CN104272707B - The method and apparatus for supporting neighbouring discovery procedure - Google Patents

The method and apparatus for supporting neighbouring discovery procedure Download PDF


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CN104272707B CN201380022399.7A CN201380022399A CN104272707B CN 104272707 B CN104272707 B CN 104272707B CN 201380022399 A CN201380022399 A CN 201380022399A CN 104272707 B CN104272707 B CN 104272707B
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CN104272707A (en
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Priority to US201261639386P priority Critical
Priority to US61/639,386 priority
Priority to US201261645282P priority
Priority to US61/645,282 priority
Priority to US201261695625P priority
Priority to US61/695,625 priority
Priority to US201261720640P priority
Priority to US61/720,640 priority
Application filed by 交互数字专利控股公司 filed Critical 交互数字专利控股公司
Priority to PCT/US2013/038493 priority patent/WO2013163599A2/en
Publication of CN104272707A publication Critical patent/CN104272707A/en
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Publication of CN104272707B publication Critical patent/CN104272707B/en



    • H04W48/00Access restriction; Network selection; Access point selection
    • H04W48/18Selecting a network or a communication service
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/02Details
    • H04L12/14Metering, charging or billing arrangements specially adapted for data wireline or wireless communications
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/16Service discovery or service management, e.g. service location protocol [SLP] or Web services
    • H04L69/00Application independent communication protocol aspects or techniques in packet data networks
    • H04L69/24Negotiation of communication capabilities
    • H04M15/00Arrangements for metering, time-control or time indication ; Metering, charging or billing arrangements for voice wireline or wireless communications, e.g. VoIP
    • H04M15/80Rating or billing plans; Tariff determination aspects
    • H04M15/8033Rating or billing plans; Tariff determination aspects location-dependent, e.g. business or home
    • H04W12/00Security arrangements, e.g. access security or fraud detection; Authentication, e.g. verifying user identity or authorisation; Protecting privacy or anonymity ; Protecting confidentiality; Key management; Integrity; Mobile application security; Using identity modules; Secure pairing of devices; Context aware security; Lawful interception
    • H04W12/06Authentication
    • H04W4/00Services specially adapted for wireless communication networks; Facilities therefor
    • H04W4/24Accounting or billing
    • H04W76/00Connection management
    • H04W76/10Connection setup
    • H04W76/14Direct-mode setup
    • H04W8/00Network data management
    • H04W8/005Discovery of network devices, e.g. terminals
    • H04W84/00Network topologies
    • H04W84/02Hierarchically pre-organised networks, e.g. paging networks, cellular networks, WLAN [Wireless Local Area Network] or WLL [Wireless Local Loop]
    • H04W84/04Large scale networks; Deep hierarchical networks
    • H04W84/042Public Land Mobile systems, e.g. cellular systems
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/10Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications in which an application is distributed across nodes in the network
    • H04L67/104Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications in which an application is distributed across nodes in the network for peer-to-peer [P2P] networking; Functionalities or architectural details of P2P networks
    • H04L67/00Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications
    • H04L67/10Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications in which an application is distributed across nodes in the network
    • H04L67/104Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications in which an application is distributed across nodes in the network for peer-to-peer [P2P] networking; Functionalities or architectural details of P2P networks
    • H04L67/1061Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications in which an application is distributed across nodes in the network for peer-to-peer [P2P] networking; Functionalities or architectural details of P2P networks involving node-based peer discovery mechanisms
    • H04W60/00Affiliation to network, e.g. registration; Terminating affiliation with the network, e.g. de-registration
    • H04W60/04Affiliation to network, e.g. registration; Terminating affiliation with the network, e.g. de-registration using triggered events
    • H04W8/00Network data management
    • H04W8/18Processing of user or subscriber data, e.g. subscribed services, user preferences or user profiles; Transfer of user or subscriber data
    • H04W8/20Transfer of user or subscriber data
    • H04W8/00Network data management
    • H04W8/22Processing or transfer of terminal data, e.g. status or physical capabilities
    • H04W8/24Transfer of terminal data


A kind of open method and apparatus that two benches device-to-device (D2D) discovery is supported using D2D interworking functions (IWF).D2D IWF components can be configured as performing the mapping run between the application on application server and third generation partner program (3GPP) network, and provide one group of API (API) and be supplied to D2D to apply to allow to will be seen that as service.Application identifier may map to 3GPP identifiers.Moreover, also describe the method and apparatus for performing client-server discovery.First wireless transmitter/receiver unit (WTRU) can be configured as listening only to operate, and the 2nd WTRU can be configured as sending beacon.First and second WTRU can perform radio access network (RAN) discovery procedure in Access Layer (AS) layer.Also describe the method and apparatus performed using the D2D IWF D2D chargings serviced.


The method and apparatus for supporting neighbouring discovery procedure

The cross reference of related application

This application claims U.S. Provisional Application No.61/639,386 filed in 27 days April in 2012;On May 10th, 2012 The U.S. Provisional Application No.61/645,282 of application;U.S. Provisional Application No.61/695,625 filed in August in 2012 31 days With on October in 2012 31 filed in U.S. Provisional Application No.61/720,640 rights and interests, entire contents are by reference It is hereby incorporated by.

Background technology

Application and service based on neighbouring (proximity) can have the problem of sociological and/or technology.Based on facing At least one principle of near application is can find to run in one or more equipment in mutually adjacent scope one Individual or multiple application examples.It can also be exchanged based on neighbouring application or the related data of sharing application or other events.

Device-to-device (D2D) communication between equipment can understand it in the equipment for possessing D2D abilities and nearby it be present Occur after the service that his peer device is provided and/or participated in those equipment.Discovery procedure can be considered as to communicate with data Cheng Benshen is different.From the perspective of radio, compared with communication, equipment is had found that it is likely that with different frequency generations, (this In the case of, finding the judgement of the D2D link-qualities in frequency may must be converted into sentencing corresponding D2D data link frequency It is disconnected).It is contemplated that the discovery between equipment on physical link, is followed by not including the local path of direct physics D2D links On communication.Additionally, it was found that can be performed by wireless communication system, including radio access network (RAN) or core net (CN) member It is at least one in part, because system can monitor the position of the equipment of connection so far.

One main aspect of D2D communications is service discovery.The wireless transmitter/receiver unit being included in D2D communications (WTRU) need to develop the WTRU in terms of the service that their peer-entities is supported in real time realized around them.This cognition can To help WTRU to participate in or provide service to their peer-entities.In most cases, communication is followed by found, still In some cases, find it can is the final result of oneself, without being followed by the communication of any data.

Before WTRU D2D service operations, it is necessary to perform equipment discovery, wherein WTRU, which is obtained, also to be intended to and can participate in The lower level device address of their neighbours of D2D communications.Service discovery is process, and wherein WTRU has found findable user institute The service of support and corresponding service identifiers.Because service discovery is the final goal of process, it is therefore desirable in overall architecture and Equipment and service discovery are bound together in system design.Before it can provide D2D services, equipment and service discovery can be with Perform independently of each other (for example, it was discovered that itself can be service).

The content of the invention

Disclose the method and apparatus for supporting neighbouring discovery procedure.The two benches including equipment and service discovery can be realized Discovery procedure.Also disclose and sent out based on the attachment of third generation affiliate (3GPP) system and WTRU mobility configurations equipment and service Existing process.For example, after system attachment, system can be from attachment message itself, or from user profile (profile) Obtain on neighbouring user preference.(for example, partner list, location context, location-based application can for neighbor configuration information Application), it can be updated as WTRU is mobile, for example, passing through tracking area update (TAU) and switching (HO).It can realize Process is to enable WTRU to be registered to specific device-to-device (D2D) based on neighbouring service.Also disclose bonding apparatus Registration and application/service enable the process of (enablement).Also disclose and enabled by multiple radio access technologies (RAT) The process of neighbouring discovering device.Unique identifier (ID) can use across multiple RAT, and triggering equipment is found can across RAT generation.

Brief description of the drawings

More detailed understanding can by way of example be provided from following combination accompanying drawings and obtained in description, wherein:

Figure 1A shows the example communication system that can perform one or more disclosed embodiments wherein;

Figure 1B shows the example wireless transmitter/receiver unit that can be used in communication system shown in Figure 1A (WTRU);

Fig. 1 C show the sample radio access network that can be used in communication system shown in Figure 1A and one is shown Example property core net;

Fig. 2A shows that one passes through respective evolved node B (eNB) to core net by two WTRU located adjacent one another (CN) example of the communication of node (for example, gateway (SGW) or Packet Data Network (PDN) gateway (PGW));

Fig. 2 B show the data path of an adjacent communication being used between two WTRU via eNB local routings Example;

Fig. 2 C show the example of direct WTRU to WTRU (that is, an end-to-end) data path;

Fig. 3 A show an example for establishing direct WTRU to the WTRU carryings that no intermediate node participates in;

Fig. 3 B show the example carried by eNB or family expenses eNB (HeNB) WTRU to WTRU;

Fig. 3 C show an example for establishing carrying via eNB or HeNB in the paths;

Fig. 3 D show an end established when two WTRU are under two kinds of different eNB or HeNB coverings by SGW To the example of end carrying;

Fig. 4 show one initiate adjacent service request WTRU and establish optimization neighbouring connection (OPC) with support most The example of good device-to-device (D2D) communication;

Fig. 5 shows the strategy and charging control model of adjacent service;

Fig. 6 shows the flow chart of network neighbouring trigger process;

Fig. 7 shows the registration and exchange of the neighbor information of application-specific;

Fig. 8 shows the synoptic diagram of the direct modeling of D2D frameworks;

Fig. 9 shows the expanded view of the direct modeling of a D2D framework;

Figure 10 shows the synoptic diagram of the indirect model of D2D frameworks;

Figure 11 shows the expanded view of the indirect model of a D2D framework;

Figure 12 shows the synoptic diagram of the mixed architecture of D2D frameworks;

Figure 13 shows the signal flow graph of possible D2D service sequences;

Figure 14 A and 14B are the signal flow graph for the example attaching process that there is D2D to support together;

Figure 15 is the signal flow graph of example of service and device discovery procedure;

Figure 16 shows access network discovery and selection function (ANDSF) management object (MO) top level structure;

Figure 17 shows that ANDSF MO have found information sub-tree structure;

Figure 18 shows ANDSF MO WTRU positions sub-tree structure;

Figure 19 shows that D2D equipment finds subtree;

Figure 20 shows that the communication that the D2D of ANDSF auxiliary has found exchanges example;

Figure 21 shows the basic structure of universal advertisement services (GAS) agreement;

Figure 22 A-22C are the signal flow graph of exemplary client-server discovery procedure together;

Figure 23 A-23C are the signal flow of the service discovery process for the guiding (directed) that example apparatus is initiated together Figure;

Figure 24 A-24C are the signal flow graph of the service discovery process for the guiding that example network is initiated together;

Figure 25 A and 25B are the signal flow graph of the discovery procedure of example point-to-point radio access network (RAN) level together;

Figure 26 A and 26B are the signal flow graph of the discovery procedure of another example point-to-point RAN levels together;And

Figure 27 A and 27B are the signal flow graph of the D2D processes of format sample charging data record together.


Figure 1A shows the example communication system 100 that can perform one or more disclosed embodiments wherein. Communication system 100 can provide content to multiple wireless users, such as voice, data, video, message, broadcast etc. connect more Enter system.Communication system 100 can enable multiple wireless users pass through shared system resource, including wireless bandwidth to access this A little contents.For example, communication system 100 can use one or more kinds of channel access methods, for example, CDMA (CDMA), when Divide multiple access (TDMA), frequency division multiple access (FDMA), orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA), Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) etc..

As shown in Figure 1A, communication system 100 can include wireless transmitter/receiver unit (WTRU) 102a, 102b, 102c, 102d, radio access network (RAN) 104, core net 106, public switch telephone network (PSTN) 108, internet 110 and other Network 112, although it is understood that disclosed embodiment take into account any number of WTRU, base station, network and/or net Network element.Each in WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c, 102d can be arranged to be operated in wireless environments and/ Or any kind of equipment of communication.As an example, WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c, 102d can be configured to send and/or Wireless signal is received, and user equipment (UE), movement station, fixation or moving user unit, pager, honeycomb electricity can be included Words, personal digital assistant (PDA), smart phone, laptop computer, net book, personal computer, wireless senser, consumption electricity Sub- product etc..

Communication system 100 can also include base station 114a and base station 114b.Each of base station 114a, 114b can be It is configured to logical in order to access one or more with least one wave point in WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c, 102d Communication network, such as any kind of equipment of core net 106, internet 110 and/or network 112.As an example, base station 114a, 114b can be base transceiver station (BTS), node B, evolved node B (eNB), Home Node B (HNB), family expenses eNB (HeNB), site controller, access point (AP), wireless router etc..Although base station 114a, 114b are each described as individually Element, it should be understood that base station 114a, 114b can include any quantity interconnection base station and/or network element.

Base station 114a can be RAN 104 part, and RAN 104 can also include other base stations and/or network element (not shown), such as base station controller (BSC), radio network controller (RNC), via node etc..Can be by base station 114a And/or base station 114b is configured to that wireless signal is sent and/or received within specific geographical area, the region can be referred to as small Area's (not shown).Cell can also be divided into cell sector.For example, the cell associated with base station 114a can be divided into three Sector.Therefore, in one embodiment, base station 114a can include three transceivers, i.e., each is used for the one of cell Individual sector.In another embodiment, base station 114a can use multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) technology, therefore, can incite somebody to action Multiple transceivers are used for each sector of cell.

Base station 114a, 114b can by one in air interface 116 and WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c, 102d or The multiple communications of person, the air interface 116 can be any suitable wireless communication links (for example, radio frequency (RF), microwave, infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV), visible ray etc.).Air interface can be established using any suitable radio access technologies (RAT) 116。

More specifically, as described above, communication system 100 can be multi-access systems, and one or more can be used Channel access scheme, such as CDMA, TDMA, FDMA, OFDMA, SC-FDMA etc..For example, base station 114a in RAN 104 and WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c can use the nothing of such as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) terrestrial radio access (UTRA) Line power technology, it can establish air interface 116 using wideband CDMA (WCDMA).WCDMA can include such as high-speed packet Access (HSPA) and/or the HSPA (HSPA+) of evolution communication protocol.HSPA can include high-speed downlink packet access And/or High Speed Uplink Packet access (HSUPA) (HSDPA).

In another embodiment, base station 114a and WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c can use such as evolution UTRA (E-UTRA) radiotechnics, it can establish air interface using Long Term Evolution (LTE) and/or advanced LTE (LTE-A) 116。

In other embodiments, base station 114a and WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c can use such as IEEE802.16 (i.e. World Interoperability for Microwave Access, WiMax (WiMAX)), CDMA2000, CDMA20001X, CDMA2000 Evolution-Data Optimized (EV- DO), tentative standard 2000 (IS-2000), tentative standard 95 (IS-95), tentative standard 856 (IS-856), global mobile communication System (GSM), the enhanced data rates (EDGE) of GSM evolution, GSM/EDGE RAN (GERAN) etc. radiotechnics.

Base station 114b in Figure 1A can be wireless router, HNB, HeNB or AP, for example, and can use any suitable When RAT promote the wireless connection in regional area, such as commercial location, house, vehicle, campus etc..In an implementation In mode, base station 114b and WTRU 102c, 102d can realize that such as IEEE 802.11 radiotechnics is wireless to establish LAN (WLAN).In another embodiment, base station 114b and WTRU 102c, 102d can realize such as IEEE 802.15 radiotechnics realizes Wireless Personal Network (WPAN).Still in another embodiment, base station 114b and WTRU 102c, 102d can be used based on cellular RAT (for example, WCDMA, CDMA2000, GSM, LTE, LTE-A etc.) to build Vertical picocell or Femto cell.As shown in Figure 1A, base station 114b can have and is directly connected to internet 110.Therefore, Base station 114b may not necessarily be linked into internet 110 via core net 106.

RAN 104 can communicate with core net 106, the core net 106 can be configured as to WTRU 102a, One or more of 102b, 102c, 102d provide voice, data, using and/or by Internet protocol voice (VoIP) clothes Any kind of network of business.For example, core net 106 can provide Call- Control1, billing of services, the clothes based on shift position Business, prepaid call, Internet connection, video distribution etc., and/or enhanced security feature is performed, such as user authentication.Although figure Not shown in 1A, it should be understood that RAN 104 and/or core net 106 can with using and identical RAT of RAN 104 or not Other RAN with RAT carry out direct or indirect communication.For example, E-UTRA radiotechnics is used except being connected to Outside RAN 104, core net 106 can also be communicated with using another RAN (not shown) of gsm radio technology.

Core net 106 can function as WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c, 102d are linked into PSTN 108, internet 110 And/or the gateway of other networks 112.PSTN 108 can include the circuit switching electricity for providing plain old telephone service (POTS) Telephone network.Internet 110 can be described including the use of the global interconnection computer network of common communicating protocol and the system of equipment Agreement for example has transmission control protocol (TCP), UDP (UDP) and Internet protocol (IP) in TCP/IP groups.Net Network 112 can be included by other service providers possess and/or operate wired or wireless communication network.For example, network 112 Can include being connected to another core net in one or more RAN, the RAN can use and the identical RAT of RAN 104 or Different RAT.

Some or all of WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c, 102d in communication system 100 can include multi-mode energy Power, i.e. WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c, 102d can include being used to different networks be led on different radio link Multiple transceivers of letter.For example, the WTRU 102c shown in Figure 1A can be configured as communicating with base station 114a, the base station 114a can be used and is based on cellular radiotechnics, and be communicated with base station 114b, and the base station 114b can use IEEE 802 radiotechnics.

