CN104272579B - Brushless motor and Wiping device - Google Patents

Brushless motor and Wiping device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104272579B
CN104272579B CN201380020371.XA CN201380020371A CN104272579B CN 104272579 B CN104272579 B CN 104272579B CN 201380020371 A CN201380020371 A CN 201380020371A CN 104272579 B CN104272579 B CN 104272579B
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
control
rotor
brushless motor
revolution
armature coil
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
CN201380020371.XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104272579A (en
Inventor
木村正秋
田中裕人
岩崎保
安中智彦
小岛直希
北泽纯也
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Mitsuba Corp
Original Assignee
Mitsuba Electric Manufacturing Co Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to JP2012-092882 priority Critical
Priority to JP2012092882 priority
Priority to JP2013036019 priority
Priority to JP2013-036019 priority
Application filed by Mitsuba Electric Manufacturing Co Ltd filed Critical Mitsuba Electric Manufacturing Co Ltd
Priority to PCT/JP2013/061336 priority patent/WO2013157558A1/en
Publication of CN104272579A publication Critical patent/CN104272579A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN104272579B publication Critical patent/CN104272579B/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P6/00Arrangements for controlling synchronous motors or other dynamo-electric motors using electronic commutation dependent on the rotor position; Electronic commutators therefor
    • H02P6/14Electronic commutators
    • H02P6/15Controlling commutation time
    • H02P6/153Controlling commutation time wherein the commutation is advanced from position signals phase in function of the speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60SSERVICING, CLEANING, REPAIRING, SUPPORTING, LIFTING, OR MANOEUVRING OF VEHICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60S1/00Cleaning of vehicles
    • B60S1/02Cleaning windscreens, windows or optical devices
    • B60S1/04Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers
    • B60S1/06Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers characterised by the drive
    • B60S1/08Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers characterised by the drive electrically driven
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60SSERVICING, CLEANING, REPAIRING, SUPPORTING, LIFTING, OR MANOEUVRING OF VEHICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60S1/00Cleaning of vehicles
    • B60S1/02Cleaning windscreens, windows or optical devices
    • B60S1/04Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers
    • B60S1/06Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers characterised by the drive
    • B60S1/16Means for transmitting drive
    • B60S1/166Means for transmitting drive characterised by the combination of a motor-reduction unit and a mechanism for converting rotary into oscillatory movement
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60SSERVICING, CLEANING, REPAIRING, SUPPORTING, LIFTING, OR MANOEUVRING OF VEHICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60S1/00Cleaning of vehicles
    • B60S1/02Cleaning windscreens, windows or optical devices
    • B60S1/04Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers
    • B60S1/06Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers characterised by the drive
    • B60S1/16Means for transmitting drive
    • B60S1/18Means for transmitting drive mechanically
    • B60S1/26Means for transmitting drive mechanically by toothed gearing
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K11/00Structural association of dynamo-electric machines with electric components or with devices for shielding, monitoring or protection
    • H02K11/20Structural association of dynamo-electric machines with electric components or with devices for shielding, monitoring or protection for measuring, monitoring, testing, protecting or switching
    • H02K11/21Devices for sensing speed or position, or actuated thereby
    • H02K11/215Magnetic effect devices, e.g. Hall-effect or magneto-resistive elements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02KDYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINES
    • H02K7/00Arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with dynamo-electric machines, e.g. structural association with mechanical driving motors or auxiliary dynamo-electric machines
    • H02K7/10Structural association with clutches, brakes, gears, pulleys or mechanical starters
    • H02K7/116Structural association with clutches, brakes, gears, pulleys or mechanical starters with gears
    • H02K7/1163Structural association with clutches, brakes, gears, pulleys or mechanical starters with gears where at least two gears have non-parallel axes without having orbital motion
    • H02K7/1166Structural association with clutches, brakes, gears, pulleys or mechanical starters with gears where at least two gears have non-parallel axes without having orbital motion comprising worm and worm-wheel
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P23/00Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by a control method other than vector control
    • H02P23/0086Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by a control method other than vector control specially adapted for high speeds, e.g. above nominal speed
    • H02P23/009Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by a control method other than vector control specially adapted for high speeds, e.g. above nominal speed using field weakening
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P6/00Arrangements for controlling synchronous motors or other dynamo-electric motors using electronic commutation dependent on the rotor position; Electronic commutators therefor
    • H02P6/08Arrangements for controlling the speed or torque of a single motor
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P6/00Arrangements for controlling synchronous motors or other dynamo-electric motors using electronic commutation dependent on the rotor position; Electronic commutators therefor
    • H02P6/14Electronic commutators
    • H02P6/16Circuit arrangements for detecting position
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P6/00Arrangements for controlling synchronous motors or other dynamo-electric motors using electronic commutation dependent on the rotor position; Electronic commutators therefor
    • H02P6/14Electronic commutators
    • H02P6/16Circuit arrangements for detecting position
    • H02P6/18Circuit arrangements for detecting position without separate position detecting elements
    • H02P6/182Circuit arrangements for detecting position without separate position detecting elements using back-emf in windings
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60SSERVICING, CLEANING, REPAIRING, SUPPORTING, LIFTING, OR MANOEUVRING OF VEHICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60S1/00Cleaning of vehicles
    • B60S1/02Cleaning windscreens, windows or optical devices
