y direction motionless, machine tool chief axis (1) along X-axis forward with certain speed v 2displacement l 1, inner sensor feedback voltage level during simultaneously gathering this with sample frequency f, after machine tool chief axis stops, finding the time coordinate t of value of feedback minimum value x, calculate the mid point X of the X-direction of semisphere zero standard locking member 1for x 0+ t x× v 2; In like manner, when finding the mid point of the Y direction of semisphere calibration element, the time coordinate t of feedback voltage level minimum value y, the mid point y of the Y direction of semisphere calibration element 1for y 0+ t y× v 2;
4th step different curvature semisphere calibration element displacement calibrating is measured
(x under machine tool chief axis is moved to coordinate system 1, y 1, z 1) some place, initial measurement displacement is 0.02mm; Sensor probe (6) is constantly promoted along Z axis with specific stepping range in range ability, and probe constantly increases with the gap of surface of test piece, after each stepping completes, and n group different measuring distance t under record certain curvature radius r ithe output signal value y of sensor i; The radius-of-curvature r of semisphere calibration element iscope be the minimum ball radius surface that can survey of current vortex sensor to the spherical radius that has the greatest impact by radius-of-curvature, and to wait semisphere calibration element of the way selection many groups of semidiameter calibration to measure, measuring process repeat above-mentioned experimental procedure second and third, four steps;
5th step sets up error of curvature calibration curved surface
Based on " displacement-curvature-output " data point (t of the sphere calibration element of the different curvature radius obtained in calibration process i, r i, y i) i=1,2 ..., N, altogether N group, set up the calibration curved surface of the semisphere calibration element displacement of electric vortex sensor measuring different curvature radius, surface equation is:
y = Σ j = 0 n ( Σ i = j m c j , i - j t i - j r j ) - - - ( 1 )
Wherein, t is for measuring displacement, and r is spherical radius, and y is output voltage, and c represents the multinomial coefficient of surface equation, and m is the top step number of t, and n is the top step number of r;
Adopt least square method to set up calibration curved surface y, the total error Q of fitting surface result is:
Q = Σ k = 1 N [ y k - Σ j = 0 n ( Σ i = j m c j , i - j t i - j r j ) ] 2 - - - ( 2 )
Make total error Q minimum, be summed up as the extreme-value problem of the multivariate function, i.e. c j, i-jshould meet:
∂ Q ∂ c j , i - j = 0 - - - ( 3 )
First by data point (t i, r i, y i) i=1,2 ..., N, substitutes into the mathematic(al) representation that formula (2) obtains Q, then Q is substituted into composition equation with many unknowns group in formula (3), can solve coefficient c by system of equations j, i-jvalue, substitute into formula (1) the calibration curved surface mathematic(al) representation of matching.
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CN106989660A (en) * 2017-05-24 2017-07-28 大连理工大学 A kind of space three-dimensional information acquisition method of complicated position metal flat
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CN108286946A (en) * 2018-01-30 2018-07-17 周蕊 The method and system of sensing station mark fixed sum data splicing
CN108427373A (en) * 2018-03-14 2018-08-21 四川九零科技有限公司 Numerically-controlled machine tool machining locus intelligentized control method update the system
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CN109032070A (en) * 2018-07-19 2018-12-18 西南交通大学 A kind of contactless R-test measuring instrument scaling method using eddy current displacement sensor
CN111203759A (en) * 2020-01-20 2020-05-29 重庆大学 On-line calibration device and method for eddy current sensor machine tool

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CN105806290A (en) * 2016-05-03 2016-07-27 大连理工大学 Curved surface local normal vector measuring method based on vortex dot matrix
CN106989660A (en) * 2017-05-24 2017-07-28 大连理工大学 A kind of space three-dimensional information acquisition method of complicated position metal flat
CN107144211A (en) * 2017-05-24 2017-09-08 大连理工大学 A kind of eddy current displacement sensor quick calibrating method
CN107121055A (en) * 2017-06-05 2017-09-01 大连理工大学 A kind of three-dimensional scaling method of eddy current displacement sensor array
CN108286946A (en) * 2018-01-30 2018-07-17 周蕊 The method and system of sensing station mark fixed sum data splicing
CN108427373A (en) * 2018-03-14 2018-08-21 四川九零科技有限公司 Numerically-controlled machine tool machining locus intelligentized control method update the system
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CN109032070A (en) * 2018-07-19 2018-12-18 西南交通大学 A kind of contactless R-test measuring instrument scaling method using eddy current displacement sensor
CN109032070B (en) * 2018-07-19 2020-11-03 西南交通大学 Non-contact R-test measuring instrument calibration method adopting eddy current displacement sensor
CN111203759A (en) * 2020-01-20 2020-05-29 重庆大学 On-line calibration device and method for eddy current sensor machine tool

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