Figure 1B shows the exemplary WTRU 102 of can be used in communication system 100 shown in Figure 1A one.Such as figure Shown in 1B, WTRU 102 can include processor 118, transceiver 120, launch/receive element (for example, antenna) 122, raise one's voice Device/microphone 124, keyboard 126, display/touch pad 128, non-removable memory 130, removable memory 132, power supply 134th, global positioning system (GPS) chipset 136 and ancillary equipment 138.It should be understood that WTRU 102 can keep with When embodiment is consistent, include any sub-portfolio of aforementioned components.

Processor 118 can be general processor, application specific processor, conventional processors, digital signal processor (DSP), Microprocessor, the one or more microprocessors associated with DSP core, controller, microcontroller, application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), field programmable gate array (FPGA) circuit, integrated circuit (IC), state machine etc..Processor 118 can perform signal volume Code, data processing, Power Control, input/output processing and/or times for enabling WTRU 102 to be operated in wireless environments What his function.Processor 118 may be coupled to transceiver 120, and the transceiver 120 can be coupled to transmitting/reception member Part 122.Although Figure 1B shows processor 118 and transceiver 120 is single part, processor 118 and transmitting-receiving are believed Machine 120 can be integrated in Electronic Packaging or chip together.

Launch/receive element 122 can be configured as sending signal to base station (for example, base station by air interface 116 114a), or from base station (for example, base station 114a) reception signal.For example, in one embodiment, launch/receive element 122 The antenna of RF signals can be configured as sending and/or receiving.In another embodiment, launch/receive element 122 can To be configured as sending and/or receive such as IR, UV or visible light signal transmitter/detector.Still in another reality Apply in mode, launch/receive element 122 can be configured as sending and receiving both RF and optical signal.Launch/receive element 122 can be configured as sending and/or receiving any combinations of wireless signal.

In addition, although launch/receive element 122 is shown as single element in fig. ib, WTRU 102 can be wrapped Include any number of launch/receive element 122.More specifically, WTRU 102 can use MIMO technology.Therefore, in a reality Apply in mode, WTRU 102 can include be used for by air interface 116 send and receive wireless signal two or more Launch/receive element 122 (for example, multiple antennas).

Transceiver 120 can be configured as the signal to be sent by launch/receive element 122 of modulation, demodulate by transmitting/ The signal that receiving element 122 receives.As described above, WTRU 102 can have multi-mode ability.Therefore, transceiver 120 can For example to have UTRA and IEEE including the multiple transceivers for enabling WTRU 102 to be communicated via multiple RAT, the multiple RAT 802.11。

WTRU 102 processor 118 may be coupled to following equipment, and it is defeated user can be received from following equipment Enter data:Speaker/microphone 124, keyboard 126 and/or display/touch pad 128 are (for example, liquid crystal display (LCD) is shown Unit or Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) display unit).Processor 118 can also export user data to loudspeaker/Mike Wind 124, keyboard 126 and/or display/touch pad 128.In addition, processor 118 can be from any kind of appropriate memory access Information is asked, and can be stored data into the memory, such as non-removable memory 130 and/or removable memory 132.Non-removable memory 130 can include random access memory (RAM), read-only storage (ROM), hard disk or it is any its The memory devices of his type.Removable memory 132 can include Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card, memory stick, secure digital (SD) storage card etc..In other implementations, processor 118 can be from being geographically not at WTRU 102 The memory access information of upper (such as on server or home computer (not shown)), and this can be stored data in and deposited Reservoir.

Processor 118 can receive electric energy from power supply 134, and can be configured as distributing and/or controlling arriving WTRU The electric energy of miscellaneous part in 102.Power supply 134 can be any suitable equipment powered to WTRU 102.For example, power supply 134 can include one or more dry cells (for example, NI-G (NiCd), nickel zinc (NiZn), ni-mh (NiMH), lithium ion (Li- Ion), etc.), solar cell, fuel cell etc..

Processor 118 is also coupled to GPS chip group 136, and the GPS chip group 136 can be configured to supply pass Positional information (for example, longitude and latitude) in the current locations of WTRU 102.Except the information from GPS chip group 136 or conduct Its substitute, WTRU 102 can by air interface 116 from base station (for example, base station 114a, 114b) receiving position information, and/ Or its position is determined based on the timing of the signal received from two or more neighbor base stations.WTRU 102 is keeping embodiment party During the uniformity of formula, positional information can be obtained by any appropriate location determining method.

Processor 118 can be further coupled to other ancillary equipment 138, and the ancillary equipment 138 can include one Or multiple softwares and/or hardware module that bells and whistles, function and/or wired or wireless connection are provided.For example, ancillary equipment 138 can include accelerometer, electronic compass, satellite transceiver, digital camera (being used for photo or video), USB (USB) port, vibratory equipment, television transceiver, Earphone with microphone,Module, frequency modulation (FM) radio unit, numeral Music player, media player, video game machine module, explorer etc..

Fig. 1 C show the exemplary RAN 104 that can be used in the communication system 100 shown in Figure 1A and one Sample core network 106.As described above, E-UTRA radiotechnics can be used to pass through air interface 116 and WTRU for RAN 104 102a, 102b, 102c communicate.RAN 104 can also communicate with core net 106.

RAN 104 may include eNB 140a, 140b, 140c, but it is understood that RAN 104 can include Arbitrary Digit The eNB of amount and keep the uniformity with embodiment simultaneously.Each of eNB 140a, 140b, 140c can include one Or multiple transceivers are used to communicate with WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c by air interface 116.In an embodiment In, eNB 140a, 140b, 140c can realize MIMO technology.Thus, for example eNB 140a can be using multiple antennas come to WTRU 102a sends wireless signal and receives wireless signal from WTRU 102a.

Each in eNB 140a, 140b, 140c can be associated with specific cell (not shown), and can be configured For processing radio resources management decision-making, handover decisions, in up-link and/or downlink scheduling user etc..Such as Fig. 1 C institutes Show, eNB 140a, 140b, 140c can be communicated with one another by X2 interface.

Core net 106 shown in Fig. 1 C can include mobile management gateway (MME) 142, gateway 144 and divide Group data network (PDN) gateway 146.Although foregoing each element is described as a part for core net 106, should What is understood is that either of which in these elements can be possessed and/or operated by the entity outside core network operators.

MME 142 can be connected to each of eNB 140a, 140b in RAN 104 and 140c via S1 interfaces, and fill Work as control node.For example, MME 142 can be responsible for certification WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c user, bearing activation/deactivation, WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c initial attachment during select particular service gateway, etc..MME 142 can also be RAN 104 Control plane work(is provided with using the exchange between other radiotechnics, such as other of GSM or WCDMA RAN (not shown) Energy.

Gateway 144 can be connected to each of eNB 140a, 140b, 140c in RAN 104 via S1 interfaces.Service Gateway 144 generally can route and forward to/from WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c user data packets.Gateway 144 is also It can perform other functions, such as grappling user plane during the switching between eNB, it can be used for WTRU in down link data Paging is triggered when 102a, 102b, 102c, manages and store WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c context, etc..

Gateway 144 is also connected to PDN Gateway 146, the PDN Gateway 146 can to WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c is provided to packet switching network, such as the access of internet 110, to promote WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c and IP to enable Communication between equipment.

Core net 106 can promote the communication with other networks.For example, core net 106 can be to WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c There is provided to circuit-switched network, such as PSTN 108 access, to promote WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c and conventional land lines to communicate Communication between equipment.For example, core net 106 may include IP gateway, or can be communicated with IP gateway (for example, IP multimedia subsystems System (IMS) server), the IP gateway is used as the interface between core net 106 and PSTN 108.In addition, core net 106 can be to WTRU 102a, 102b, 102c provide the access to network 112, and the network 112 may include to be possessed by other service providers And/or other wired or wireless networks of operation.

The standard of GPS technology and/or correlation, which has an opportunity to turn into, makes it possible equipment room based on neighbouring discovery and communication Selection platform, and promote wide following and more advanced to be based on neighbouring application and service.

Suitable interest always in based on neighbouring service be present.Use-case is studied, pent-up demand and function It is being determined under contiguous network control, and/or the fortune between the neighbouring equipment under the covering of 3GPP LTE networks Seek the discovery and communication of business's network control.3GPP can be enabled for business/social purposes based on neighbouring service, network unloads Load, public safety and the integration of current infrastructure service are (to ensure the Consumer's Experience in terms of including accessibility and mobility Uniformity) and in the case of UTRAN radio access network (EUTRAN) covering of no evolution Public safety (by the control of region regulations and carrier policy, and be limited to frequency band and the end that specific public safety is specified End).

These general scenes based on neighbouring service can include the neighbouring discoveries of WTRU, and WTRU agrees to be found, can connect Touch and can talk with, neighbouring WTRU to WTRU is (i.e. end-to-end) communicate and by network or operator for the controllability of discovery and Strategy and Finding possibility and subsequent communication form.

Fig. 2A shows two WTRU 205 located adjacent one another1With 2052Via respective enode b (eNB) 2051With 2052One to be communicated with core net (CN) node 215 (for example, gateway (SGW) or Packet Data Network (PDN) gateway (PGW)) Individual example.In the case where WTRU 205 is closer to each other by chance, any communication between these WTRU 205 may must be via CN nodes 215 are route.For example, WTRU 205 can be matched somebody with somebody with configuration similar mode with the WTRU 102 described in Figure 1A -1C Put.

Communication between neighbouring WTRU may be enhanced to use other paths, such as directly (for example, being permitted in a certain distance Can/unlicensed spectrum in direct radio path) or it is indirect (by network element-cell/minizone or eNB Between interior/eNB or SGW etc.), this can be controlled by network or operator.

Fig. 2 B are shown for carrying out two WTRU 220 of local routing via eNB 2251With 2202Between it is neighbouring logical One example of the data path of letter.

Fig. 2 C show an example of direct WTRU to the WTRU data paths 230 directly by air interface.

Adjacent service data path selects, (direct or indirect by a certain path in infrastructure) can be by wireless Electricity or the network coverage, loading condition are determined by network or the strategy of operator's setting.It can be propped up in network share deployment Hold based on neighbouring service.

Multiple technologies reply can be used to enable one or more challenges of WTRU to WTRU adjacent services.For example, for The paging of WTRU to WTRU connections or carrying likely differs from current S1 pagings.One of WTRU may be needed with certain Kind mode notifies MME that it has the data for being used for other WTRU, and other described WTRU are likely to be at idle pulley, it is also possible to are in Under another MME covering.Moreover, current paging may set some or all resource (for example, replying WTRU and net All existing evolved packet system (EPS) carryings between network).But in the case of WTRU to WTRU connections, this may be simultaneously Need not, the resource or the resource needed for direct communication can be set, thus need to change this process.Further, MME can page WTRU to determine its position.It is thus possible to defining a kind of mechanism brings WTRU into connection modes, it is perhaps only true The position of cell-level is determined without establishing user plane.

Before WTRU to WTRU communications start, two WTRU can have found each other and determine that they are close enough with can Direct communication can be carried out.Such discovery can be realized in the several grades or layer of protocol stack.NAS methods can be realized To find WTRU.Therefore, different NAS processes can be defined and send the neighbouring relevant information of discovery to network.Discovery procedure can be with Initiated by network or WTRU, may be different for each case.Moreover, this discovery can be extended to a WTRU possibility It was found that one group of WTRU or two WTRU may belong to the situation of different public land mobile networks (PLMN).In both cases, It can be the method that WTRU defines discovery, adds or leave group.Moreover, adjacent groups (hereinafter referred to as adjacent service (ProSe) group) It may be formed dynamically or be dismissed.The attribute that these groups can be determined is that how what, these groups are formed, who triggers group Formed and when and how triggered.

There may be can generally list to allow the regular and tactful of some services.Some or every kind of service can have The rule and condition to allow it to use may be verified by CN.Neighbouring can be another clothes for needing to define rule and strategy Business, so as to which network can control this service and be able to can be used for being charged based on various criterion.

Related rule and strategy may be needed to allow the adjacent service demand listed.These rules are it is contemplated that different Factor (for example, WTRU positions, subscription, PLMN, priority users etc.).

Under urgent proximity, single one group rule and strategy can be used to be used to use adjacent service.In WTRU With some abnormal operations are all there may be on network, therefore these exception rules and action can be listed.

These rules can be performed at different nodes (for example, e nodes B, MME, WTRU etc.).Furthermore, it is possible to exist a kind of Mechanism exchanges these rules between WTRU and network, so wishes that definition exchanges these regular processes.

Charging can be an important aspect, particularly with operator, because they need to introduce this service acquisition Income.Therefore, can so define method, it is possible thereby to according to communication means (for example, directly or via RAN or via Node on RAN) apply charging.

There may be can set the different modes of direct WTRU to WTRU carryings or PDN connections.The carrying can be from one Individual WTRU starts and can completely arrive at another WTRU.How WTRU to WTRU carryings are established according to network and is related to WTRU ability, the carrying can be the direct carrying between two WTRU, or can have certain in the path of the carrying RAN or CN nodes among a little.

Fig. 3 A (situation 1) show that to establish direct WTRU to WTRU for not being related to intermediate node carrying (i.e. end-to-end Carrying) example.Fig. 3 A are shown if WTRU 3001With 3002Direct WTRU to WTRU is all supported to communicate, can be at two WTRU 3001With 3002Between establish local carrying 305.Such carrying can include two WTRU 3001With 3002It Between radio bearer, but it still can have bearer context in the NAS grades in two WTRU.Therefore, with showing Having the EPS in carrying facilities to carry, ID is similar, and NAS identifiers (ID) can distribute to the carrying.It is interchangeable or except this Outside, this new carrying may no NAS contexts and can be from WTRU 3001One of PDCP (PDCP) layer starts, and can end at another WTRU 3002PDCP layers, or vice versa it is as the same.In this case, the carrying can To be identified by RAB ID.

As previously mentioned, WTRU to WTRU carryings can pass through RAN or CN nodes.Fig. 3 B (situation 2), which are shown, to be passed through The example of eNB or family expenses eNB (HeNB) WTRU to WTRU carryings.The carrying can include two radio bearers (RAB) 3151With 3152。RAB 3151Can be between WTRU1 and eNB/HeNB 320, RAB 3152Can be in WTRU2 and eNB/HeNB Between 320.The carrying of these types can be without the one-to-one mapping between RAB 315 and S1 carryings, because in such case S1 the and S5 resources of any foundation can be not present down.On the contrary, between there may be the RAB 315 of every one end of each carrying One-to-one mapping is (for example, there may be the RAB 315 to eNB/HeNB 3201With the RAB 315 to eNB/HeNB 3202Between One-to-one mapping).

Fig. 3 C (situation 3) show the example that carrying is established via the eNB in path or HeNB.Each WTRU can be with Establish a regular PDN connection (for example, two WTRU could set up S1 and S5 resources as shown in Figure 3 C).However, these Resource cannot be used for WTRU to WTRU communications, because when data reach eNB/HeNB, eNB/HeNB can be routed data to Connection receives WTRU RAB, rather than sends data to S1-U tunnels.The solution that situation 3 is presented can also be applied to down The SGW level scenes in face.

Fig. 3 D (situation 4) are shown is in two different eNB/HeNB 335 in two WTRU1With 3352Built when under covering One example of the vertical end-to-end carrying by SGW 330.As shown in Figure 3 D, under this scene, end-to-end carrying can wrap Include two RAB 3401With 3402And two S1-U tunnels 3451With 3452.WTRU1 and eNB/HeNB 3351Between RAB be present 3401, another eNB/HeNB 3352Corresponding S1-U connections between SGW 330 be present.Moreover, between WTRU2 and SGW 330 In the presence of same arrangement.There may be one-to-one mapping between RAB and S1-U connections.Moreover, as described in Fig. 3 D, two S1-U tunnels There may be one-to-one mapping between road 345.

Fig. 4 shows that initiating adjacent service asks and establish the neighbouring connection (OPC) of optimization to support optimal device to setting The WTRU 400 of standby (D2D) communication example.The foundation of adjacent service carrying can be initiated by WTRU 400 or network. WTRU 400 can ask the resource with certain quality of service (QoS) demand and neighbouring characteristic ID or WTRU 400 may At least one of the request neighbouring on the neighbouring partner's list for connecting (OPC) of foundation optimization or determination partner interested. WTRU 400 can use by WTRU around broadcast value and/or it can clearly use application function offer ID, with to MME sends appropriate information element (IE).WTRU 400 can ask the resource with specific QoS demand and D2D to carry The no instruction that can share same QoS category IDs (QCI) feature, initiate WTRU and terminate whether WTRU there can be identical QoS Whether the instruction of parameter, and/or request WTRU can undertake interim instruction supporting attribute.Patronage attribute can include but not office It is limited to, undertakes financial burden caused by establishing system resource, (for example, the expense for establishing Internet resources is undertaken, such as transmitting The dedicated radio link of packet or network connection).

WTRU 400 can ask to establish network and radio resource, for performing D2D communications or performing neighbouring process Purpose.This can be realized by bearing resource distribution request or bearing resource modification.Network can receive or refuse whether Neighbouring process is triggered by specific WTRU.When WTRU uses said mechanism request Internet resources, network can be based on specific The demand of application determines that what is probably most viable process, to establish optimization connection and transmits positional information.

The resource established using that can ask to ensure neighbouring carrying.For example, using can by Rx interface ask can promote Enter "Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) to set the service or dynamic for triggering carrying foundation or can be used for supporting OPC carrying Make.It there is described herein the service or action for the foundation that can trigger the carrying for supporting OPC.