    • B60S1/04Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers
    • B60S1/06Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers characterised by the drive
    • B60S1/08Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers characterised by the drive electrically driven
    • B60S1/0818Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers characterised by the drive electrically driven including control systems responsive to external conditions, e.g. by detection of moisture, dirt or the like
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60SSERVICING, CLEANING, REPAIRING, SUPPORTING, LIFTING, OR MANOEUVRING OF VEHICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60S1/00Cleaning of vehicles
    • B60S1/02Cleaning windscreens, windows or optical devices
    • B60S1/04Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers
    • B60S1/06Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers characterised by the drive
    • B60S1/08Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers characterised by the drive electrically driven
    • B60S1/0896Wipers or the like, e.g. scrapers characterised by the drive electrically driven including control systems responsive to a vehicle driving condition, e.g. speed
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P2207/00Indexing scheme relating to controlling arrangements characterised by the type of motor
    • H02P2207/05Synchronous machines, e.g. with permanent magnets or DC excitation

Abstract

A kind of brushless motor, possesses:Stator 21, there is armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c;Rotor 22, rotated in rotating excitation field;And switch element 30a, the brushless motor is characterized in that, rotation speed control unit 33 with switching low-speed mode and fast mode, in the low-speed mode, rotation speed control unit 33 is powered regularly to armature coil 21a with predetermined, 21b, 21c supplies electric current, and control dutycycle and control the revolution of rotor 22, on the other hand, in high speed mode, by so that its than the advanced energization timing of the timing that is powered under low-speed mode to armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c supplies electric current, so as to perform the revolution for making rotating excitation field than controlling rotor 22 for the field weakening control that weakens during low-speed mode.

Description

Brushless motor and Wiping device
Technical field
The present invention relates to the rotor for being mounted with permanent magnet and there is provided the brushless motor of the stator of armature coil And Wiping device.
Background technology
In the past, one of the motor of the revolution of changeable rotor had had described in patent document 1,2,3.Patent Motor described in document 1,2 has:Shell, the magnet being housed inside in shell, rotatably it is arranged at the interior of shell Portion and it is wound with the armature of coil, the axle that is rotated integrally together with armature, the commutator on axle and is contacted with commutator High-speed cruising with brush and low speed operation brush.Moreover, run in driver by Operation switch have selected low speed In the case of, electric current is just flowed with brush to low speed operation and axle is rotated with slow speed.On the other hand, operation is passed through in driver Switch in the case of have selected high-speed cruising, electric current just flows to high-speed cruising brush and makes axle with high number of revolutions.
On the other hand, the motor described in patent document 3 has:It is fixed in the inner face of yoke housing and is wound with more The circular stator of individual armature coil, the inner side for being rotatably disposed in stator and with rotary shaft rotor and be located at Magnet in rotary shaft.In the motor described in the patent document 3, the different excitation of phase is supplied to multiple armature coils Electric current and produce rotating excitation field, and then rotor rotate.In addition, the motor described in patent document 3 does not possess patent document 1,2 Described in brush.
Prior art literature
Patent document
Patent document 1:Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication 2007-202391 publications
Patent document 2:Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication 2007-143278 publications
Patent document 3:Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication 2010-93977 publications
The content of the invention
Problem to be addressed by invention
In the above-mentioned motor described in above-mentioned patent document 1~3, no matter carrying brush, without brush, all there is control Make the switch element of the timing to armature coil supply electric current.Also, on/off control is carried out to switch element by changing Dutycycle control the rotating speed of rotor.Therefore, the physique of motor is designed in a manner of rotor can be made to rotate at a high speed, and is held Dutycycle when being about to rotate rotor with slow speed relative to dutycycle reduction when rotating rotor with high revolution control. Therefore, designed when the physique of motor will rotate using high revolution rotor as benchmark, the physique that motor be present increases The problem of big such.
It is an object of the present invention to provide the brushless motor and Wiping device that physique can be made to diminish as much as possible.
For solving the scheme of problem
The brushless motor of the present invention possesses:Stator, there is the armature coil for being fed with electric current;Rotor, by by described Armature coil formed rotating excitation field and rotate and be connected to action component;And switch element, it is arranged to the armature On the path of coil supply electric current, it is characterised in that have with least two different control model controls of the revolution of the rotor The rotation speed control unit of the revolution of the rotor is made, when have selected the first control model, the rotation speed control unit is with predetermined Energization timing to the armature coil supply electric current, and control controlled as the dutycycle of the connection ratio of the switch element Make the revolution of the rotor, on the other hand, when have selected second control model, by so that its than have selected described the The advanced energization of timing that is powered during one control model regularly supplies electric current to the armature coil, makes so as to perform by the electricity The field weakening control that the weakens when rotating excitation field that pivot coil is formed is than have selected first control model and control described turn The revolution of son.
The brushless motor of the present invention, it is characterised in that possess and be arranged at moving from the rotor to the action component Reducing gear on the bang path of power, the reducing gear have make structure of the output revolutions relative to input revolutions step-down.