Alternatively, there is provided the application of adjacent service can ask the foundation of carrying to support OPC (for example, being connect by Rx Mouthful).The reason for possible is there is described herein, but is not enumerating completely for the reason for application can asking to support OPC resource.It can replace Ground is changed, it is necessary to which the application of adjacent service can be from the neighbouring neighbouring business of function request of neighbor server or center, and it can make End-to-end neighbouring carrying is established with any in the method described before.Alternatively, the application in WTRU 400 can ask Seek the resource that may be needed for supporting OPC carrying to establish.

Fig. 5 shows the strategy and charging control model 500 for adjacent service, wherein PCR-based F neighbour can be established The carrying closely driven.Application function (AF) 505, (for example, neighbor server) can provide carrying to PCRF 510 and must comply with Feature and/or require with the needs for the data flow for supporting to transmit in these carryings.So as to which AF 505 can be clearly to PCRF 510 indicate " characteristic of support " or " application identities " that may need the neighbouring application supported.This can use be already contained in Existing attribute value parameter (AVP) in certification and authorization requests (AAR) diameter (diameter) message is realized.PCRF 510 can With using strategy will " application identities " or " characteristic of support " and specific QoS and/or strategy and charging control (PCC) it is regular and/ Or single adjacent service ID " binding " is together.

Strategy further comprises user profile storehouse (SPR) 515, Online Charging System with charging control model 500 (OCS)5201With 5202, carrying establish and event reporting function (BBERF) 525, portfolio detection function 530 and policy, billing hold Row function 535.

Single agency service ID can be used for other any members that the application that may need adjacent service is subscribed in association.These Member can be one group part or can by the independent WTRU of OPC connections, its can be using WTRU to WTRU communication More short path connection (for example, by eNB neighbouring connection in situation 3).

Adjacent service ID can derive from group ID or associated with needing the neighbouring application supported or service using ID. Single adjacent service ID (SPSI) can be used for the connection that management can be associated with the WTRU of the single portfolio stream masterplate (TFT), The decision for when and/or where establishing this connection is totally left to 3GPP networks.By the PGW of correlation, PCRF can be by list Individual adjacent service ID is sent to MME.MME to determine whether there is can support that OPC connections can be used using this mark The WTRU of adjacent service.If MME identifies that there is identical adjacent service ID WTRU, MME can determine this for two or more Whether a little WTRU can be connected by OPC.OPC can be defined on different brackets, including identical PGW, identical LGW, phase With eNB/HeNB/HeNB or any other node of direct routing can be supported by identical neighbouring carrying ID.

Except that can determine whether OPC can allow/perform using some other standards using SPSI, MME, including hair The number of delivering letters notifies the neighbouring instructions of the WTRU of candidate OPC WTRU neighbouring modification.

In addition, as long as MME can determine that two or more WTRU are connected to candidate's OPC nodes, it is possible to use execution The node ID of OPC both candidate nodes.MME can obtain the OPC node IDs of candidate from WTRU bearer contexts, and the information can be Transmitted during handoff procedure, including the switching between MME and in MME.For example, bearer context can in " required switching " message and Transmitted in " forwarding re-positioning request " message.It is alternatively possible to use global eNB ID identify two or more enable Whether neighbouring WTRU is connected to same eNB.Further, it is possible to use closed user group (CSG) ID and local H (e) NB networks (LHN)。

Fig. 6 shows the signal flow graph of network neighbouring trigger process 600.Application function (AF) 605, Ke Nengzuo For neighbor server, adjacent service request 610 can be sent to PCRF 615.Adjacent service request 610 can be via from AF The single AF triggerings of 605 request adjacent services.Information on services can provide, using ID or characteristic ID and single adjacent service ID, etc..PCRF 615 can send user profile to home subscriber service (HSS)/user profile storehouse (SPR) 625 ID/ characteristic IDs are applied in request message 620, transmission.It is latent that HSS/SPR 625, which can use the acquisition of information to be defined by the user, In the list of the user of neighbouring partner.List can provide in the configuration file response message 630 that HSS/SPR 625 is sent. Neighbouring partner's list, together with application/characteristic ID, can be delivered to MME by chain of messages.MME can be determined using the information Whether OPC can be established.

It there is described herein process and shadow in WTRU to WTRU carryings when one or two WTRU is moved to idle pulley Ring.Further, describe and have data to when idle pulley is sent one of WTRU can be caused to be transformed into company in another WTRU Connect the paging of pattern.Situation is carried according to WTRU to WTRU described here, process and method may be different.

In the situation 1 shown in Fig. 3 A, when one of WTRU enters idle pulley, direct WTRU to WTRU can be released and held Carry (i.e., it is possible to discharging radio bearer).However, the context of carrying can be retained in two WTRU.Bearer context can To be made up of radio bearer context or all or part of EPS bearer contexts.Therefore, when two WTRU return to connection mould During formula, same bearer can be re-established.

In figure 3 a in shown example, if one of WTRU is in idle pulley, the RAB between WTRU1 and WTRU2 can To release.However, WTRU2 there can be some peer-datas that will be sent to WTRU1, but because relieve directly WTRU to WTRU is carried, therefore WTRU2 can understand WTRU1 and be in idle pulley, so as to which WTRU2 can be via the PDN of acquiescence Connection or the packet of default bearing transmission first for pointing to PDN connections.Because the destination Internet protocol (IP) of first packet Location can be WTRU1 address, therefore can be routed to PGW, and eventually arrive at WTRU1 SGW.This can trigger MME Regular paging so that WTRU1 is converted into connection mode.Once WTRU1 is in connection mode, packets remaining can be by direct WTRU to WTRU carrying send.Alternatively, eNB or SGW can abandon the first packet of triggering paging, and once again WTRU to WTRU carryings are established, all packets comprising the first packet can be sent in direct carrying.

In the example (situation B) shown in Fig. 3 B, when one of WTRU is transformed into idle pulley, (turn can be refused Down) end-to-end carrying, i.e. two RAB can be discharged.However, it is possible to retain the upper and lower of RAB in WTRU1, WTRU2 and eNB Text.If it were to be so, if one of WTRU has the packet that will be sent to another WTRU for being likely to be at idle condition, it The solution of preceding description can also be applied to such case.

If one of WTRU is in idle pulley, it is impossible to discharges whole WTRU to WTRU carryings, but is connected only to specific WTRU part carrying can be released.

It is illustrated that in example (situation B), if WTRU1 is transformed into idle pulley, can discharges from WTRU1 in figure 3b To eNB RAB, but if WTRU2 is maintained at connection mode, it is impossible to RAB of the release from WTRU2 to eNB.If WTRU2 has Wish to transmit to WTRU1 some neighbouring or reciprocity packets, it may be unaware that WTRU1 is in idle pulley because for from The RAB of WTRU2 to eNB WTRU to WTRU carryings is still within state of activation.Therefore it can send on that RAB divides Group.When first is grouped into up to eNB, it knows that WTRU1 is in idle condition.It can send notice to MME to incite somebody to action WTRU brings connection mode into, once its it from MME have received response, it is possible to send radio resource control (RRC) and reconfigure Ask to re-establish RAB.Once having re-established RAB between eNB and WTRU1, eNB cans forward a packet to first WTRU, and then some or all packets remaining can be by carrying transmission to WTRU to WTRU transparent eNB.ENB can lose The first packet is abandoned, once carrying has been re-established, including all packets of the first packet can be sent by WTRU2.

Fig. 3 C show an example for establishing carrying in the paths via eNB or HeNB.In the example (feelings shown in Fig. 3 C Condition 3) in, each WTRU can have the single carrying for reaching PGW or ProSe-GW, but packet can be connected to Two WTRU eNB is transferred directly to another RAB from a RAB.So as to which in this case, one of WTRU is moved to sky During not busy pattern, all RABs and S1-U associated with that WTRU carrying can be released from or discharge.

With reference to figure 3C, if WTRU1 enters idle pulley, eNB/HeNB can remove or deactivate with this carrying or " mapping ID " associated RAB.So as to if WTRU2 has data to be sent to WTRU1, when data can reach eNB/ During HeNB.If mapping ID be not yet assigned to this RAB, then can by this data forwarding to corresponding S1-U tunnels, Then S5/S8 tunnels can be ultimately forwarded to.Data can be routed back to PGW/ProSe and WTRU1 SGW, it can be touched Send out paging regular so that WTRU1 is transformed into connection mode.Can be sent to eNB/HeNB it is new " mapping ID " or instruction with Old mapping ID is reactivated during this paging.So as to which once WTRU1 returns to connection mode, eNB/HeNB can So that local path can be used for the carrying by eNB/HeNB, all peer-datas can via this from WTRU1 to WTRU2 path is sent., may be similar with the situation that situation 2 describes for situation 4, when one of WTRU is transformed into idle pulley, Whole end-to-end carrying can be deactivated, or the part associated with the WTRU for being transformed into idle pulley can be deactivated and held Carry, can be RAB and corresponding S1-U carryings in this case.For example, if WTRU1 is converted to idle pulley, WTRU1 with The tunnel between RAB and eNB/HeNB and SGW between eNB/HeNB can be deactivated, but SGW is with serving WTRU2's S1-U tunnels and corresponding RAB between eNB/HeNB can keep activating.

Similarly, if WTRU2 has the packet of WTRU1 equities, WTRU1 is in idle pulley simultaneously, and packet can be as previously described In the case where whole WTRU to WTRU carryings have been deactivated by giving tacit consent to PDN linkup transmits.Alternatively, packet can be with Sent by WTRU2 in WTRU to WTRU carryings, as long as it is still within state of activation from the perspective of WTRU2.This feelings Under condition, when packet reaches SGW using RAB and S1-U tunnels, SGW can trigger regular paging so that WTRU1 to be transformed into Connection mode.Once WTRU1 is in connection mode, packet can be carried by WTRU to WTRU and be sent to WTRU1.

It there is described herein and find method for neighbouring Non-Access Stratum (NAS).Registration for the neighbouring WTRU found can With including be ready to use it is neighbouring find other WTRU of service discovery, and/or oneself will be identified as other WTRU it is findable or It is not findable.If it is findable, user can also provide " alias " to be shown to other users to network (NW), use Family can also provide other information that such as sex, network are liked to be shown to other users.Whether network authorizes WTRU to use It was found that service can be based on subscription configuration file.

In addition, WTRU can also include known application that it is used (that is, using) in registration message.Known application It is the application of those widely used smart phones that can be benefited from adjacent service, such as internet protocol voice (VoIP) visitor Family end (Skype, Vonage), and/or social networks (SNS) apply (Facebook).Network or application server can use The information is used for further based on neighbouring service.Network can record WTRU neighbouring discovery log-on message, known application Information and associated positional information (global positioning system (GPS) coordinate, cell ID, eNB_ID, CSG etc.).

New information element (IE) can be increased in for the attachment of registration or tracking area update (TAU) message.Net Registering result can be notified WTRU in the response message by network.New NAS message can also be designed for this purpose.

If system supports neighbouring discovery, cell can be broadcasted in RRC levels.

Application-specific information can be asked.If realizing known application registration, MME can ask WTRU to send Application-specific information, alias, login ID, password etc..Information can by Web vector graphic or be further provided to using clothes Device be engaged in for based on neighbouring service.New NAS message can be designed for this purpose.

WTRU can change it adjacent to log-on message (for example, can not be found from that can find to change into).After being moved in position, Such as gravity treatment or HO can should either update or delete original to another cell or the TAU in new region, system This WTRU neighbor information in MME.If WTRU possesses GPS ability, WTRU is configurable to periodically send by NAS Gps coordinate is with more new location information.

Neighbouring discovery information can be asked.WTRU can have found information to network request is neighbouring, such as allow its own All WTRU that can nearby be found or for specific known application, the other users of neighbouring same application.It can be this mesh The new NAS message of design.

Neighbor information exchanges between being likely to occur system.MME can be with other systems unit, such as service universal grouping wireless Electricity service (GPRS) supporting node (SGSN), neighbor information is exchanged (for example, it was discovered that information, positional information, neighbouring ability information And/or neighbouring QoS information etc.).MME can ask SGSN to send the neighbouring relevant information of some positions (for example, gps coordinate, small Area or tracing area).Position can be mapped to the position (cell or Routing Area) of their own and return in that position by SGSN Put all findable WTRU or application-specific information.MME can also provide similar information to other systems.It can design Message between new system.

Communication can be established between MME and application server.MME can provide current to known application server Neighbor information, so as to which server can have neighbor information.It is related using that can be shown to user when user reaches the standard grade application Neighbor information.According to request or regularly, MME can send current tracing area ID or WTRU eNB ID, and it can be with It is registered to application server and/or neighbor server.Alternatively, neighbor server can notify MME about whether two WTRU it is expected to be communicated via neighbor server.In the first scenario, application server/neighbor server can be used and is somebody's turn to do Information is (for example, WTRU tracing area ID is to identify two having requested that adjacent service and/or application-specific being used Whether WTRU is in the same area).If application server determines that they are in the same area, application server or neighbouring clothes Business device can ask the neighbouring connection that MME and/or network are established between two or more WTRU.

In the case of application server can send second of information to MME, MME can be according to from application service The information of device/neighbor server determines whether two WTRU of same tracing area it is expected to be in communication with each other.If MME concludes WTRU It is expected and/or adjacent communication can be carried out, then neighbouring connection can be established between those WTRU.

As shown in Figure 7, application gateway 705 may be embodied in logical with application server 715 to enable in MME 710 Letter.

In order to realize ProSe (WTRU to WTRU adjacent services), and WTRU to WTRU communications are enabled, can provided a kind of new Logical node (herein referred as adjacent service gateway (GW) (i.e. ProSe-GW)).ProSe-GW can be by Virtual network operator or only Vertical ProSe service provider or enterprise's deployment.ProSe-GW can be across multiple local home network and associated local GW(LGW).Similarly ProSe-GW can be across multiple enterprise local networks.ProSe-GW can include being used for ProSe PDN companies The policy control perform function (PCEF) of QoS execution is distributed and supported to the IP address connect and according to PDRF rules based on stream Billing function.

If ProSe-GW is disposed by enterprise or independent ProSe providers, then PCEF and the billing function based on stream It can not be located in ProSe-GW.In this case, can be supported with PDN connections or carrying (such as WTRU default bearings) ProSe, there is the predefined QoS grades according to user class of service agreement.

ProSe-GW can also include the WTRU being related to for adjacent service following functions or S-GW functions. When WTRU only has ProSe PDN connections, when WTRU is moved between e nodes B or between HeNB, local mobile anchor can be with Deta bearer is used together.Idle condition is in (for example, EPS mobile management (EMM) free time or EPS connecting tubes in WTRU Reason (ECM)-IDLE) when can retain on the information of carrying, and at least temporarily with cache downlink data, while MME is initiated WTRU pagings are carried with re-establishing.Can be that charging and lawful intercept collect information (for example, being sent to for roaming WTRU User's or from user receive data volume).

For example, adjacent service (ProSe) region can be defined as one or more set of cells, (for example, with identical CSG ID either belong to the cell of CSG ID list) or local home network or local manufacturing enterprises network set.ProSe Region can be across the cell from multiple PLMN, or ProSec regions can be across multiple CSG.

ProSec regions can with can be global unique ID ID it is associated.Such ID can be by ProSec regions Cell Broadcast CB.ProSec regions ID can also between WTRU or between WTRU and network entity with special RRC message or NAS message exchanges.WTRU or network entity (MME, eNB/HeNB includes ProSe GW GW) can use ProSe regions ID, Support ProSe discoveries or the discovery of ProSe equity WTRU or WTRU groups.The WTRU in same ProSe regions can participate in ProSe and lead to Letter.

Accessibility can be used to control, triggering is activated and be used to determine when and how the ProSe decision-makings of access are provided Node accesses to provide ProSe.Controlled for ProSe, perhaps to enabling and controlling ProSe, following information can be merged into In the subscription configuration file of WTRU or user.

ProSe licenses can be defined as the license that WTRU participates in ProSe.Moreover, PDN subscription contexts in HSS can be with ProSe licenses comprising various granularities, such as APN (APN) and for allowing or forbidding ProSe to be used for the AP APN instruction;APN and the instruction that ProSe whether is only supported for the APN;APN and ProSe supports whether be conditional (example Such as, conditional ProSe) instruction;PGW or ProSe GW mark (for example, acquiescence ProSe GW) and APN;ProSe regions (for example, ProSe zone lists) and APN;Whether ProSe is allowed during roaming (for example, accessing public land mobile network (VPLMN) in);Whether ProSe is allowed during roaming by accessing the ProSe GW or PGW of network;Whether ProSe is allowed to be used for Specific ProSe groups (open group, closed group, private group, common set);With about whether allow ProSe be used for specific ProSe groups Or the APN of certain types of group of instruction;WTRU whether is allowed to invite another WTRU to participate in ProSe communications, even if being invited to WTRU does not subscribe to ProSe;And/or (it wherein there may be many grades with the APN that ProSe services allow grade to indicate ProSe is serviced);ProSe whether is allowed to be established in acquiescence PDN connections carrying or dedicated bearer or special PDN connections;ProSe Whether it is only permitted to be only used for originating call, is only used for terminating call, or can;License is authorized to for specific QoS attribute And dependent thresholds, such as Maximum Bit Rate, QoS category IDs (QCI) and distribution and reservation are preferentially (ARP);The validity of license;Perhaps It can be authorized to for particular type of service;And user agrees to (it can have grain size category same as described above).

This information may reside within HSS.Furthermore, it is possible to this information is provided to (for example, by HSS) to CN nodes, Such as MME, SGSN, SGW or PGW.The information can also be supplied to ProSe GW as described herein.

Furthermore, it is possible to WTRU in allowing in same local network between WTRU or belonging to the local network list of definition it Between ProSe.The ProSe between same CSG WTRU can be allowed to belong to.Can always it allow;Always forbid;And/or it is Conditionally allow the ProSe between WTRU.

The support of ProSe communications may also be limited by network configuration and ability.Similarly, the support of ProSe communications may It is limited by WTRU configurations and its ability and agreement/hardware version.For example, some MME, SGW and PGW can support ProSe and Some can not.Similarly, some eNB or HeNB can support ProSe and some can not.

During movement, service network or network node (MME, S-GW/P-GW or eNB or HeNB) can be verified in mesh Mark the support to ProSe in network or specific objective NW nodes.If objective network (or the specific objective NW that the WTRU will be serviced Node) ProSe is not supported, service network can deactivate ProSe PDN connections.This deactivation can by eNB or HeNB, MME and/or SGW, P-GW or ProSe-GW are initiated.

It is described herein the time that triggering ProSe and ProSe can be triggered.Neighbouring friend or a notice can be found with one Point interested or friend nearby just trigger ProSe.Notice can be addressed to user from NW or from WTRU.For example, user can Have found that it is likely that also the friend in user friend's list or point of interest are not issued by notifying as one to configure WTRU.

Notice can be addressed to WTRU.Received for example, WTRU is configurable to one from NW or reciprocity WTRU or point of interest Notice when independently take some actions (for example, renewal list of friends).

One enters ProSe regions or when reading the ProSe regions ID from system information broadcast, it is possible to triggers ProSe.

Once user asks can triggering ProSe.For example, user can trigger the friend near WTRU detections.Term " friend " refers to may expect to establish the single entity (for example, individual, shop etc.) contacted with it if located in the neighbouring user, One group of user or social networks group, ProSe region servers or ProSe-GW, local network, etc..

One paging asks to initiate ProSe from network, it is possible to triggers ProSe.For example, paging can be intended to establish The friendly WTRU of ProSe communications result.

Once once once once network renewal ProSec allows list, neighbouring instruction, network activation characteristic, selection cell Once once or it is switched to the cell for supporting ProSe, selection network or enters the covering of the cell for supporting ProSe or GW, selection What once specific CSG ID or specific APN or GW were identified, and activated local IP accesses (LIPA) service, managing remotely accesses (MRA) The IP operation amount of service or selection unloading (SIPTO) is serviced or once selected any described in ProSec control chapters and sections ProSe admission control parameters, it is possible to trigger ProSe.

WTRU or network can make triggering ProSe decision.For example, can be by WTRU or the use for another user Family or in the response of the request from another user or user's group or community's group or the triggering such as shop ProSe.

ProSe can carry out the Push Service of automatic network (or ProSe service provider).Network can be autonomous initiation ProSe.For example, network can provide advertising service.User one is close to point of interest (such as in the function of user profile and pre- In the agreement first arranged), Virtual network operator or service provider can trigger ProSe and advertisement information is with WTRU screens Upper display.If information is still relevant with WTRU position, this advertising message can also be pushed to WTRU, available for by WTRU is shown at any time.This ProSe can be triggered by MME, SGW, PGW, ProSe-GW or eNB/HeNB to initiate.

The release that ProSe is terminated and ProSe is carried or connected can occur.Once times for causing ProSe to be no longer allowed to The change of meaning ProSe admission control parameters, just terminates ProSe.For example, once the validity time of network authorization expires;Network Configuration or the change of WTRU configurations;Either it is moved to because the whole part of network can not support ProSe or be configured to not prop up Hold ProSe, new network does not support ProSe or new eNB, HeNB, MME, SGW or PGW do not support ProSe without supporting ProSe Network part or network in;Or when network, WTRU or user decision termination ProSe, ProSe communications can terminate. WTRU can reach the permission threshold value for sending proximity data.

Billing model may influence to support the ProSe network architecture.The ProSe disposed relative to enterprise returns for (vs.) Belong to the ProSec of deployment, operator can dispose ProSe services for (vs.) independent ProSe providers.Charging can be based on solid Fixed-ratio (for example, monthly) charging.

Can establish acquiescence WTRU carryings or acquiescence PDN connections with the QoS attributes consulting in advance/be pre-configured with, Or with the special PDN of QoS attributes for consulting in advance/being pre-configured with to support ProSe.In this scheme, if used Other nodes of Virtual network operator such as SGW or PGW trust ProSe-GW or any, the strategy of the QoS in downlink (DL) Control perform function (PCEF) (for example, ratio control based on APN AMBR) may reside within eNB or HeNB.

The data volume that can also be consumed in eNB or HeNB predetermined functions to network-reporting using S1-AP message.AF can be with " feature of support " or " application identities " of the neighbouring application supported clearly is required to PCRF instructions.These can be used It is included in the already present attribute value parameter (AVP) in AAR diameter messages to complete.

Single agency service ID can be used for other any members that the application that may need adjacent service is subscribed in association.These Member can be a part for the group that can be connected by the neighbouring connection (OPC) of optimization or single WTRU.

In one or more scenes that one of WTRU enters idle pulley, direct WTRU to WTRU carryings may be refused Absolutely, the context carried is likely to remain in two WTRU.So that when two WTRU return to connection mode, can be again Establish same bearer.If may also one of WTRU be in idle pulley, and whole carry end to end is not released, and is only capable of Release is connected to that specific WTRU part carrying.

It is so far, unknown that " mapping ID " and the instruction to the old mapping ID of eNB instruction reactivation can be paged at this ENB is sent to during process.So, once WTRU1 return connection mode, eNB can just enable local path by eNB with Can be along this paths from WTRU1 to WTRU2 for the carrying and all peer-datas.

WTRU can include the known application that it is used in registration message.Known application can be widely applied to can be with In the smart phone application be benefited from adjacent service, such as VoIP client (for example, Skype, Vonage), or SNS applications (for example, Facebook).Network or application server can use the information to be used for further based on neighbouring service.

In order to realize ProSe (WTRU to WTRU adjacent services), and WTRU to WTRU communications are enabled, can be ProSe-GW Define a kind of new logical node.

WTRU can establish the setting of network and radio resource.This can be provided by bearing resource distribution request or carrying Change to realize in source.Network can receive or refuse whether neighbouring process can be triggered by specific WTRU.

Describe a kind of attaching process for being used for execution acquisition device-to-device (D2D) service and perform D2D Service Notifications With the method and apparatus of discovery.Mobility management entity (MME) can receive attachment from wireless transmitter/receiver unit (WTRU) please Seek Non-Access Stratum (NAS) message and send D2D WTRU capabilities messages to D2D servers.If D2D servers approval WTRU's D2D is serviced, and D2D servers can send unique D2D device ids to MME.MME can be sent comprising unique D2D device ids Attachment receives NAS message to WTRU.D2D WTRU can send a general alert message to access network discovery and selection work( Energy (ANDSF), it can use new D2D to find that the information updating ANDSF associated with D2D WTRU manages object (MO).D2D WTRU can have found information to find another WTRU communicated with using new D2D.

The process for the service discovery for enabling device-to-device (D2D) communication is there is described herein, and enables drilling for D2D communications Packet core (EPC) framework enhancing entered and different framework models, the introducing of D2D servers and its logic function, in order to enable D2D Communicate influence to already present EPC nodes and WTRU, (provisioning) is equipped with to attaching process and D2D gadgets ID Renewal, the process of D2D service registrys and service discovery, access network discovery and selection function (ANDSF), general using enhancing The D2D equipment of advertising service (GAS) and access network vlan query protocol VLAN (ANQP) is notified and found.For what is run in being communicated in D2D Network and WTRU, these processes are all applicable.

Radio data demand continuing detonation, which results in the surge of whole world smart mobile phone usage quantity.Telecommunications row Industry has been used by accessing, modulate and encoding using more preferable multiple access in the past and multi-antenna technology provides the spectrum efficiency improved Renewal normal response demand.

The another aspect of capacity improvements is realized by improving deployment density and correspondingly reducing radius of society.This Outside, small cell (micro-/pico-/femto) is combined the isomery topology disposed with macrocell and used more and more.Pass through Improved using the in-door covering of long distance wireless dateline and spaced antenna and also increased sharply.However, these methods exist limitation and Shortcoming.The substantial increase for causing mobility event is disposed in small cell, and adjoint interference management problem is very complicated.Above technology Disadvantage be must a large amount of extra infrastructure that must be safeguarded, Internet backhaul, power supply and the radio frequency of such as Large Copacity (RF) equipment.

A kind of possible alternative solution is to use the strength of smart mobile phone evolution in an inventive manner.Smart mobile phone is As the equipment become stronger day by day, there is multiple broadband radios and modem, handle the ability of mass data, and operation Multiple simultaneous applications.If these smart mobile phones are allowed to be directly communicated with each other when necessary and possibility, Ke Yichuan Build a kind of optional topological coexisted with traditional cellular deployment.

By it is this directly WTRU to WTRU communication enable, advanced topologies (AT) application can include AT- relay (AT-R) and AT- locally unloadings (AT-LO).In AT-R applications, terminal-WTRU (T-WTRU) can be by that can be auxiliary WTRU (H- WTRU via node) and network exchange data.AT-LO applications can allow between the neighbouring WTRU under central network controls Direct data communication.

AT-R applications can include capacity model and covering pattern.Under capacity model, T-WTRU is associated with network, obtains H-WTRU help is obtained to increase radio link capacity and improve data transmission capacity, and under covering pattern, T-WTRU exists Outside network coverage, H-WTRU can be relied on and obtain network associate.Both of which all predicts the WTRU for Hypomobility.

In AT-LO applications, neighbouring WTRU can be source or the recipient for exchanging information.In AT-LO applications between WTRU Radio link can use the cellular frequency spectrum or unlicensed or slightly can (lightly-licensed) frequency spectrum of license.

Communication between WTRU can occur in referred to as cross link (XL) dedicated channel, with traditional radio link Traditional eNB to the WTRU occurred on road (TRL) communication is opposite.XL can in single frequency band (with outer solution) or With in conventional link (TRL) identical frequency band, even in adjacent frequency sub-carrier.H-WTRU and T-WTRU can be with FDD (FDD) or time division duplex (TDD) mode communicate with one another, and related configuration can be by net definitions.Network can be XL provides thick resource allocation, and WTRU can be with each Transmission Time Interval of unrestrained section (TTI) resource allocation.

D2D communications have become the discussion master for the 3GPP that adjacent service (ProSe) research project is introduced in SA1 groups Topic." directapath ", wherein physical communication are directly between D2D equipment, " local path ", wherein communication can be set by two The eNB of standby connection, the both scene in the range of ProSe.

The part that multiple use-cases are had been defined for so far as ProSe is to be handled, and each is brought in system One group of different requirement in design.These can be with rough classification under social and public safety.

In basic social use-case, D2D user is it can be found that belong to other D2D of its user's group (such as list of friends) User simultaneously can have found that may then pass through D2D links makes by other the D2D users for belonging to its user's group (such as list of friends) Use social networking application.Discovery is performed without any WTRU positional informations can.In public discovery situation, D2D user can To be found by other any D2D users without license in advance.Found for different public land mobile networks (PLMN), category In different PLMN D2D user be findable between each other.One subset is when D2D user also roams.For service Continuity, D2D user can move between directapath and infrastructure mode to be perceived without reducing user.For position And presence, operator can strengthen its position and existence information with ProSe processes.

In basic public safety use-case, the public safety user of two mandates can pass through D2D link direct communications. PS D2D users can safeguard multiple simultaneous one-to-one D2D sessions from different D2D public safeties users.

The target that D2D has found can be realized by equipment and service discovery respectively.Equipment finds (i.e. neighbours have found) process Guide user equipment to be based on device identification to find each other.These device identifications can be form of physical layer sequence, radio access network (RAN) mark or higher level ID form.Equipment has found that it is likely that the physical communication being related between equipment.Sent out in equipment (or neighbours) During existing, the WTRU (neighbours find WTRU (NSWTRU)) for finding neighbours can be based on the scheduling provided by network come specific Transmission finds sequence in running time-frequency resource.Other WTRU (neighbours WTRU (NPWTRU) being present) can be intercepted simultaneously in these interims Receive these sequences.Based on its measurement, they, which can directly respond NSWTRU or measurement report is returned into network, is used for further Action, the association process being followed by between WTRU.

Each D2D equipment can have one or more services, therefore have multiple service identifiers.These service identifiers, with The parameter of the service of offer can be found as a part for service discovery together.Service discovery can by equipment with it is another Individual 3GPP nodes, the communication between a certain node of 3GPP network-externals perform, or by finding to complete in equipment after The direct exchange of information on services performs between equipment.Service discovery can occur before or after equipment is found.

In order to which D2D communications are brought into 3GPP evolution block core nets (EPC), it is necessary to which framework strengthens.In order that obtain net A large amount of equipment for possessing D2D abilities in network can Effec-tive Function, enable D2D links and legacy cellular link coexist, reality Now it is intended for all deployment configurations of 3GPP ProSe characteristics and meets the demand for services for being used for D2D communications of 3GPP designs, Need that existing framework is changed and increased.

The framework model of D2D communications is enabled in 3GPP networks can be generally divided into direct, indirect and mixed model. In order to enable D2D functions, the new logic entity for being referred to as D2D servers is introduced, directly or indirectly the main distinction between model It is exactly the position of D2D servers.

Fig. 8 shows a D2D framework 800 of the simplified view as direct modeling.In this direct modeling, D2D Server 805 can be located in 3GPP network boundaries 810.It can be positioned as a single entity, be total to by multiple operators Managed jointly with and by them, or it can be implemented as multiple entities, be partially positioned in each operator domain.

Fig. 9 shows a D2D framework 900 as direct modeling expansion view.Figure 10 shows D2D frameworks 1000 The synoptic diagram of indirect model.In the indirect model shown in Figure 10, D2D servers 1005 can be located at 3GPP network boundaries 1010 Outside, it can be safeguarded by third-party application server.In the direct modeling shown in Fig. 8, the D2D inside 3GPP networks 815 is handed over Interworking function (D2D-IWF) can be as the interface to D2D servers.Including D2D servers 1105 and D2D-IWF 1110 Framework be shown in Figure 11.The interface of charge system (OFCS) is not under to the Serving Mobile Location Center (E-SMLC) and line of evolution It is shown in Figure 11.These interfaces can be similar to those shown in Figure 11, except for indirect model they and D2D-IWF 1110 docking, rather than docked in direct modeling with D2D servers 1105.

Figure 12 shows the synoptic diagram of the structured mixing model of D2D frameworks 1200.In mixed model, it is allowed to directly and Model and combination are connect, wherein operator is some partial deployment D2D servers 1205 of oneself network in the network of oneself, and For other parts, D2D server capabilitys 1210 can be located at outside 3GPP networks 1215, and can be safeguarded by third party.Class As, in scene between operators, some operators can dispose direct modeling, and others can dispose indirect mould Type, cause the mixed architecture of the overall situation.

A part of the new node described herein as D2D EPC frameworks.For example, D2D servers can manage direct road Footpath and close to D2D local path D2D service.It can be in managed operation business and between operator D2D services.D2D Service can be managed using concentrating, with different levels or distributed way to manage.D2D servers are adapted to own These modes.The physical location of D2D servers may also rely on the type of the D2D way to manages used.In the mode of concentration In, it can be located at across the D2D servers for whole 3GPP networks of all operators in an entity.In with different levels mode In, D2D servers can be replicated for not same area, and (domain can be defined as MME ponds in PLMN or PLMN etc. Deng), they can be coordinated by high-rise D2D server entities.The level of multiple layerings is all possible.In distributed way, Multiple reciprocity D2D entities can be located in not same area, and when they need, they can be in communication with each other.The function of D2D servers Several logic functions can be divided into.

In order to which equipment is found, locally-unique D2D ID can be provided to each user equipment, preferably in D2D servers It is unique in the range of servicing.This ID is tied to physical equipment, rather than any application that may subscribe to of terminal user and/or Service.

D2D ID can have diversified forms.For example, physical layer (PHY) sequence, such as Zadoff Chu (ZC) sequence can be with Transmitted for basic LTE PHY with distinguishing the reference symbol from different WTRU in up-link.D2D radio nets can be used The interim ID of network (D2D-RNTI), similar to for distinguishing the RNTI to/PHY channels from WTRU.It can be moved temporarily using D2D Family mark (D2D-TMSI) is employed, similar to the TMSI for being used to identify WTRU Subscriber Identity Modules (SIM) in basic LTE.It can replace Ground is changed, can use that to belong to the temporary marks of different air interfaces (such as IEEE 802.11n) (be to pass through difference in D2D links In the case of radio access technologies (RAT)) or D2D unified resources ID (URI).

D2D servers can be responsible for outfit, storage and maintenance is attached to the network to be cooperated with home subscriber server (HSS) Each equipment with D2D abilities D2D device ids.It can also provide a user service identifiers and be sent out to the service of successfully completing The mapping of device identification needed for existing function.Device id can be unique within the scope of D2D server controls.

D2D servers can be as storehouse and the tactful arbiter (arbiter) of influence D2D communications.These strategies can be with It is greatly classified into operator's specific policy, user's specific policy and preference and the limitation of user's access list.In these strategies Some could also belong to special services, can influence all devices using that service.For example, neighbouring strategy can be used for leading to Cross radio range or carrier network apply it is neighbouring to define.Whether Finding possibility and privacy limitation can specify that user Only it can be found or be found by anyone in network by limited group of other users.Another strategy can specify that on Belong to behavior of the different PLMN user compared with belonging to identical PLMN user.These can be operator defines, user Definition or the two all may be used.Finding possibility can also be limited to service layer, such as be allowed for unicast (rather than multicast) to service. Battery life strategy can manage D2D discoveries and the operation of the communication mechanism related to the WTRU remaining power life-span.Public peace Full strategy can specify that the operation of public safety pattern, (including foundation-free facility covering loss).For D2D user preferences and D2D application specific policies, it can not be allowed specific D2D user's access some according to the subscription or other charging reasons of user D2D is applied.