The brushless motor of the present invention, it is characterised in that possess and supplied by switching to the electric current of the armature coil Direction, so that the direction of rotation control unit of the rotor positive and negative rotation.
The brushless motor of the present invention, it is characterised in that the control base board with the rotation speed control unit is set, it is described to subtract Fast mechanism and the control base board are housed inside in common housing.
The Wiping device of the present invention possesses the wiper arm of the action component as the glass for wiping vehicle, it is characterised in that The wiper arm is connected with the rotor of the brushless motor described in above-mentioned any one of the invention.
The Wiping device of the present invention, it is characterised in that be provided with:The sensor-magnet that is rotated integrally with the rotor and When the rotor have rotated according to the change of the magnetic pole of the sensor-magnet tachometer generator of output signal, described turn Number control unit detects the rotor by the signal according to the tachometer generator when performing the field weakening control Revolution, and make the advanced 30 degree of electrical angles of energization timing to the armature coil, so as to control the revolution of the rotor.
The effect of invention
According to (first aspect) of the invention, nothing can be determined using the revolution of the rotor in the first control model as benchmark Brush motor is fixed, and the revolution of the rotor in the second control model can be obtained by field weakening control.Therefore, it is possible to The physique of brushless motor is set to diminish as much as possible.
According to (second aspect) of the invention, in addition to controlling the revolution of rotor, reducing gear can also make output torque Amplify relative to input torque.
According to of the invention (third aspect), the sense of current of armature coil is flowed to by switching, so as to make to turn Sub- positive and negative rotation.
According to of the invention (fourth aspect), because reducing gear and control base board are housed inside in common shell, because And can minimize brushless motor, the layout when brushless motor is installed on object improves.
According to the present invention (the 5th aspect), by the way that the power of the rotor of brushless motor is transferred into wiper arm to make windscreen wiper Arm acts, so as to wipe the glass of vehicle.
According to the present invention (the 6th aspect), when performing field weakening control, by the signal according to tachometer generator and The revolution of rotor is detected, and makes the advanced 30 degree of electrical angles of energization timing to armature coil, so as to control the revolution of rotor.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is shown synoptic diagram of the brushless motor of the present invention applied to the example after the Wiping device of vehicle.
Fig. 2 is the outside drawing for showing the brushless motor of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the brushless motor of the present invention and the upward view of the state after lower cover is dismantled.
Fig. 4 is the block diagram for the control system for showing the brushless motor of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is the line chart of the relation for the revolution and torque for showing brushless motor.
Fig. 6 is the line chart of the relation for the revolution and advance angle for showing brushless motor.
Fig. 7 is the line chart of the relation of the efficiency and advance angle that show brushless motor.
Fig. 8 is shown synoptic diagram of the brushless motor of the present invention applied to the example after the Wiping device of vehicle.
Fig. 9 is the outside drawing for showing the brushless motor of the present invention.
Figure 10 is the brushless motor of the present invention and the upward view of the state after lower cover is dismantled.
Figure 11 is the schematic diagram for the control system for showing the brushless motor of the present invention.
Figure 12 is the line chart of one of the characteristic for showing the brushless motor of the present invention.
Figure 13 is the schematic diagram for showing the brushless motor of the present invention being applied to the example after the Wiping device of vehicle.
Figure 14 is the outside drawing for showing the brushless motor of the present invention.
Figure 15 is the brushless motor of the present invention and the upward view of the state after lower cover is dismantled.
Figure 16 is the block diagram for the control system for showing the brushless motor of the present invention.
Figure 17 (A)~(C) is the first control and the second control for showing to be performed in the brushless motor of the present invention The figure of one of system.
Figure 18 is the figure for the characteristic for showing the brushless motor of the present invention.
Figure 19 is the line chart of the relation of the characteristic and electrical angle that show the brushless motor of the present invention.
Figure 20 is to show to control the figure of the example of the brushless motor of the present invention according to operating angle.
Figure 21 is to show to control the figure of the example of the brushless motor of the present invention according to revolution.
Figure 22 is to show to control the figure of the example of the brushless motor of the present invention according to the time.
Figure 23 (A), (B) is the first control and the second control for showing to be performed in the brushless motor of the present invention The chart of one.
Figure 24 (A), (B) is the sectional view of the configuration example for the rotor for showing the brushless motor for the present invention.
Figure 25 is shown in the brushless motor of the present invention, the schematic diagram of the relation of rotor and stator.
Figure 26 is shown in the brushless motor of the present invention, the schematic diagram of the relation of rotor and stator.
Figure 27 is the line chart for the characteristic for showing the brushless motor of the present invention.
Embodiment
Hereinafter, an embodiment of the invention is described in detail using accompanying drawing.Vehicle 10 shown in Fig. 1 has Windshield 11.In addition, vehicle 10 has the Wiping device 12 for wiping windshield 11.Wiping device 12 has with pivot 13 Center and the wiper arm 14 that shakes and the wiper arm 16 shaken centered on pivot 15.In the free end of wiper arm 14, installation There is windshield wiper blade 17, in the free end of wiper arm 16, windshield wiper blade 18 is installed.In addition, Wiping device 12 has brushless motor 19, Power source as driving wiper arm 14,16.The power of brushless motor 19 is with via the power biography being made up of lever, connecting rod etc. The mode passed mechanism 20 and be respectively passed to wiper arm 14,16 is formed.