D2D servers can be obtained directly with D2D from the Serving Mobile Location Center (E-SMLC) of evolution or from MME The WTRU of ability positional information.One receives from another entity, such as GMLC (GMLC), eNB or WTRU To the specific WTRU with D2D abilities location service request, MME can launch position services.MME can also represent tool There is the specific WTRU launch positions service of D2D abilities.MME and then location service request, and the E- can be sent to E-SMLC SMLC can be with processing position service request.Processing can include to D2D WTRU helping assistance data transmission based on WTRU's And/or WTRU auxiliary positioning, and/or can include positioning with D2D abilities WTRU.Once completing, E-SMLC can be incited somebody to action Result returns to MME, (for example, WTRU location estimation and/or be sent to WTRU any assistance data instruction). Result further can be forwarded to D2D servers by MME when needed.

D2D servers can help service discovery process using this information.Similar operations are also used as enhancing The parts of ANDSF functions performs.

D2D servers can undertake major responsibility in D2D call setups.D2F servers can known and each D2D The PLMN of WTRU associations, and help can be provided at several aspects of call setup, because D2D servers can known D2D The MME of WTRU attachments.Therefore, D2D servers can select suitable MME to contact to consult the parameter of D2D callings.For wide Session is broadcast, this can include multiple MME from multiple PLMN.

D2D servers can coordinate the foundation of D2D links by maintaining and tracking D2D WTRU ability.Server is tieed up Hold and current be attached to network and WTRU lists with D2D service functions, their WTRU ability informations and their PLMN, set Standby ID and the transient service name of application service that they are used are together.According to this information, D2D servers can determine to be used for The minimum ability collection of D2D sessions, and terminal user is transferred to by 3GPP networks.If for example, energy of the WTRU1 at oneself Report (WTRU universal terrestrial radios access (EUTRA) capability information element (IE) of evolution) oneself can be under in force information Line link (DL) and up-link (UL) two layers of multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) configuration of the two support, and WTRU2 can support two Layer DL, but support only non-MIMO UL, then such as the minimum of D2D sessions transmitted in radio resource control reconfiguration message Configuration can include two layers of the MIMO transmitted from WTRU1 to WTRU2, and the non-MIMO transmitted from WTRU2 to WTRU1.It can hold Row ability is established for unicast and broadcast session.

D2D servers can be to be registered in known region D2D user.This can exist as the WTRU in RRC idle conditions When being registered in tracing area, and notified when WTRU enters RRC connection status with specific eNB by MME.Therefore it can D2D WTRU mobility is tracked, and mobility functions can be helped, such as from D2D pattern switching to infrastructure mode.

D2D servers can perform the negotiation with application server.It can the known registration in the region of its service and All interim D2D services of activation.It can individually track the user's access list each serviced.For example, user A and B Facebook and Google+ services can be registered.But user A can be user B Facebook good friends, but it is not user B Google+ group memberships.All transient services that D2D servers can be directed to WTRU registrations push to desired filter WTRU.It can manage the service filter of each WTRU each service and update them on demand.Service filter may be used also To be provided by the ANDSF functions of strengthening.D2D servers can also maintain and specifically tactful to user's Push Service.

D2D equipment can perform periodic and event driven discovery, to find the new equipment near them, or To maintain the connectivity with the other users in the identical transient service group of some application.This process can in idle pulley and Connection mode performs, but may be with the different cycles.In connection mode, when WTRU is not in positive send, they can be with Discontinuously received into connection mode (DRX), and remain engaged in discovery procedure.D2D equipment can be configured with discovery mode, referred to Show when they wake up, send the device identification of themselves, monitor other WTRU, and return to sleep.D2D servers can be helped Help the formation of this pattern, and coordinate the pattern each organized, with cause WTRU can with it is minimized they wake up and more effectively Use their battery.

D2D servers can include the integrated database of the WTRU parameter relevant with D2D services.Database can include WTRU device ids (ID types).For each WTRU, database can include the MME addresses of WTRU attachments.Database can wrap The WTRU ability relevant with D2D services is included, the transient service name each serviced, is registered to the WTRU of each service WTRU services ID (identical WTRU there can be different service ID in different services), WTRU device ids to service ID mapping, it is registered to every The WTRU lists of individual service, the WTRU filters each serviced, (that is, for each WTRU/ services pair, it is allowed to have D2D associations Other WTRU services ID lists).It can allow identical WTRU that there is D2D associations in some services, but in other services No.For example, user A can be user B Facebook good friends, but it is not user B Google+ group memberships.Database can With the D2D service preferences serviced including each WTRU/, each WTRU positional information, and each charge information under WTRU line.

D2D servers can be logic entity.The physical location of D2D servers may rely on what each operator made Framework selects.For separated one or more physical entities, D2D servers can be that each operator is single or multiple things Entity is managed, or can be integrated across multiple operators.For the D2D servers to coexist with existing node, it can be with one Individual or multiple existing EPC nodes-eNB, ANDSF, MME, HSS, "Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF), E-SMLC etc. are altogether Place.One or more logic function can perform in existing EPC nodes.The ANDSF of enhancing can be used for help and service hair It is existing.

In alternative embodiments, a part for the logic function of D2D servers is also used as application server work( Can a part perform.

No matter how the physics realization of D2D servers selects, can with execution logic function come realize D2D service.

For the indirect and mixed model of D2D service configuration, wherein D2D servers are located at outside 3GPP network boundaries, hand over Interworking function can be necessary, the standard interface being used as between 3GPP network nodes and D2D servers.If D2D Within 3GPP borders, D2D-IWF can be incorporated to D2D servers or coexist therewith server.D2D-IWF can in its function With similar with machine type communication (MTC)-IWF.It can hide internal EPC interfaces and framework to D2D servers.D2D-IWF can To hide 3GPP operators internal networking structure, D2D servers, MME, HSS interface are terminated to, and performs appropriate agreement and turns Change, its with D2D servers are authenticated before 3GPP network services and authorized and support be sent to and come from D2D clothes The control plane message of business device.

Strategy and an example of function (ANDSF) for charging enhancing can be pushed to WTRU, in order to which WTRU can be with PCRF interfaces and the strategy that oneself can be met for network.D2D servers alternatively can collect meter from the PCEF in WTRU Charge information, and provide it to charge system under line (OFCS).Charge information can also be by Gy interfaces directly from WTRU PCEF is sent to charge system on line (OFCS).

When PCEF is performed in WTRU, terminal user may be had no ability to use strategy and charge information.Therefore, build This function is discussed to realize in WTRU dependable environment, such as use trusted domain.

It is alternatively possible to use the policy framework based on Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) equipment control (DM).In this feelings Under condition, OMA DM clients can be located in WTRU, and strategy is managed object (MO) as OMA DM and come by OMA DM servers There is provided.OMA DM can define the agreement for exchanging the MO that can be used.Alternatively, OMA DM MO can use webpage (Web) Service agreement such as simple object access protocol (SOAP) is exchanged.One example of the policy framework based on OMA DM is ANDSF。

Can also be by will be associated in MO using element (or multiple elements) with each D2D IP streams/service, Yi Jiyao Ask WTRU suitably to keep tracking to update this yuan and usually support charging in OMA DM.Finally, OMA DM MO can be well fitted for In guarantee equipment safety concept, such as trusted domain.Some changes that can be required in existing EPC nodes are there is described herein, with D2D servers are integrated into the 3GPP network architectures, and provide a user D2D services.

MME can be the primary interface between WTRU control plane and D2D servers.MME can by D2D device ids from D2D Server Relays handle D2D information during attaching process and help the D2D between WTRU to associate to WTRU.MME can be with Handle one or more new-device request type of related D2D services.The carrying that MME can perform the modification of D2D carryings is built Vertical process.MME D2D scenes can coordinate the radio configuration that D2D is serviced between MME.Therefore, can be between MME be participated in Master slave relation be present.MME can indicate to D2D server with information, such as WTRU D2D abilities, directapath availability Etc..

HSS can be provided to D2D servers IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) and D2D device ids and transient service ID it Between mapping.

PCRF can be the storehouse of D2D corresponding strategies, and D2D strategies can be provided to D2D servers.PCRF can receive on The renewal of user's D2D preferences, whether the service request for verifying user is that the strategy setting of oneself is allowed, and ensures compliance with net Network strategy.

ENB can be responsible for the provided for radio resources management (RRM) of D2D links.For the D2D scenes between eNB, this can be wrapped Include at the same with multiple eNB coordination, some of them in identical PLMN, some are in other PLMN.This coordination can pass through X2 interface is carried out, and can change the interface for this purpose.ENB can also be responsible for provide eNB between D2D links it is compatible Radio bearer configuration.For the coordination between this eNB, it is believed that participate in having master slave relation between eNB.

ENB can also carry out multicast D2D scheduling, and this is also one compared with basic multimedia broadcast multicast services (MBMS) New example.For D2D links, eNB can change their carrying configuration, and in some sense, S1 and S5 interfaces can not Be directapath and local path carrying necessary to.They can also be the route that local path carrying performs modification.For Mobility between infrastructure and D2D patterns, eNB can forward the data in their buffer, (be cut to D2D on basis Change), and receive these data from WTRU (D2D switches to basis).

ANDSF functions can be enhanced to support D2D to service.New interface can include D2D servers, and to MME, (Tdm connects Mouthful), D2D servers to HSS (Tdh interfaces), D2D servers to PCRF (Tdp interfaces), D2D servers to D2D servers (Tdd Interface), D2D servers to ANDSF (Tdn interfaces), D2D servers to E-SMLC (Tde interfaces), D2D servers to OFCS (Tdo interfaces) and D2D servers are to application server (Tda interfaces).

Renewal to existing interface can include extension S10 interfaces with allow to exchange between MME (including inside PLMN and Between PLMN), it is remotely located from the D2D services switched between MME.These D2D, which are exchanged, can also allow for needed for D2D carrying foundation Radio configuration coordination.Renewal to existing interface can also include extension S6a interfaces for straight between MME and HSS Connect D2D service verifications.It, which may also help in, provides reflecting between IMSI or other existing interim ID and D2D gadgets ID Penetrate.

Figure 13 shows the signal flow graph of possible D2D service sequences in wireless communication system 1300, and system 1300 is wrapped Include the WTRU 1305 with D2D abilities, eNB 1310, MME 1315, SGW/PGW 1320, D2D servers 1325, HSS 1330th, PCRF 1335 and application server 1340.The introducing of D2D services can require the change of NAS and RRC processes.Figure 13 shows Show that WTRU is attached to network and obtains the view of the process global sequence of D2D services., can be false during being described below If direct modeling, wherein D2D servers are located within 3GPP borders.Process corresponding to indirect model can be by introducing D2D- IWF is somewhat changed.

Figure 13 shows the attaching process of modification, and it to have the WTRU 1305 of D2D abilities to provide oneself to network D2D abilities.Moreover, it can performed using process with allowing the network to provide it to the WTRU 1305 with D2D abilities The mark used during D2D discovery procedures.During attaching process 1345, WTRU 1305 can notify the D2D energy of network oneself Power, including but not limited to, directapath D2D wireless capabilities and D2D service ability for example support the ability that D2D is serviced, and Whether WTRU 1305 can run on repeater mode and/or broadcast mode.This information can transmit in NAS message is adhered to, It is then transmitted to D2D servers 1325 to be used to further handle, to determine whether WTRU 1305 has D2D service ability. D2D servers 1325 can be further with other policy entities such as PCRF 1335 come inspection policy.If D2D servers 1325 approval WTRU 1305 are used for D2D services, and according to WTRU abilities and the strategy that associates, D2D servers 1325 can distribute D2D device identifiers.D2D servers 1325 can be by this information transmission to MME 1315.MME 1315 can connect in attachment Included D2D identifiers by message.Once the result as attaching process establishes default bearing, WTRU 1305 in WTRU 1305 User preference can be pushed to D2D servers 1325.D2D servers 1325 can use the user preference renewal PCRF of renewal 1335, it can include the public or private preference of Finding possibility.

WTRU 1305 can attempt preferred using D2D at any time when it is attached to network.It can be by via acquiescence nothing Line electricity carries sends application message request to use D2D preferred to application server 1340.This can initiate service discovery process. As a part for service discovery, one or more that can provide each D2D applications of its registration to WTRU 1305 is interim Service name.This Service name can be provided by application server 1340, and relay to WTRU 1305 by D2D servers 1325.

D2D servers 1325 can also to WTRU 1305 provide user list, its can provide each apply it is possible The application identities of D2D peer-entities, and D2D device ids associated with each equipment on user list.Can for WTRU 1305 There are multiple D2D services available simultaneously, the transient service name and user list of association each can be provided with.WTRU 1305 can Found with performing the equipment of event triggering.The result that equipment is found, it is the list of the device identification found, can be by WTRU 1305 (1350) are filtered using the above-mentioned Service name-user list-device identification mapping provided by D2D servers 1325, such as Shown in Figure 15.Alternatively, this process of equipment filtering can perform at D2D servers 1325.Therefore, WTRU 1305 Can to D2D servers 1325 send find equipment full list, D2D servers 1325 then filter the list and to WTRU 1305 provides its user that can be directed to given service and associate.When either adding new demand servicing, or when service is deleted Remove or its parameter update when, device Filters can be updated.

Equipment is found can be before service discovery.In this case, WTRU 1305 is it can be found that it can be at oneself Radio nearby receive all devices mark, and the filtering based on equipment-service-identity map can service note It is performed during volume/discovery.

Figure 14 A and 14B are using the signal stream of the D2D attaching process examples supported together in wireless communication system 1400 Cheng Tu, the system 1400 include WTRU 1405, eNB 1410, MME 1415, D2D servers 1420, HSS with D2D abilities 1425 and PCRF 1430.The motivation of renewal attaching process can betide 3GPP ProSe and require all D2D users in a network During registration.It can require to update attaching process to allow the WTRU with D2D abilities to notify network when being registered to network The D2D abilities of oneself.Network can provide the D2D of oneself marks found for D2D to WTRU.

As shown in Figure 14 A, start in attaching process, in attach request NAS message 1435, one or more can be increased Individual new IE will participate in the intention of D2D services to carry WTRU 1405, and optionally, D2D WTRU abilities.Taken in new IE The D2D WTRU abilities of band can include directapath D2D wireless capabilities, D2D service ability (via NAS) and WTRU 1405 support the ability of D2D services, (for example, D2D repeater modes, broadcast mode).

As shown in Figure 14 A, once MME 1415 receives attach request NAS message (1440), MME 1415 can be via MME 1415 sends D2D WTRU abilities 1445 to D2D servers 1420.D2D servers 1420 can check that WTRU 1405 is It is no that there is D2D service ability.It can also be with other policy entities 1450 (for example, PCRF 1430 etc.) come inspection policy.

If D2D servers 1420 are logically located at outside core net, D2D-IWF can be used for and D2D servers 1420 Communication.In the case where D2D servers 1420 are within 3GPP networks, either as independent community or as existing node A part, such as ANDSF, D2D-IWF can turn into the simplification function of coexisting with D2D servers 1420.

If D2D servers 1420 ratify WTRU 1405 D2D services, D2D servers 1420 can be to WTRU 1405 Distribute unique D2D device ids.D2D servers 1420 can send D2D device ids (1455) to MME 1415, and it can include hair The attachment for giving WTRU 1405 receives identical content in NAS message 1460.

Receive NAS message 1460 and after default radio carrying establishes receiving attachment, WTRU 1405 can be to D2D servers 1420 push D2D user preferences 1465, as shown in Figure 14B.D2D servers 1420 can use (change) user Preference 1465 updates PCRF 1430, and it can include Finding possibility preference, such as related to battery life public or private People's behavior, etc..These user preferences 1465 can be widely applied to all D2D services, rather than any special D2D applications spy Fixed.However, in the case of Emergency Services Message, (for example, E911, earthquake and SSWWS (ETWS) etc.), user Preference 1465 can be crossed (override) to ensure service continuity.In addition, in the case where legal permission is monitored, user Preference 1465 can also be crossed to ensure compliance with local administration request.It is inclined in the D2D strategies and WTRU for considering network application After good, the specific policy updates 1470 of D2D can push to D2D servers 1420 again to WTRU 1405 from PCRF 1430.

Finally, D2D servers 1420 can also update its database, and it is by WTRU 1405 and the gadget ID of oneself It is associated with MME 1415 mark of its attachment etc..Figure 15 be as shown in fig. 13 that service and device discovery procedure ( WTRU have filtering) example signal flow graph.The specific protocol for network service advertisement and discovery procedure is there is described herein, And some implementation options of the process.Servant activator (NISE) agreement of network advertisement can be used.NISE servers can To be configured by third party entity, specific use (for example, game) is possibly used for.

Login request message can be sent from WTRU to NISE servers.WTRU with D2D abilities can oneself registration To NISE servers.Registration process can include terminal recognition, and thus WTRU identifies oneself with some modes, (that is, cellular network The middle standard WTRU identification means used).Using station location marker, WTRU can reuse communication feature (for example, WTRU is used Or can be D2D communication use channel, technology, frequency) identify the position of oneself.Using D2D service advertisements, WTRU can To list the service for oneself wishing to provide by D2D links.Using D2D service-seekings, WTRU, which can be listed, oneself to wish to pass through The service that D2D links receive, it is assumed that support that the immediate WTRU of this service is available.These message can be sent together Or separately send.For example, D2D service advertisements and query messages can be sent when WTRU is registered, but can repeat with more The list for the service that new WTRU is supported or new service of inquiry.Moreover, the list for the service that WTRU is supported and WTRU want operation Service can be different.This separately send advertisement and query messages can provide the flexibility of maximum.In some systems In, not necessarily, the two message can be merged into single message for this flexibility.

Accreditation verification can be sent to WTRU by NISE servers to confirm registration request.Advertisement confirms can be used to confirm that Advertising listing, and inquiry response can be sent in response to WTRU service-seekings.Inquiry response can include known prop up At least some of WTRU lists in the service of holding, these services are WTRU to server lookup, are identified as what user asked, with And within the scope of WTRU direct link.Although NISE servers can identify the WTRU in discussion using positional information WTRU near general, but the WTRU in special WTRU transmission range can not possibly be identified.Mobility can further make This complication.

For each WTRU, it can be registered according to WTRU and service advertisement finds information and service list to provide WTRU. It can require that WTRU has found information to find WTRU whether within transmission range.This can include WTRU ID some aspects, Channel that WTRU is used and radiotechnics etc..

Identical with the situation of WTRU to NISE server transports, message can be sent together or separately send, this foundation WTRU to NISE server messages be together send or separately send.If moreover, the advertisement of WTRU to NISE servers and look into Ask message to be merged, then advertisement confirms that response is not essential, because inquiry response can be with imply confirmation advertisement.Similar, If inquiry response and registration are merged, inquiry response can be with imply confirmation registration.

One receives NISE inquiry responses, and WTRU can carry out D2D and find that agreement is rung to find and be connected to inquiry One in the WTRU listed in answering.Although any number of known device can be used to find agreement, before discovery Operation NISE, which can be significantly decreased, finds related expense, because the WTRU for initiating to find can have on nearby now WTRU information, (although may be actually not in the range of), and desired service can be supported.Moreover, WTRU is also Can have search information, (for example, the channel used), the information, which can significantly decrease, finds the required work expended.

In form, ANDSF is Network finding and selection function (that is, server), and it supports WTRU non-3 GPP access network Discovery and selection.Selection course can be based on strategy, and (that is, ANDSF can provide WTRU and be abided by when selection accesses network Rule/the strategy kept).In fact, term ANDSF can be used for including ANDSF servers oneself, and for accessing ANDSF Agreement and from ANDSF transmission information.The information of transmission can be contained in OMA DM MO, (that is, ANDSF MO).ANDSF MO can be included and be found information and access rules/strategy.

3GPP can support to push and pull model, for ANDSF outfits WTRU.

Figure 16 shows access network discovery and selection function (ANDSF) management object (MO) top level structure.D2D service discoveries Information be can be incorporated into ANDSF MO, and it can be divided as shown in figure 16.

ANDSF MO major part (subtree) can be included for mobility strategy (ISMP) rule between equiping system Strategy, it can be primarily used to offloading network selection.ANDSF MO can also include findings that information sub-tree structure, such as Figure 17 institutes Show, it is used to WTRU and is equipped with access network discovery information needed.ANDSF MO can also include ANDSF MO WTRU positions Sub-tree structure, as shown in figure 18, to allow WTRU to record the position of oneself, then the position can be read by ANDSF.Although Accurate definition and timing are often that some depend on what is realized, and the triggering for updating this information can be that position changes.Position The mode of mark can clearly obtain from this sub-tree structure.ANDSF MO can also include routing policy between system (ISRP).The stream of the strategy that this subtree can be route between record system, i.e. heterogeneous networks is specifically used using with heterogeneous networks In the situation of not cocurrent flow).Subtree is quite big and complicated.

In order that realizing NISE with ANDSF, the other structures for needing to introduce in ANDSF MO can be defined on.Service advertisement Subtree, " D2D_ services " can be referred to as in the text and service/application name IE, service/application ID IE can be included, according to Some known services/application registration or mark system, and service/application signature IE, (for example, being used for integrity verification).In addition, D2D service discoveries subtree can include the list that WTRU can be used in region, and some identification informations are together.For each WTRU, Designed for helping the information of WTRU discoveries and can include in lists on the information of the WTRU services supported.

Figure 19 shows D2D service discovery subtrees.The tree can be located at several positions in ANDSF MO.Most common option can To be the top layer in ANDSF MO, or in " it was found that information " subtree.As shown in figure 19, " (D2D takes D2D_ServiceAds Business advertisement) " subtree can by for notify WTRU service by oneself nearby findable WTRU advertisements " D2D_Service " son Set list composition.However, " D2D_ServiceAds " subtree can also be used alone, (for example, in ANDSF MO root layer), use In WTRU records (and then reporting), it wishes the service supported.Similar, " D2D_ServiceQuery (look into by D2D services Ask) " subtree can from for ANDSF inquiry can with D2D service D2D_Service subtree lists form.WTRU services are wide To accuse and newly " D2D " subtree can be arranged on MO root by the most common position of query sub tree, it can include these subtrees, and Potential D2D has found information.

3GPP standards can be equipped with ANDSF MO using OMA DM agreements to WTRU.It can also use and exchange expansible mark Remember other agreements of language (XML) document, (for example, SOAP).

Figure 20 shows the communication exchange process example that the D2D of the ANDSF auxiliary in wireless communication system 2000 has found, The system 2000 includes the first WTRU 2005, the 2nd WTRU 2010 and ANDSF 2015.During initial ANDSF is accessed, OMA DM " general warning " message 2020 can initiate ANDSF and be equipped with 2025, and " type " instruction of wherein alert message 2020 is desired D2D is equipped with information.ISRP and/or ISMP is equipped with the part that can be required to send individually warning or can be equipped with as D2D Include.As a part for this process, WTRU 2005 can provide identification and positional information, can be matched somebody with somebody with function Standby MO is to fill service advertisement and/or service-seeking information.

In certain point, WTRU 2005 can fill service advertisement and service query tree leaf, and notify ANDSF 2015, (make With " update_D2D " type of general warning 2030) it oneself have updated (or all) these information.Then ANDSF 2015 can read the information of renewal using OMA DM " GET " method 2035, and can be used according to result new D2D has found information to update (2040) WTRU ANDSF MO.WTRU positions can be read as a part for D2D renewals 2045 Take, because this may have been changed from after last exchange, and useful information can be provided to WTRU 2005.Finally, WTRU 2005 can be performed D2D discoveries 2050 and be found another WTRU to communicate using the discovery information being newly equipped with.

ANDSF push can be somewhat different from the process described below that pulls, but unobvious.Push model can pair when Between sensitive push policy update it is useful, (that is, being not to wait for WTRU request strategies).According to push model, completed policy can be by It is pushed to WTRU either one group of WTRU (or being broadcast to all).WTRU can receive to be checked for the strategy of tactful availability, If policy update is to be applied to them, their cans are stored.Other communications are not essential.

Strategy push can be only that WTRU goes to obtain the triggering of special policy update, (that is, push can be initiated to pull). In this case, WTRU, which receives push, can check the content of oneself, and if desired, can initiate strategy according to Figure 20 Renewal.

It was found that suitably access network can be provided by access network type advertisement, (private network, free public network Network, payment public network), roaming group and location information.(L2) the agreement universal advertisement services of layer 2 (GAS) can be provided and built The query/response mechanism (access network vlan query protocol VLAN (ANQP)) stood on GAS.

GAS is the agreement based on layer 2, for before the certification offer information availability related to network service in WTRU Advertisement frames are transmitted between the server in network.GAS can provide function, to cause WTRU it can be found that with desired network The availability of related information is serviced, (for example, on service (such as in independent basic service set (IBSS), local access clothes There is provided in business, available subscriptions service provider (SSP) and/or SSP networks (SSPN) or other external networks) information.

When WTRU is in uncorrelated state and correlation behavior, GAS can be used as passes through IEEE using generic container 802.11 networks carry out the transfer mechanism of the advertising service of advertisement network service information.

ANQP is a kind of advertisement protocol transmitted by GAS.Advertisement protocol element can specify that WTRU can be used for and advertisement The advertisement protocol of server (AS) communication.AS can coexist with WTRU, or in external network.AS can be media without concern (MIH) server is changed, (because GAS be used to transmit MIH message) or ANQP servers are (storage ANQP parameters) or another A type of information server.

Figure 21 shows universal advertisement services in wireless communication system (GAS) basic structure, and the system includes request WTRU 2105, response WTRU 2110 and Advertisement Server 2115.GAS agreements, it can be used for transmission inquiry and inquiry response, can To be transparent to advertisement protocol.

As shown in figure 21, response WTRU 2110 can use the GAS initial request frames received from request WTRU 2105 2125 send GAS query claim frame 2120 to Advertisement Server 2115.Response WTRU 2110 can carry to response WTRU 2110 For GAS query response frame 2130, it is then responding to WTRU 2110 and sends GAS initial communications frame 2135 to request WTRU 2105.GAS Inquiry response frame 2130 can transmit in single GAS initial communications frame 2135, or reply and respond in one or more GAS Transmitted in frame 2140.

It can cause to postpone with response WTRU 2110 Advertisement Servers 2115 associated, or insert multiple frames, wherein ringing WTRU 2110 is answered to indicate to send the time delay cycle before response, (for example, X seconds or N number of frame).This behavior can Exchange is replied message to establish GAS, wherein if desired, request WTRU 2105 suspends, multiple GAS is then sent and replys request Frame 2140, GAS of each triggering from response WTRU 2100 reply response frame.

ANQP can be inquiry and the response protocol that mobile device is used for finding range of information, include the domain of hot spot operator Name, (whole world unique, machine can search for data element), the roaming participant that can access via focus and their type of credentials with And for certification support Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) method, IP address type availability, (for example, IPv4, IPv6), with And the other metadata of the network selection procedures for WTRU.

IEEE 802.11u can require to support following ANQP elements:Location name information, network authentication type information, roaming Group's list, IP address type availability information (for example, IPv4, IPv6), network insertion ID (NAI) field list, domain name row Table and 3GPP cellular network informations.Other information element can also be supported.For example, as it is known that WiFi alliances are come using the ANQP of enhancing The focus 2.0 for activating oneself configures.

Realize that NISE can include also increasing GAS agreements in addition to inquiring about Advertisement Server to allow using GAS/ANQP By information " loading " into Advertisement Server.

Support that it is related to D2D that D2D service advertisements can be extended to support in ANQP agreements via ANQP query/responses Completed during the transmission of the information of connection.OMA DM MO may be used as " container " of this information.Therefore, new OMA DM MO can be with Create and be used for ANQP.Alternatively, ANDSF can be used as ANQP Advertisement Servers, and there is the ANQP strengthened to transmit ANDSF MO。

In order to support D2D via GAS, being remarkably reinforced to support ad content being loaded into advertisement clothes for agreement can be required It is engaged in device.To this end it is possible to use, " GAS ad-requests " message and " GAS ad responses " message.WTRU can initiate session bag The GAS ad-request message of the identification information containing WTRU delivers advertisement.This message can include security association (SA), be included in The signaling needed for SA is established between SA and Advertisement Server.Message can also include designator, and it is initial request to indicate this, (can With using acquiescence " ad-request ID ").Message, which can include the content that notice server provides, to be complete or also has more Upcoming designator.Some or all the elements for wanting advertisement can be included.

Advertisement Server can be responded with " GAS ad responses " message comprising SA parameters.In initial communication, this can To need the SA parameters for subsequent message including WTRU.This message can also include request receiving/refusal designator.Service Device can determine if to wish to receive the content from WTRU using WTRU identification informations.If it is, server can be to WTRU sends " receiving " instruction.Otherwise, server can send " refusal " designator.Message can also include " ad-request ID ", WTRU can identify the content of subsequent message in a subsequent message with it.If have rejected request, this designator can With no connotation.Message can also include content affirmative acknowledgement (ACK)/negative ACK (NACK), to indicate that server whether can Processing and the information for delivering proposition, (reception/refusal that this can be related to receiving the server-capabilities of any content from WTRU refers to Show that symbol is different).If refusing initial request, this designator can not have connotation.

If WTRU does not send the complete or collected works of advertising message in initial " GAS ad-requests " message, it can send subsequently Request, has the WTRU identification informations matched with initial request and the SA parameters obtained from response before.It can use just Begin " the ad content ID " provided in responding.It is complete or more that subsequent request, which can include the content that notice server provides, More upcoming designators of content, and payload (content).

Response to this request can include SA parameters, (being used for next request below).Receiving/refusal field can be with It is arranged to " receive ", because server has received request." ad-request ID " could be arranged to right value, content ACK/ NACK can be used as described above.

SA can be established between WTRU and Advertisement Server, to prevent multiple secure threads, including deliver mistake or Undesirable information, the denial of service attacks etc. designed for overload advertising database (DB).SA, which is established, may rely on extensively Announcement is completed before or after WTRU has accessed the networks of IEEE 802.11.If WTRU obtains in IBSS patterns To the access of 802.11 networks, the SA between WTRU and infrastructure can be present.Then this SA is used as SA between WTRU and Advertisement Server, (share SA in infrastructure and be to rely on realization).If WTRU does not connect also Enter to 802.11 networks, as ANQP situation, then SA can be established directly between Advertisement Server and WTRU.This SA It can be opened completely with WTRU in SA points established later with the networks of IEEE 802.11.SA can deliver meeting in single ad content Exist always during words, (that is, initial request and subsequent request use identical content ID).Establishing this SA mode can be Advertisement Server is specific.For example, if ANDSF can establish process or datagram by as Advertisement Server using SA Transport layer security (DTLS).If WTRU is the part for the WTRU for being connected to 3GPP networks, 3GPP universal guidings can be used Framework (GBA) structure.

It was found that it can treat from different angles in itself.In seeervice level, equipment finds wireless to send out to know some Penetrate/receiving unit (WTRU) nearby terminates.If equipment is accordingly equipped with, (for example, packet switch (PS) situation), service Level finds to avoid.In radio access network (RAN) level, discovery can be before link establishment.From the point of view of radio perspective, Compared with communication, it is possible to which equipment finds on a different frequency to occur, (in such situations, it is found that the D2D in frequency The judgement of link-quality may must be converted into sentencing for other RAN levels discovery of corresponding D2D data link frequency or execution It is disconnected).Also, it is conceivable that by the discovery of the physical link between equipment, followed by pass through another radio access technologies (RAT) communication of local path.

Can have some be used for find use-case.For example, in order to detect application (for example, Foursquare, Facebook) Physical proximity, or in order to detect radio frequency (RF) condition of direct point-to-point data link, (be used for direct point-to-point data link, Including unloading and public safety).

Describe using D2D interworking functions (IWF) come support two benches device-to-device (D2D) find method and Device.D2D IWF components are configurable to perform the mapping run between the application of application server and 3GPP networks, and carry It is supplied to D2D to apply to allow to will be seen that as service for one group of API (API).3GPP can be mapped to using ID ID.The method and apparatus that client-server is found are performed moreover, describing.First wireless transmitter/receiver unit (WTRU) can To be configured to listen only to operate, the 2nd WTRU may be configured to send beacon.First and second WTRU can be in Access Layer (AS) layer performs radio access network (RAN) discovery procedure.In addition, D2D service registrys can be by being registered to network and obtaining WTRU ID WTRU is performed.WTRU can be registered to application server or D2D servers, and WTRU can complete equipment hair It is existing.WTRU can be triggered to initiate radio access network (RAN) discovery.Also describe for performing using D2D IWF's The method and apparatus of the charging of D2D services.

Framework described here and process are used to provide the service original found using D2D IWF device-to-device (D2D) Language and charging support.Framework described here and process can apply to the network and WTRU operated in D2D communications.D2D IWF, that is, (D2D/ProSe servers) can be supplied to D2D/ close to the logic of the interface of service (ProSe) application server Entity.

Directapath, wherein physical communication are directly carried out between two D2D equipment, and local path, wherein logical Letter can be established by the eNB that two D2D equipment all connect, and can all be defined on for supporting that D2D communicates close to service (ProSe) scene within the scope of.Some are defined can force system design one group of new demand for ProSe use-case.This A little demands can be roughly divided into business and public safety.Public safety demand can be considered the super of business demand Collection.

Social use-case can include limiting situation, thus D2D user can with it can be found that they it has been specified that other D2D Equipment and by them it has been specified that other D2D equipment find, (for example, belonging to their user's group, (for example, friend arranges Table), social networking application (but being not required so) is then used by D2D links).It was found that can be without any WTRU positions Information and perform.

Social use-case can include unrestricted discovery situation, and thus D2D user can be had found by any other D2D user, Formerly allow without being found the specific of WTRU.

Social use-case can include different public land mobile networks (PLMN) and find, thus belong to different PLMN's D2D user can mutually be found.This subset can be D2D user also in roaming.

Social use-case can include servicing continuous situation.For unloading situation, D2D user can in directapath and Move between infrastructure mode, significantly switch without user.

Social use-case can include position and situation be present, and thus operator can strengthen them with ProSe processes Position and existence information.When the WTRU that two have been in communication with each other is close enough to allow operator to be switched to them D2D patterns, during without their request, some slightly different discovery modes can occur.It can include being found Element:Non-Access Stratum (NAS) and RAN.Interact, and can be identified, (example with application server however, it is possible to have Such as, obtained from their Internet protocol (IP) address).

Public safety use-case can include all business use-cases, basic PS use-cases, thus two authorized PS user's energy It is enough directly by D2D link communications, PS D2D users are able to maintain that multiple simultaneous a pair from different D2D PS users One D2D sessions, it is one-to-many communication, WTRU as the relaying between two other WTRU, WTRU be used as infrastructure relaying, And the communication in the multicast pattern without formerly finding.

According to use-case, implemented below option is possible:

1) network discovery-NAS+ core network elements can be applicable, if neighbouring is only it is expected to support Service.For example, user X can need to find user Y whether near 100m distances, and deployment architecture it is whether good enough so that Its is significant, (5km rural areas macrocell is just less useful)., can be by it by being limited to possible those neighbouring WTRU For reducing the burden of system discovery as pre-filtering.