Brushless motor 19 is formed as shown in Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4.Brushless motor 19 in present embodiment is used as one And list the motor of three-phase four-pole type.Brushless motor 19 has stator 21 and rotor 22.In addition, brushless motor 19 With the shell 23 for having bottom cylindrical shape, in the inner circumferential of shell 23, stator 21 is fixedly installed.As shown in figure 4, stator 21 has Armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c of three-phase specifically U phases, V phases, W phases.Rotor 22 is arranged at the inner side of stator 21, rotor 22 have the permanent magnet 22b of rotary shaft 22a and the quadrupole being installed on rotary shaft 22a.In shell 23, multiple axles are provided with Hold (not shown), rotary shaft 22a is pivotably supported by multiple bearings.
In addition, brushless motor 19 has hollow framework 24, framework 24 and shell 23 pass through fastener (not shown) And fixed.The substantially half of rotary shaft 22a length direction is configured at the inside of shell 23, and remaining substantially half is configured at In framework 24.On the periphery of part in rotary shaft 22a, being configured in framework 24, formed with worm screw 22c.In framework In 24, worm gear 25 is provided with.In the periphery of the worm gear 25, formed with gear 25a, gear 25a engages with worm screw 22c.Also, On position in rotary shaft 22a, being configured in framework 24, sensor-magnet 38 is installed.Sensor-magnet 38 and rotation Axle 22a is rotated integrally.Circumferencial direction of the sensor-magnet 38 along rotary shaft 22a, in a manner of N poles and S poles are alternately arranged and It is magnetized.
In addition, worm gear 25 is formed in a manner of being rotated integrally with output shaft 26.Worm screw 22c and gear 25a are constituted Reducing gear 27 in present embodiment.The reducing gear 27 is when the power of rotor 22 is transferred into output shaft 26, is made defeated Mechanism of the revolution (output revolutions) of shaft 26 than revolution (input revolutions) step-down of rotor 22.Also, in fig. 2, in framework 24 top, it is provided with axis hole (not shown).In output shaft 26 and worm gear 25 is passed through by the end of fixed end opposite side Outside is exposed to by the axis hole of framework 24.On the part of the outside for being exposed to framework 24 in output shaft 26, as shown in Figure 1 It is linked with Poewr transmission mechanism 20.
Opening portion 24a is provided with the part with axis hole opposite side in framework 24.Opening portion 24a be exactly in order to The grade of worm gear 25 is installed in the inside of framework 24 and is formed.In addition, it is provided with occlusion of openings portion 24a lower cover 28.Lower cover 28 has There is tray shape, control base board 29 is provided with the space surrounded by the lower cover 28 and framework 24.In fig. 2 it is shown that control Substrate 29 processed is installed in the example on lower cover 28.
In the control base board 29, the drive device 33 of control brushless motor 19 is set as shown in Figure 4.Drive device 33 have the inverter circuit 30 of energization of the control to each armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c.Inverter circuit 30 is connected to not The terminal of diagram.In addition, connector (not shown) is provided with frame 24, by will be connected to the electric wire of external power source 31 Socket (not shown) be installed on connector, so as to which external power source 31 and inverter circuit 30 are connected.External power source 31 be by Battery or capacitor for being equipped on vehicle 10 etc..
In addition, inverter circuit 30 possesses what external power source 31 was connected and cut off with armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c Switch element 30a.Switch element 30a is made up of the semiconductor element such as FET.More specifically, including:Corresponding to U phases, V phases, W phases, be connected to external power source 31 positive pole three positive terminals switch element and corresponding to U phases, V phases, W phases, quilt It is connected to the switch element of three negative pole ends of the negative pole end of external power source 31.If switch element 30a is connected (connection), Electric current is just supplied to each armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c from external power source 31.In contrast, if switch element 30a is cut Break (disconnection), then electric current is not just supplied to each armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c from external power source 31.Also, in inverter On circuit 30, the control circuit (control for the function that control is switched over the on and off to switch element 30a is connected to Device processed) 32.
The control circuit 32 is that possess the well-known microcomputer for having CPU, RAM, ROM etc..In addition, drive device 33 have a pwm signal generation circuit 34, the signal of pwm signal generation circuit 34 structure in a manner of being input to control circuit 32 Into.The drive signal of three negative terminal of the switch element of output control of control circuit 32, the overlapping PWM letters on the drive signal Number.That is, three negative terminal of the switch element are controlled by PWM to be driven, and then in the logical section of each electricity by spasmodically Connect.Moreover, with by control each ratio being switched on of three negative terminal of the switch element, i.e., dutycycle, so as to supply to each Armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c controlled mode of current value and form.I.e. it is capable to make to be supplied to armature coil Increase and decrease during 21a, 21b, 21c energization relative to the whole period that can be powered between 0%~100%.Also, control electricity Road 32 is stored with the data of the control performed in the startup of brushless motor 19, program etc..So-called brushless motor 19 opens When dynamic, exactly make the initial stage of the rotation of brushless motor 19 stopped.