2) discovery based on RAN (PHY influences) can be applicable, if use-case is to establish direct point-to-point chain Road, or if necessary to more accurately relative distance information.In this case, RF conditions can determine between devices.Thing Reason layer can support that the transmission of the other information of waveform and/or bearer messages and their reception can be found.

3) another RAT is used, (for example, WiFi) is used to find.As hybrid plan, network can use 1) detection to use Mutually " neighbouring " whether, then triggering is found and the user link on another RAT at family.In this case, WLAN discoveries can To be regarded as the discovery of RAN levels.

Although WTRU, (that is, mobile device), which can access them, the application server of service agreement, mobile network (MN) cannot.

D2D-IWF some functions be hide 3GPP operators inside network structure, be terminated to D2D servers, MME and HSS interface and perform suitable protocol conversion, its can with 3GPP network services before certification D2D servers, and can Sent with the control plane message for authorizing and supporting to be sent to and come from D2D servers.Adjacent service can be used as in WTRU Client application realize, referred to below as user agent.It can pass through user agent using any interaction between IWF Come carry out.IWF still can need directly to obtain associated user's configuration file and authenticated configuration file from application server.WTRU can Can be interacted by API (API) from the application receive information on WTRU, WTRU oneself with application server.Should Interacted with application server outside 3GPP scopes.It is anyway possible to some information are exchanged make it that D2D is as described below Correctly work.

Description solution come make user using inter-working function (D2D IWF) can guide and client- Server is found, and how will be seen that as carrier service to provide.Method is described to enable an operator to this Individual service carries out application service charging.D2D IWF functions can expand to the discovery service charging allowed to application supplier.Under Face also describes the discovery service charging using D2D IWC components.

D2D IWF components can perform application, between (for example, Facebook, Foursquare) and 3GPP networks and reflect Penetrate.Mapping function can perform the mapping using ID to 3GPP ID (for example, 3GPP IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identities (IMSI)).Though Right operator can control map operation, (by being interacted with application server), but operator may not necessarily know it is permanent Using ID.On the contrary, interim ID can be provided by application server.

D2D IWF components can keep current WTRU reachability informations, or can perform the inquiry of appropriate component, (for example, attaching position register (HLR)/home subscriber server (HSS)), when needed, correlation is mapped to by exterior I D The 3GPP ID of WTRU subscription simultaneously collect WTRU reachability informations.

D2D IWF can be based on application request initiating equipment and find.D2D IWF functions can also be with HSS and strategy and meter Take perform function (PCRF) interaction, the charging serviced to perform provided discovery aids in.D2D IWF, which can also be produced, to be had Exterior I D and application ID charging data record (CDR), and by Rf/Ga examples forward it to charging data function (CDF)/ Charging Gateway Functionality (CGF).

Applications client/user that D2D IWF can export API to provide with application server and/or run on WTRU The entrance of agent communication.API can allow D2D IWF entity requests following functions:Initiate and terminate WTRU to find, notify WTRU Or application server finds result, supports the mandate and certification of application server, request is found to application server report D2D Receiving do not receive either or HSS solutions mechanism be configured with for Virtual network operator it is multiple and individually addressable HSS when.

, will E.164 movement station when equipment finds to need in addition, D2D IWF can perform suitable HSS inquiry International subscriber directory number code (MSISDN) or exterior I D are mapped to association WTRU IMSI, obtain WTRU service node letter Breath, (i.e. service general packet service (GPRS) supporting node (SGSN)/mobility management entity (MME)/mobile switching centre (MSC) address), to determine whether that application server finds specific WTRU.Moreover, D2D IWF can perform most efficiently and Effective discovery mechanism selection, and according to the current WTRU service nodes information from HSS/HLR (for example, service MME/SGSN/ MSC addresses), the discovery mechanism that WTRU is supported, Home Public Land Mobile Network network (HPLMN), and when roaming, access public The possible discovery service that land mobile network (VPLMN) is supported altogether, and any information received from application server, Xiang Ying With this details of shielding.

D2D IWF entities can be logic entity, new node, or can be located at arbitrarily existing in 3GPP EUTRAN frameworks Have in node.D2D IWF functions can be located in strategy and billing function (PCRF), and related discovery service API can pass through Rx interface is supplied to application server.

For each application using D2D services, specific ID is applied in introducing.This ID can include using ID Consult before in Mobile Network Operator (MNO) between application provider), device id, application server or application visitor The specific ID of application, carrier ID, and/or the domain ID that family end (user agent) provides.

In one example, D2D ID can be following form:app.device.user@operator.topdomain. Device id can be global sole entity.

MNO can require no knowledge about the essence of application, it is only necessary to unique ID, because WTRU can directly ask service to be joined Number.Across unique standard application name or use that can be registered using ID in some service catalogues of different application server Created with the random ID of length of very low confusion probabilities.If it is used only for finding using ID and WTRU ID can not pushes away from it Export, then what this was implicit obscures not serious.Application/service mark can obtain in real time from third party, (for example, open ID can Can be while it verifies WTRU user's mark).Unified resource ID (URI) can be by application server or client/user Agency produces.

D2D application servers can be such as Facebook application, or can be supplied to multiple terminal applies Critical point/gateway of interface.Application server can use the API and mobile network communication of IWF outputs by IWF.

The generally known user list and their mark allowed using service of D2D application servers, the Service Quality of service (QoS) demand of measuring, including any context-specific information (for example, position limitation), mobile network provider are equipped with this clothes Commercial terms such as charging is applied in business, and user is to the interest of any special applications user, and application server can be with URI is produced for specific user.WTRU can run applications client.This client can be used as D2D user agents, and it passes through The API of output directly interacts with D2D IWF.WTRU can use this API registration to IWF, there is provided URI, there is provided interested User list, and request/initiation are found.

Influences of the D2D to existing EPC nodes can be as follows.For HSS, can be identified in D2D equipment 3GPP and Mapping is performed between MME, strategy, D2D abilities, the pattern of support.DNS entities can perform device reachability tracking, (that is, its It by which IWF entity is reachable mapping which equipment, which can be maintained, i.e. its maintain equipment URI and the IWF ID associated or Mapping between person's IWF IP address.

The key function that MME is performed can include the entity interested list for maintaining particular device, perform interested The monitoring of entity, received from D2D IWF and find request, received from WTRU and find report or neighbouring report, reported and find to IWF Failure/success, or realize proximity detection function.If it find that two mutually all in other side participant list interested set It is standby to report identical adjacent domain, and strategy allows them mutually to find other side, then detects adjacent to and to the two realities Body sends NAS message.

D2D service registrys, service discovery and access procedure can be defined as multistage process.In the first stage, WTRU can To be registered to network and obtain the WTRU ID of needs.In second stage, WTRU is registered to application server or D2D servers. Notice D2D servers outside provider domain.In the phase III, WTRU completes equipment and found.In fourth stage, using from should The information for finding to obtain with registration and equipment, completes service discovery.At this moment, application server can trigger WTRU and initiate to find Connected with using another RAT, or initiate RAN and find.Using registration and MME to the initial configuration of equipment in discovery procedure The first step is general.

The facility registration that application server is initiated can include WTRU and register, and thus each the WTRU with D2D abilities can To be attached to cellular network (WTRU registrations), and D2D server registrations, thus each the equipment with D2D abilities can perform To the registration of D2D servers, and obtain equipment/service URI.(application layer signaling).Each equipment with D2D abilities can be to D2D servers indicate " entity interested ".Alternatively, D2D equipment can indicate to as listen only to pattern device or Only transfer mode equipment operation is interested.

D2D servers can communicate with D2D IWF.D2D IWF can perform from D2D equipment URI to device id (for example, IMSI mapping).D2D IWF can obtain " entity interested " list from D2D servers.D2D IWF can obtain from HSS Global unique MME ID (GUMMEI).D2D IWF can be to MME send configurations.Configuration can include " entity interested ", or Person listens only to pattern or only transfer mode.

Alternatively, in certain form of application, WTRU can directly register with D2D IWF.For this purpose, IWF API can be provided to WTRU.

WTRU can be registered to cellular network and send the D2D abilities of oneself.MME can at the end of attaching process to WTRU provides IWF addresses.WTRU can have and D2D application servers or the D2D client applications of gateway communication or user Agency, for being registered to related application.WTRU can also provide D2D IWF addresses to gateway.User agent can produce use In the URI of this application.Alternatively, if D2D application servers produce URI, then can be carried URI by D2D IWF Supply WTRU.D2D application servers can provide WTRU authenticated configuration file to D2D IWF.Authenticated configuration file can be with WTRU it is expected the URI associations used.Application server can also provide URI.

D2D equipment can communicate with D2D IWF.D2D equipment can be registered to D2D IWF.IWF can authenticate WTRU and If URI is that IWF can provide the URI to WTRU caused by application server.URI can be registered to DNS by D2D IWF. D2D IWF can possess the mapping from D2D equipment URI to device id (for example, IMSI).D2D IWF can obtain from D2D equipment " entity interested " list.D2D IWF can obtain GUMMEI from HSS.D2D IWF can be to MME send configurations.Configuration can Including " entity interested ", either to listen only to pattern or only transfer mode.

Equipment with D2D ability of discovery can run on the pattern of listening only at any time, and wherein equipment listens only to send out Existing beacon, monitor and send discovery mode, wherein equipment is to finding and being found interested, and only transfer mode, wherein equipment be only Beacon and general data and equipment are found only to being found interested to neighbouring WTRU broadcast, and disabling discovery mode. Discovery procedure can include application registration and the specific discovery procedure of pattern.The specific discovery procedure of pattern may rely on use situation With the pattern for performing discovery.In client-server discovery mode, an equipment can be ignored by another equipment, wherein First equipment be in listen only to pattern until its detect another equipment, now carried out being reconfigured as being transformed into hair / listening mode is sent, and it notifies network or response miscellaneous equipment, concurrently plays user plane communication.Arrived in the equipment of guiding In equipment discovery mode, equipment can explicitly try to find by the miscellaneous equipment for directly asking " entity interested " to find Each other.

Once perform using registration, it is possible to initiate discovery procedure.In high level, discovery procedure can be divided into two ranks Section:Stage 1 finds that wherein MME helps to find the discovery of the equipment in identical " close to group ", and the stage 2 finds, wherein air interface The discovery of help uses Long Term Evolution (LTE) interface or another RAT (for example, direct WiFi).WTRU can have multiple Ability supports discovery procedure.For example, its multiple interface (RAT) that can support to can be used for discovery procedure.According to WTRU and Network capabilities, WTRU preferences and network and subscriber policy, WTRU, which is configurable to combine different RAT or RAT, to be used for Discovery procedure.Configuration can find the universal terrestrial radio access network (RUTRAN) of evolution for the stage 1, by direct WiFi Found for the stage 2.WiFi function can be configured using the information that network provides.

One equipment can be ignored by another equipment, wherein the first equipment is in the pattern that listens only to until it is detected separately One equipment, now reconfigured to be transformed into transmission/listening mode, and it notifies that network or response are other Equipment, concurrently play user plane communication.

Figure 22 A-22C are the signal of the client-server discovery procedure example in wireless communication system 2200 together Flow chart, the system 2200 include the first WTRU 2205, the 2nd WTRU 2210, the first MME 2215, the 2nd MME 2220, HSS 2225, the D2D IWF 2235 of domain name system (DNS) the 2230, the first, the 2nd D2D IWF 2240 and D2D (application) server 2245。

As shown in fig. 22, WTRU 2205 and 2210 can perform attaching process, (having D2D abilities), (2250).MME 2215, which can configure WTRU 2205, is used to listen only to operate, and MME 2220 can configure WTRU 2210 to initiate beacon transmissions. The configurations of WTRU 2205 can include when to send beacon, cycle, working cycles (duty cycle) etc..WTRU 2210 is configured The scrambler ID of beacon, the rise/fall process of beacon transmissions, cycle etc. can be included.WTRU 2205 can monitor beacon, And once detecting any beacon, it can send to MME 2215 and report.If WTRU 2205 and 2210 is in identical Within " adjacent domain ", MME 2215 can notify D2D IWF 2235, D2D IWF 2235 to notify D2D servers 2245.If into the stage 2, WTRU 2205 and 2210 can perform RAN in Access Layer (AS) layer and find transmission/reception.

As shown in fig. 22, MME 2215 can send the 3GPP ID's with WTRU 2205 to D2D IWF 2235 WTRU new informations 22521, and D2D IWF 2235 and then the 3GPP ID and IWF to the transmissions of DNS 2230 with WTRU 2205 2235 ID WTRU binding messages 22541.3GPP ID can include, but are not limited to, outside IMSI, MSISDN or 3GPP It is at least one in portion ID (for example, URI).IWF ID example can include, but are not limited to, IWF IP address or can To be mapped to the ID of IP address, such as URI.

Referring still to Figure 22 A, WTRU 2205 can send to D2D servers 2245 and apply registration message 22561, (including Ability of discovery, discovery mode-listen only to etc.), then D2D servers 2245 are sent to WTRU 2205 includes 3GPP exterior Is D (for example, URI's) applies registration message 22581.Inquiry and response message 2260 can be in DNS 2230 and D2D servers 2245 Between exchange, to determine that what IWF ID is for WTRU 2205.D2D servers 2245 can be sent out to D2D IWF 2235 Send the 3GPP exterior Is D (for example, URI) including WTRU 2205 and the WTRU binding messages 2262 of entity interested list1。 D2D IWF 2235 can send response (ACK) or binding completion message 2264 to D2D servers 22451.HSS 2225 and D2D IWF 2235 can exchange message 2266 and be assigned to WTRU 2205 to inquire about what MME.D2D IWF 2230 and then can be to MME 2215, which is sent, includes WTRU 2205 3GPP ID and the equipment of entity interested list finds-monitored that node initiates to disappear Breath 22681.MME 2215 and then pagings and the neighbor configuration message 2270 that listening mode process can be indicated to 2205 transmissions1

As shown in Figure 22 B, WTRU 2210 can send to D2D servers 2245 and apply registration message 22562, (including hair Existing ability, discovery mode support-transmission/monitoring or only transfer mode etc.), D2D servers 2245 then can be to WTRU 2210 send the application registration message 2258 for including 3GPP exterior Is D (for example, URI)2.MME 2220 can be to D2D IWF 2240 send the WTRU new informations 2252 of the 3GPP ID with WTRU 22102, D2D IWF 2240 then can be to DNS 2230 send the ID of the 3GPP ID and IWF 2240 with WTRU 2210 WTRU binding messages 22542.3GPP ID can be wrapped Include, but be not limited to, it is at least one in IMSI, MSISDN or 3GPP exterior I D (for example, URI).IWF ID example can To include, but are not limited to, IWF IP address or the ID that may map to IP address, such as URI.

Referring still to Figure 22 B, D2D servers 2245 can send the 3GPP for including WTRU 2210 to D2D IWF 2240 Exterior I D (for example, URI) and the WTRU binding messages 2262 of entity interested list2.D2D IWF 2240 can take to D2D Business device 2245 sends ACK or binding completion message 22642.Then D2D IWF 2240 can be sent to MME 2220 includes WTRU 2210 3GPP ID and the equipment of entity interested list find to initiate message 22682.MME 2220 then can be to WTRU 2210 send instruction only paging and the neighbor configuration message 2270 of transmission or transmission/listening mode process2.For example, work as WTRU 2205 when detecting signal (2272), and WTRU 2205 can be sent to MME 2215 include WTRU 2210 ID and for example S faces When mobile user identification (S-TMSI) proximity detection messages 2274.

As shown in fig. 22 c, MME 2215 and then message 2276 can be sent with neighbouring, the IWF that notifies that IWF 2235 is detected Then 2235 can send message 2278 to notify that it is neighbouring that D2D servers 2245 detect.MME 2215 can be to WTRU 2210 Send paging and neighbouring reconfigure transmission/reception pattern message 22801, and send paging to WTRU 2205 and neighbouring match somebody with somebody again Put transmission/reception pattern message 22802.Then data exchange 2282 can be carried out between WTRU 2205 and 2210.

Figure 23 A-23C are the signal flow graph of the service discovery process example for the guiding that equipment is initiated together, with Figure 22 A- 22C is similar.In the discovery process simulation model for the guiding that equipment is initiated, WTRU user agents can indicate that sense is emerging to application server The list of entities of interest, (needing the WTRU collection being found).Equipment shown in Figure 23 C finds to initiate message 23001With 23002 Entity interested list can be included.

Figure 24 A-24C are the signal flow graph for the guide service discovery procedure example that network is initiated together, similar with Figure 22. In the guiding device discovery procedure model that network is initiated, application server can indicate specific WTRU entity interested row Table, (needing the WTRU collection being found).Equipment shown in Figure 24 A finds to initiate message 24001With setting shown in Figure 24 B Preparation now initiates message 24002Entity interested list can be included.

In the discovery mode of guiding, the stage 1 can be NAS layer proximity detections, and the stage 2 can be using LTE or another One RAT AS layer proximity detections.WTRU can perform adjacent domain monitoring/report in NAS layers.MME can configure WTRU with Perform periodicity " neighbouring report ".WTRU can send periodically neighbouring report to network (for example, MME).From WTRU to MME New NAS message, which is sent, can update " adjacent domain ".If WTRU within identical " adjacent domain ", can enter the stage 2, WTRU can perform RAN in AS layers and find transmission/reception.MME can notify WTRU to initiate " direct link " discovery procedure.MME One of can page WTRU with initiate connect (mobile terminal (MT) process) either NAS or WTRU can initiate to move hair The calling procedure risen.WTRU can complete to be connected with the radio resource control of eNB (not shown)s (RRC).WTRU can be from eNB Obtaining includes with working cycles, sends and receives the frequency of beacon, when send and when receiving etc. and when start, what When stop, when reporting associated information discovery configuration.