Also, on each armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c non-terminals, it is connected with induced voltage test section 35.Sensing Voltage detection department 35 is detected with the rotation of rotor 22, the caused induced voltage on each armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c Sensor, the detection signal of induced voltage test section 35 is input to control circuit 32.Control circuit 32 is according to from induced electricity The detection signal for pressing test section 35 to input, perform the processing for the rotation position (phase of direction of rotation) for inferring rotor 22.
Also, the on and off that the brushless motor 19 in present embodiment passes through switching control switch element 30a And the direction of the energization to armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c is inverted, so as to make rotor 22 positive and negative rotate.
Also, in the inside of framework 24, be provided with detection output shaft 26 revolution or absolute position in it is at least one Output shaft sensor 36.So-called absolute position, refer to the anglec of rotation of the output shaft 26 relative to reference position.Reference position can be with Arbitrary position in being defined as in the range of 360 degree.The detection signal of the output shaft sensor 36 will be input to control Circuit 32.Also, in control base board 29, Hall IC 39 is installed.Hall IC 39 is non-contactly relative with sensor-magnet 38 And fixed.Hall IC 39 according to the rotation with rotor 22, the change of the magnetic pole of sensor-magnet 38 and carry out switch motion, enter And produce switching signal (on/off signal).Control circuit 32 can detect rotor 22 according to the switching signal of Hall IC 39 Revolution (rotating speed).Also, in the interior of vehicle 10, wiper switch 37 is provided with, it is defeated with the operation signal of wiper switch 37 Enter to the mode of control circuit 32 and be configured.
In Wiping device 12, it can operate windscreen wiper with driver intention according to rainfall, snowfall etc. condition and open 37 are closed, and then switches the wiping speed of wiper arm 14,16.When rainfall, snowfall are few, driver is by operating wiper switch 37 and can select with predetermined low speed make wiper arm 14,16 act low speed wipe mode.In contrast, in rainfall When amount, snowfall are more, driver can select to make wiper arm with the speed higher than the low speed by operating wiper switch 37 14th, the high speed wipe mode of 16 actions.Driver be exactly with oneself subjective judgement rainfall, snowfall it is more, few, not have More, the few benchmark of difference.Also, in control circuit 32, it is previously stored with to low speed wipe mode and high speed wipe mode, Controlling switch element 30a mode (pattern), data, arithmetic expression etc..
Illustrate the control of the brushless motor 19 in present embodiment.Operated in wiper switch 37 and have selected low speed mould During formula, the detection signal of induced voltage test section 35 is just input to control circuit 32.Control circuit 32 is examined according to induced voltage The detection signal in survey portion 35, infer the rotation position (angle of direction of rotation) of rotor 22, and then perform the rotation based on rotor 22 The power control that indexing is put.That is, the positive pole end switch member by every 120 degree of sequentially turned-on each phases in electrical angle Part, and in electrical angle every 120 degree of sequentially turned-on phases different from positive terminal switch element negative terminal of the switch element, so as to Switch the energization to armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c of each phase and make phase current commutation.
If above-mentioned control forms rotating excitation field, rotor 22 rotates by repeatedly by stator 21.In addition, brushless electric Machine 19 has increasing with current value, the characteristic that revolution can rise.Also, brushless motor 19 has upper with revolution Rise, the characteristic that torque can decline.When low speed wipe mode has been chosen, duty is performed by not performing field weakening control The control of ratio, so as to make the real number of revolutions of rotor 22 close to required revolution.In addition, it is chosen in low speed wipe mode When, the energization timing to armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c can use predetermined fixed value.
On the other hand, when high speed wipe mode has been chosen, supply is not changed to armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c electricity Flow valuve, perform field weakening control.Field weakening control be make by supply an electric current to armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c and by The control that the magnetic field of formation is weakened as much as possible.If specifically describing field weakening control, made to armature coil The control of 30 degree of advance angles (phase shifts to an earlier date) when 21a, 21b, 21c energization timing have been chosen than low speed wipe mode.That is, exist When high speed wipe mode has been chosen, the rotating excitation field ratio formed by armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c is in low speed wipe mode quilt Died down when have selected by armature coil 21a, 21b, 21c rotating excitation field formed.If the field weakening control is performed, in electricity Counter electromotive force is reduced caused by pivot coil 21a, 21b, 21c is upper, and the revolution of rotor 22 just rises.The advance angle is exactly to use electric angle Degree represents the angle of armature coil and relative position relationship of the permanent magnet on the direction of rotation of rotor 22.
Fig. 5 is the line chart for the characteristic for showing brushless motor 19.In Figure 5, turning for brushless motor 19 is shown on the longitudinal axis Count, the torque of brushless motor 19 is shown on transverse axis.In addition, the dotted line shown in Fig. 5 corresponds to the low speed of low speed wipe mode With one of characteristic, the solid line shown in Fig. 5 corresponds to one of the high speed characteristic of high speed wipe mode.
The brushless motor 19 of present embodiment set its fix when, in order to obtain correspond to Fig. 5 low speed use The revolution of characteristic and torque, such as there are setting property on by position shown in solid.Therefore, wiper switch is being passed through When 37 operation and low speed wipe mode have been chosen, can be obtained in the scope below setting property required revolution with And torque.
In contrast, it is chosen in the operation by wiper switch 37 and high speed wipe mode, and then the torque being required And revolution performs field weakening control when having exceeded setting property by control circuit 32, exceedes setting so as to obtain The revolution of characteristic and the scope of torque.Thus, the characteristic of brushless motor 19 turns into apparent upper with being located on Fig. 5 by two point It is equal on position shown in line.That is, brushless motor 19 can be determined fixed on the basis of low speed wipe mode in design Lattice, and then the physique of brushless motor 19 can be made to diminish as much as possible.Thus, it is possible to do not change current value and make brushless electric The revolution of machine 19 rises, and then torque is risen this point and mean that torque constant relatively becomes big.In other words, this implementation The brushless motor 19 of mode can produce torque as high as possible with less energy consumption, and motor efficiency improves.
Fig. 6 is the line chart of the advance angle and the relation of the revolution of brushless motor 19 that are shown as energization timing.In Fig. 6 In, electric current is shown on transverse axis, revolution is shown on the longitudinal axis.As shown in Figure 6, for 30 degree of advance angle when revolution ratio for advance angle Revolution at 0 degree is high.0 degree of advance angle is the fixed value of the energization timing illustrated in low speed wipe mode.In addition, Fig. 7 is It is shown as the line chart of the relation of the advance angle of energization timing and the efficiency of brushless motor 19.In the figure 7, electricity is shown on transverse axis Flow, display efficiency on the longitudinal axis.As shown in Figure 7, for 30 degree of advance angle when efficiency than for 0 degree of advance angle when efficiency high.
In addition, in general, in for motor vehicle Wiping device, low speed wipe mode uses frequency than high speed wipe mode Rate is high.Therefore, if the brushless motor 19 of present embodiment is applied into Wiping device 12, it is chosen in low speed wipe mode When having selected, the effect for reducing energy consumption is big.
In addition, the brushless motor 19 of present embodiment can be examined when performing field weakening control according to induced voltage The detection signal in survey portion 35 and infer the rotation position of rotor 22.Also, the detection of induced voltage test section 35 can not be had to yet Signal and the rotation position that rotor 22 is inferred according to the detection signal of output shaft sensor 36 and the speed reducing ratio of reducing gear 27 Put.So, the brushless motor 19 of present embodiment can utilize induced voltage test section 35, the output shaft being set in advance Sensor 36 infers the rotation position of rotor 22.
Also, the brushless motor 19 of present embodiment is corresponded at a high speed by performing field weakening control that can obtain With the revolution of characteristic and torque and it is provided with reducing gear 27.Therefore, brushless motor 19 can be to fill as suitable for windscreen wiper Put the characteristic i.e. revolution of the operation condition of 12 wiper arm 14,16, the mode of torque sets the speed reducing ratio of reducing gear 27.Slow down The speed reducing ratio of mechanism 27 is to use the value after the revolution of rotor 22 divided by the revolution of output shaft 26, more makes the speed reducing ratio of reducing gear 27 Become big, the revolution of output shaft 26 more declines.That is, by being provided with reducing gear 27, the torque of output shaft 26 can be made relative Amplify in the torque of rotor 22.
Also, the brushless motor 19 of present embodiment can make nothing according to the inferred results of the rotation position of rotor 22 The leading angle control during rotating of brush motor 19 optimizes.Also, the brushless motor 19 of present embodiment is not due to setting Brush, commutator (commutator) etc. are equipped with, thus will not also be produced as the friction torque caused by the slip of brush and commutator, And then prevent the efficiency of motor from declining, the rising of the temperature of brush, motor output can be avoided to be restricted.Also, this reality Generation, the generation of operation noise due to the noise with brush can be prevented by applying the brushless motor 19 of mode, and then can Ensure quietness.
Also, the brushless motor 19 of present embodiment is that control base board 29 and reducing gear 27 are all configured in by frame The structure in space that frame 24 and lower cover 28 surround is the structure of electromechanical integration.Therefore, it is possible to compactly form brushless electricity Motivation 19 is overall, and layout when installing brushless motor 19 to car body improves.
Also, the brushless motor 19 of present embodiment is when fast mode is chosen and performs field weakening control, control Circuit 32 processed detects the control of the revolution of rotor 22 by performing according to the on/off signal of Hall IC 39, and makes to electricity Pivot coil 21a, 21b, 21c advanced 30 degree of electrical angles of energization timing, so as to control the revolution of rotor 22.
Especially, in Wiping device 12, from wiper arm 14,16 since the initial position the time point of action, until warp Required time untill initial position is returned to by backward position is preferably maintained in be constant.In contrast, according to dependent on car The condition of the resistance of the wind of speed, the wiping resis- tance of windshield wiper blade 17,18 etc. is different, has the actual wiping speed of wiper arm 14,16 Degree change, and then the possibility of required time change.Then, also can simultaneously be performed with field weakening control becomes dutycycle The control of change.If specifically described, control circuit 32 obtains wiper arm 14,16 indirectly according to the signal of Hall IC 39 Actual wiping speed.Then, control circuit 32 is so that the actual wiping speed of wiper arm 14,16 wipes close to target The mode of speed, when feedback control is performed, control dutycycle.If so carried out, in the energization from execution last time During timing controlled is untill the energization timing controlled for performing next time, by performing the control of dutycycle, so as to careful Ground controls the wiping speed of wiper arm 14,16.