In two benches discovery procedure, the stage 1 can use proximity detection process.There can be multiple processes, wherein can be with Proximity detection function is realized in MME.For example, cell or small district's groups can be a parts for adjacent domain, each cell can be with The adjacent domain information broadcast of the advertisement oneself in system information.WTRU is configurable to using new NAS Period Process The adjacent domain code detected in the cell oneself occupied is reported in MME.Adjacent domain renewal may map to tracking area Area update process.Adjacent domain code can in system information block (SIB) (for example, SIB Class1->Cell access correlation Information->Adjacent domain code).AS can detect adjacent domain code and send it to higher level.

Neighbouring renewal can be triggered by different factors or configuration, the position that the neighbor cell ID that can include detecting is concentrated Put coordinate, the increment change of position coordinates, cell ID changes, RF fingerprints, adjacent domain code change or RF fingerprint matchings or Change.

WTRU position can be used for impliedly detecting neighbouring.WTRU can be configured as report, and when the position of oneself is sat Mark have updated delta threshold, or locating infrastructure contact, (for example, Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC), can send WTRU period position renewal.MME proximity mappings function can associate this information, and when in discovery pair mutually interested Detect neighbouring between the WTRU of side, MME can notify the IWF entity associated with two WTRU.

In the stage 2, wherein realizing that RAN levels are found or other RAT have found, D2D beacons can be used for RAN discoveries.Can be with D2D beacons encode with device id as follows:Full ID (many-one mapping) is hashed to beacon ID/AND, sends multiple beacons (product code), if by network instruction just with full ID transmission follow initial Beacon to find, it is or another with network instruction The discovery of individual beacon follows initial Beacon to find.

It can realize that other RAT have found to connect with user plane.It is initial after detecting, notify application service Device, it can be triggered using layer signal to notify WTRU that they should initiate the discovery on other RAT (for example, WiFi) and user Plane connects.Application server can also configure WTRU to help other RAT discovery and communication process with auxiliary information.It is other RAT configuration can include wireless beacon configuration of wireless service collection ID (SSID) including timing etc., and for other RAT radio band/pattern/channel etc..

If the discovery of stage 2 will be carried out using LTE air interfaces, it is possible to realize point-to-point RAN level discovery procedures. LTE RAN have found that idle and/or connection mode can be requested for, as long as WTRU is attached to network.WTRU can use by ENB scheduling band in or out-of-band resource send or receive find signal.WTRU can use Time Division Multiplexing) mode is upper Sent between line link (UL) and cross link (XL), the resource distribution of wherein XL communications can be configured by WTRU, and can be with Including sub-frame configuration, (for example, sub-frame mode for XL communications), time slot configuration, (for example, time slot 0 is used to send, time slot 1 is used In reception), or resource block configuration, (for example, certain resource block communicates for XL).

Figure 25 A, 25B, 26A and 26B are the signal flows that point-to-point wireless is electrically accessed net (RAN) level discovery procedure example Figure.The discovery procedure 2505 of stage 1, and the process 2510 of possible stage 2 can be included by being shown in Figure 25 A and 25B process 25001 With 25102.The discovery procedure 2605 of stage 1 can be included by being shown in Figure 26 A and 26B process 2600, and stage 2RAN had found Journey 2610.

D2D has found that framework can realize the method centered on WTRU.Application server is generally it is known that allow to use The user list of service and their mark, the QoS demand of service including any context-specific information, (for example, position Limitation) etc., and mobile network provider be equipped with this service apply commercial terms such as charging.

Application server can safely be accessed by being registered to their MNO WTRU, and establish above-mentioned parameter with it. These parameters are established, then these parameters are stored in equipment.The service relevant to application WTRU interested can join It is MNO, and asks new demand servicing.The feature for any data that service type and parameter can be exchanged service with indicator, (for example, " best effort (best effort) "), desired Linktype (for example, ProSe), for desired service user individual or The designator of person's user's group, and WTRU want the interim name of the existing service of addition.

Except non-serving mixes, otherwise specific user may be needed to identify.Application server can store on WTRU It take part in the user list of the session of initiation.Then, using ID can have been associated with the ID of Web vector graphic Come.Marked for example, application server and network provider can develop the ID for producing and using network provider with permanent application Know the mechanism of association.It is alternatively possible to use using and third party's Identity Provider for all trusting of mobile network.

In addition to the ID of Web vector graphic, in order to be found the 2nd ID that can there is WTRU to send.Reflecting between two ID It is man-to-man to penetrate, and is known to network.

Open ID agreements are can to support the example of protocols of this joint mark management service, the mark that network provider uses Knowledge can use across multiple network providers.For example, a user in group can be provided application service by a MNO, it is identical Another user in group can be provided application service by another MNO, mark can across MNO coordinations, and can be in application clothes Business device traces back to single unique mark.

Once WTRU and network provider have consulted the foundation of new demand servicing, the transient service name for service can be created. The service identifiers obtained from third party can be unique, therefore can be used with across a network provider.WTRU is known that temporarily Service name simultaneously can provide it to AppSe.

Application provider can provide this Service name to any user now.Now, the effect of application provider can be with Become restricted.Its include can only when session needs to change just needs, (user reaches the standard grade or left, session QoS needs Renegotiate, or session needs to terminate).Otherwise, the service newly created can be used in advance by network as general " name " service The qos requirement first consulted is handled, and network can take over the connectivity management of this service.

Virtual network operator can use Service name in the strategy that WTRU and other network equipments can be observed with during.Example Such as, enabling D2D services can require that by WTRU be the specific IP address collection that needs D2D stream to use.In this case, net Network can instruct any stream initiated by the BuildCity applications associated with above-mentioned special session to swash using D2D to WTRU IP address living and source ID.Network can also compare and coordinate to come the information of multiple WTRU of a part for same services naturally, And manage the difference of user list, strategy etc..Figure 27 A and 27B are the D2D process examples for formatting charging data record together 2700 signal flow graph.The discovery procedure 2705 of stage 1 and stage can be included by being shown in Figure 27 A and 27B process 2700 2RAN processes 2710.Charging can be the work(in telecommunications network and associated Online Charging System (OCS)/bill domain (BD) component Can, collect, format wherein, the information that transmission and estimation are related to charging event, the side of being billed is made with can determine It can be kept accounts (online charging) with account's budget of make out the bill (charging under line) or user.

Charging data record (CDR) can be the formatting collection of the information on chargeable event, (for example, call setup Time, call duration, volume of transmitted data etc.), for charging and book keeping operation.Part charging for chargeable event or Each side of being billed of person's whole charging, can produce independent CDR, (i.e., it is possible to multiple CDR are produced for single chargeable event, Such as because its longer duration, or because multiple sides of being billed will be billed).

Charging event can be turned from charging triggering function (CTF) to CDF (charging under line) or to OCS (online charging) The charge information collection of hair.Each charging event can match a chargeable event exactly.

Charging can be a process under line, wherein being believed with resource using the charging that concomitantly collection network resource uses Breath.At the end of this process, CDR files can be produced by network, and it can be transferred into the BD of Virtual network operator and use Account is cleared between family charging and/or operator, (or other functions, for example, statistics, the judgement of operator).BD typically may be used With including after-treatment system, such as the bill system of operator or bill mediation devices.D2D IWF can also carry out D2D hairs The billing function that now services simultaneously produces CDR reports.CDR reports can be based on the RAN resources for being used for or being not used in charging, hair The duration of existing process, working cycles, the discovery mode discovery of guiding (client-server either) or for finding and The RAT (for example, directly WiFi is used to find, still having used LTE RAN resources) of communication process.

(for example, HSS detects WTRU when successful termination either stops to find or when network detects error condition It is inaccessible), IWF can produce CDR.


1. a kind of multiple have device-to-device (D2D) energy using network node come perform in public adjacent domain The method of the discovery procedure of the wireless transmitter/receiver unit (WTRU) of power, methods described include:

The network node receives the authenticated configuration file of first in the multiple WTRU, the authenticated configuration file It is associated with the identifier (ID) of the first WTRU associations;

The network node receives the signal for indicating the multiple WTRU in public adjacent domain;

The network node sends the ID of the first WTRU to register the first WTRU;And

The network node receives the list of the entity interested associated with the first WTRU.

2. according to the method described in embodiment 1, wherein the network node is device-to-device (D2D) interworking function (IWF), it is configured to the ID of the first WTRU being registered to domain name system (DNS).

3. according to method any one of in embodiment 1-2, wherein the ID of first WTRU is the third generation Partner program (3GPP) exterior I D, movement station international subscriber directory number (MSISDN) or IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) it is at least one in.

4. according to method any one of in embodiment 2-3, wherein the D2D IWF are connect using the first application programming Mouth (API) is docked with D2D application servers to provide the authentication information on the first WTRU, and the D2D servers Using the 2nd API come register and certification described in the first WTRU.

5. according to method any one of in embodiment 2-4, further comprise:

The D2D IWF obtain the mapping of service identifiers of the ID of the first WTRU to the first WTRU.

6. according to method any one of in embodiment 2-5, further comprise:

The D2D IWF are sent to mobility management entity (MME) includes the ID of the first WTRU and interested The device discovery messages of the list of entity.

7. according to method any one of in embodiment 2-6, further comprise:

The D2D IWF obtain unique mobility management entity (MME) identifier in the whole world from home subscriber server (HSS) (GUMMEI)。

8. according to method any one of in embodiment 2-7, further comprise:

The D2D IWF send the WTRU 3GPP ID binding informations for the ID for including the D2D IWF to the DNS.

9. according to the method described in embodiment 8, wherein the ID of the D2D IWF is the internet association of the D2D IWF View (IP) address or it may map at least one in the ID of IP address.

10. according to the method described in embodiment 8, wherein the ID of the D2D IWF is unified resource ID (URI).

11. according to method any one of in embodiment 2-10, further comprise:

The D2D IWF send listening mode or only transfer mode configuration information to mobility management entity (MME).

12. according to method any one of in embodiment 1-11, wherein indicating the multiple WTRU identical neighbouring The signal in region is received from mobility management entity (MME).

13. according to method any one of in embodiment 1-12, further comprise:

The network node receives neighbouring more new signal;And

The network node produces charging data record (CDR) report.

14. according to the method described in embodiment 13, wherein CDR reports are based on the nothing for being used for or being not used in charging Line is electrically accessed network (RAN) resource.

15. according to the method described in embodiment 13, wherein CDR reports are based on the discovery that duration, the work of process Circulate, discovery mode or for find and communication process radio access technologies (RAT) in it is at least one.

16. one kind is established multiple wireless with device-to-device (D2D) ability using mobility management entity (MME) The method of communication between transmitter/receiver unit (WTRU), methods described include:

The MME sends the WTRU with D2D abilities of described two registrations current tracking area mark (ID) or drilled Node B (eNB) ID entered;And

The MME receives request to establish the neighbouring connection between described two WTRU, the request from the server It is located at the instruction that in public adjacent domain and described two WTRU expectations communicate with one another in response to described two WTRU.

17. according to the method described in embodiment 16, wherein the MME includes application gateway, the server is using clothes Business device or neighbor server.

18. according to method any one of in embodiment 16-17, wherein each of the WTRU includes user Buddy list, once find other WTRU or once receive the nigh notices of other WTRU, the WTRU each Wish to communicate with another WTRU.

19. a kind of method for the discovery mode process for performing guiding, methods described include:

First wireless transmitter/receiver unit (WTRU) sends report on a periodic basis, and instruction is at least one other WTRU whether with the public adjacent domain of the first WTRU identicals;And

In the case where the first WTRU and the 2nd WTRU is in public adjacent domain, the first WTRU is in Access Layer (AS) layer performs radio access network (RAN) and finds communication.

20. according to the method described in embodiment 19, further comprise:

First WTRU completes to be connected with the node B (eNB) of evolution radio resource control (RRC);And

First WTRU is received from the eNB and is found configuration information.

21. according to the method described in embodiment 20, wherein the configuration information includes working cycles, sends and receives beacon Frequency or indicate when to send and when at least one in the information received.

22. according to the method described in embodiment 20, further comprise:

The first WTRU audiomonitors are to equipment (D2D) beacon;And

Reported once detecting that the first WTRU described in any D2D beacons is sent to the mobility management entity (MME).

23. a kind of network node, including:

Emitter, it is configured as sending the WTRU with device-to-device (D2D) ability of two registrations current tracking Area identification (ID) or node B (eNB) ID of evolution;And

Receiver, it is configured as receiving request to establish the neighbouring connection between described two WTRU, the request response It is located in described two WTRU in public adjacent domain and it is expected to communicate with one another.

24. according to the network node described in embodiment 23, wherein the network node is mobility management entity (MME), And server transmit a request to the MME with response to receiving the current tracking area ID or described eNB ID.

25. a kind of network node, including:

Receiver, is configured as receiving and is located at multiple in public adjacent domain with device-to-device (D2D) ability The authenticated configuration file of first in wireless transmitter/receiver unit (WTRU), the authenticated configuration file is with associating described One WTRU identifier (ID) is associated;

The receiver, which is configured to receive, indicates that the multiple WTRU is located at the signal in identical adjacent domain, And the list of the entity interested associated with the first WTRU;And

Emitter, it is configured as sending the ID of the first WTRU so that the ID is registered into domain name system (DNS).

26. according to the network node described in embodiment 25, wherein the network node, which is device-to-device (D2D), interacts work Make function (IWF).

Although describing feature and element above with specific combination, it will appreciated by the skilled person that Each feature or element individually can be combined use using or with other any features and element.It is in addition, described herein Embodiment computer program, software or firmware can be used to realize that it can cover the meter by computer or computing device In calculation machine computer-readable recording medium.The example of computer-readable medium includes electric signal (by wired or wireless linkup transmit) and calculated Machine readable storage medium storing program for executing.The example of computer-readable recording medium includes but is not limited to read-only storage (ROM), arbitrary access Memory (RAM), register, buffer storage, semiconductor memory devices, magnetic medium (such as internal hard drive and removable Disk), magnet-optical medium and optical medium, such as CD (CD) or digital universal disc (DVD).The processor associated with software can use In realization in WTRU, UE, terminal, base station, node B, eNB, HNB, HeNB, AP, RNC, wireless router or any master computer The middle RF transceiver used.

Claims (14)

1. a kind of carried out for the wireless transmitter/receiver unit with device-to-device D2D abilities by network node execution WTRU discovery procedure is another with D2D abilities in the adjacent domain of the WTRU with D2D abilities to promote and be located at WTRU communications method, methods described includes:
Received from the WTRU with D2D abilities and find request message, wherein the discovery request message is by operating in request Application on the WTRU with D2D abilities that D2D has found is initiated;
Based on the discovery request message received, home subscriber server HSS is contacted to find that there is D2D to described for D2D The WTRU of ability is authorized;
The movement station international member catalogue corresponding with the identifier ID of the WTRU with D2D abilities is received from the HSS Number MSISDN;And
The response including unique ID for D2D discoveries is sent to the WTRU with D2D abilities.
2. according to the method for claim 1, wherein the network node is D2D interworking functions IWF.
3. according to the method for claim 1, wherein the ID of the WTRU with D2D abilities is third generation cooperation partner With plan at least one of 3GPP exterior Is D and IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity IMSI.
4. according to the method for claim 1, this method also includes:
The service node information for the WTRU with D2D abilities is obtained from the HSS, the service node information includes Mobility management entity MME addresses.
5. according to the method for claim 1, wherein methods described also includes:
WTRU 3GPP ID binding informations are sent to domain name system DNS.
6. according to the method for claim 5, wherein the WTRU 3GPP ID binding informations include the network node Internet protocol IP address.
7. according to the method for claim 5, wherein the WTRU 3GPP ID binding informations include Uniform Resource Identifier URI。
8. according to the method for claim 1, this method also includes:
Listening mode or only transfer mode configuration information are sent to mobility management entity MME.
9. according to the method for claim 1, wherein methods described also includes:
Receive neighbouring more new signal;And
Generate charging data record CDR reports.
10. according to the method for claim 9, wherein CDR reports are connect based on the radio for being used for or being not used in charging Enter network RAN resources.
11. according to the method for claim 9, wherein CDR reports based on it is following at least one:Discovery procedure continues Time, working cycles, discovery mode and for find and communication process radio access technologies RAT.
12. a kind of network node, it is configured as performing the wireless transmitter/receiver unit for being used for that to there is device-to-device D2D abilities WTRU discovery procedure is another with D2D abilities in the adjacent domain of the WTRU with D2D abilities to promote and be located at WTRU communications, the network node includes:
Receiver, it is configured to receive discovery request message from the wireless transmitter/receiver unit WTRU with D2D abilities, It is wherein described to find that request message as described in operating in request D2D discoveries there is the application on the WTRU of D2D abilities to initiate;
At least one interface, be configured as based on the discovery request message received, contact home subscriber server HSS with for D2D has found to authorize the WTRU with D2D abilities;
At least one interface is further configured to receive the identifier ID with the WTRU with D2D abilities from the HSS Corresponding movement station international subscriber directory number MSISDN;And
Emitter, it is configured as sending the response including unique ID for D2D discoveries to the WTRU with D2D abilities.
13. network node according to claim 12, wherein the network node is D2D interworking functions IWF.
14. network node according to claim 12, wherein the ID of the WTRU with D2D abilities moves to be international Employ family mark IMSI.
CN201380022399.7A 2012-04-27 2013-04-26 The method and apparatus for supporting neighbouring discovery procedure CN104272707B (en)

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US201261695625P true 2012-08-31 2012-08-31
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US201261720640P true 2012-10-31 2012-10-31
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