If here, to illustrate the corresponding relation of the structure that illustrated in the present embodiment and the structure of the present invention, Rotation speed control unit and direction of rotation control unit of the drive device 33 with control circuit 32 equivalent to the present invention;Framework 24 with And lower cover 28 is equivalent to the housing of the present invention;Glass of the windshield 11 equivalent to the present invention;Wiper arm 14,16 is equivalent to this hair Bright action component;Switches of the switch element 30a equivalent to the present invention;Tachometer generator of the Hall IC 39 equivalent to the present invention. In addition, first control model of the low speed wipe mode equivalent to the present invention, second control of the high speed wipe mode equivalent to the present invention Molding formula.
The present invention is not limited to above-mentioned embodiment, in scope without departing from the spirit, can carry out various changes, This point is self-evident.For example, wiper switch is not limited by the operation of driver and is operated or dropped with detection The detection switch of the function of rainfall, snowfall etc..If so formed, according to rainfall, snowfall etc., rotation speed control unit It is carried out being automatically activated Wiping device and automatically switches the control of low-speed mode, fast mode.In this case, exist In rotation speed control unit, it is previously stored with as the number of switching low-speed mode, the rainfall of benchmark of fast mode, snowfall etc. According to.Also, the quantity of armature coil, the number of permanent magnet can be changed arbitrarily.
In addition, Wiping device is not limited to wipe windshield or wipes the device of rear window.In addition, windscreen wiper Device can also be the structure that wiper arm is shaken using output shaft as fulcrum.Also, Wiping device can also be by each dividing The brushless motor opened drives the structure of two wiper arms.In addition, the brushless motor of present embodiment can also be by forever Long magnet is embedded into IPM (the Interior Permanent Magnet of the structure of core:Built-in type permanent-magnet) type motor.
Also, the pattern selected by wiper switch be not limited to low speed wipe mode and high speed wipe mode both, also may be used To be more than three kinds.For example, the pattern of the revolution of control rotor can also be low speed wipe mode, speed wipe mode, high speed Wiping pattern these three.Here, the revolution of the rotor in speed wipe mode is higher than the revolution of the rotor in low speed wipe mode, Revolution than the rotor in high speed wipe mode is low.
Moreover, in three kinds of wiping patterns, when low speed wipe mode has been chosen, rotation speed control unit can be with predetermined The timing that is powered supply electric current to armature coil and control controls rotor as the dutycycle of the connection ratio of switch element Revolution;On the other hand, middling speed wipe control model be chosen when, can by so that its than low speed wipe control model quilt Energization timing after energization timing advance angle when have selected supplies electric current to armature coil, makes so as to perform by armature line cast Into rotating excitation field be chosen than low speed wipe control model when the field weakening control that weakens and control the revolution of rotor.Just Like this, in the case where making the revolution difference of rotor with speed wipe mode with low speed wipe mode, low speed wipe mode is just Equivalent to the first control model in the present invention, speed wipe mode is equivalent to the second control model in the present invention.
On the other hand, in three kinds of wiping patterns, when speed wipe mode has been chosen, rotation speed control unit also can be with pre- The timing that is powered first determined supplies electric current to armature coil and control controls as the dutycycle of the connection ratio of switch element The revolution of rotor;On the other hand, also can be by so that it wipes control than middling speed when high-speed wipe control model has been chosen Energization timing after energization timing advance angle when molding formula has been chosen supplies electric current to armature coil, makes so as to perform by electricity The rotating excitation field that pivot coil is formed wipes the field weakening control weakened when control model has been chosen than middling speed and controls rotor Revolution.Just like this, in the case where making the revolution difference of rotor with high speed wipe mode with speed wipe mode, middling speed is wiped The pattern of wiping is equivalent to the first control model in the present invention, and high speed wipe mode is equivalent to the second control mould in the present invention Formula.
Also, no matter the brushless motor of the present invention is for the brushless electricity of inner-rotor type that rotor is configured with the inside of stator Motivation or be configured with the outside of stator in the outer-rotor brushless motor of rotor any can be applicable.Also, The brushless motor of present embodiment comfortable facility set on vehicle is that device such as electric sliding door apparatus, skylight fill Put, in power window apparatus etc., can also act as the power source for acting the action components such as door, ceiling, glass.
Hereinafter, the other embodiment of the present invention is explained using view.Vehicle 110 shown in Fig. 8 has There is windshield 111.In addition, vehicle 110 has the Wiping device 112 for wiping windshield 111.Wiping device 112 have with The wiper arm 114 shaken centered on pivot 113 and the wiper arm 116 shaken centered on pivot 115.In wiper arm 114 Free end windshield wiper blade 117 is installed, windshield wiper blade 118 is installed in the free end of wiper arm 116.In addition, Wiping device 12 has There is power source of the brushless motor 119 as driving wiper arm 114,116.The power of brushless motor 119 with via by lever, The Poewr transmission mechanism 120 of the compositions such as connecting rod and be respectively passed to the mode of wiper arm 114,116 and form.
Such as Fig. 9, Figure 10 of brushless motor 119, form as shown in Figure 11.Brushless motor in present embodiment 119 as one list the motor of three-phase four-pole type.Brushless motor 119 has stator 121 and rotor 122.Separately Outside, brushless motor 119 has the shell 123 of bottom cylindrical shape, in the inner circumferential of shell 123, is fixedly installed stator 121. As shown in figure 11, stator 121 has three-phase, armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c of specifically U phases, V phases, W phases.Such as Figure 10 Like that, rotor 122 is located at the inner side of stator 121.Rotor 122 has rotary shaft 122a and be installed on rotary shaft 122a four The permanent magnet 122b of pole.In addition, for convenience, in Fig. 4, eliminate rotary shaft 122a.In shell 123, it is provided with Multiple bearings (not shown), rotary shaft 122a are pivotably supported by multiple bearings.
In addition, that there is hollow framework 124, framework 124 and shell 123 to pass through is (not shown) tight for brushless motor 119 Firmware and fixed.Substantially half on rotary shaft 122a length direction is configured at the inside of shell 123, and remaining substantially one Partly it is configured in framework 124.Formed with worm screw on the periphery of part in rotary shaft 122a, being configured in framework 124 122c.Worm gear 125 is provided with framework 124.In the periphery of the worm gear 125, formed with gear 125a, gear 125a and worm screw 122c is engaged.Also, on position in rotary shaft 122a, being configured in framework 124, sensor-magnet 138 is installed. Sensor-magnet 138 rotates integrally with rotary shaft 122a.Circumferencial direction of the sensor-magnet 138 along rotary shaft 122a, with N poles and Mode that S poles are alternately arranged and be magnetized.
In addition, worm gear 125 is formed in a manner of being rotated integrally with output shaft 126.Worm screw 122c and gear 125a structures Into the reducing gear 127 in present embodiment.The speed reducing ratio of the reducing gear 127 is exactly by the power transmission of rotor 122 During to output shaft 126, the rotating speed of output shaft 126 is changed into the rotating speed low speed than rotor 122.Also, in fig.9, in framework 124 Top, be provided with axis hole (not shown).In output shaft 126 and worm gear 125 is passed through by the end of fixed end opposite side Outside is exposed to by the axis hole of framework 124.On the part of the outside for being exposed to framework 124 in output shaft 126, such as Fig. 8 It is linked with Poewr transmission mechanism 120 like that.
The part of axis hole opposite side is provided with opening portion 124a in framework 124.Opening portion 124a be in order to The grade of worm gear 125 is installed in the inside of framework 124 and is formed.In addition, it is provided with occlusion of openings portion 124a lower cover 128.Under Lid 128 has tray shape, and control base board 129 is provided with the space surrounded by the lower cover 128 and framework 124.In Fig. 9 In, show that control base board 129 is installed in the example of lower cover 128.
In the control base board 129, the drive device 133 of control brushless motor 119 is set as shown in Figure 11.Driving Device 133 has the inverter circuit 130 of energization of the control to each armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c.Inverter circuit 130 It is connected to terminal (not shown).In addition, connector (not shown) is provided with framework 124, by the way that outside will be connected to The socket (not shown) of the power supply of power supply 131 is installed on connector, so as to which external power source 131 and inverter circuit 130 are connected. External power source 131 is battery or capacitor being equipped on vehicle 110 etc..
External power source 131 is connected and cut with armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c in addition, inverter circuit 130 possesses Disconnected switch element 130a.Switch element 130a is made up of the semiconductor element such as FET.More specifically, including:It is corresponding In U phases, V phases, W phases, be connected to three positive terminals of the positive pole of external power source 131 switch element and corresponding to U phases, V phases, W phases, it is connected to three switch elements of the negative pole end of external power source 131.Also, on inverter circuit 130, it is connected to tool There is the control circuit (controller) 132 for the function that control is switched over to switch element 130a on and off.
The control circuit 132 is that possess the well-known microcomputer for having CPU, RAM, ROM etc..In addition, driving dress Putting 133 has a pwm signal generation circuit 134, and the signal of pwm signal generation circuit 134 is to be input to the side of control circuit 132 Formula and form.The drive signal of three negative terminal of the switch element of output control of control circuit 132, it is overlapping on the drive signal Pwm signal.That is, three negative terminal of the switch element are controlled by PWM to be driven, so it is interrupted in the logical section of each electricity Connect to property.Moreover, with the ratio i.e. dutycycle by controlling three negative terminal of the switch element each being switched on, so as to supply Formed to each armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c controlled mode of current value.Also, control circuit 132 is stored with nothing The data of the control performed during the startup of brush motor 119, program etc..During the startup of so-called brushless motor 119, exactly make The initial stage that brushless motor 119 through stopping rotates.
Also, on each armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c non-terminals, it is connected with induced voltage test section 135. Induced voltage test section 135 is detected with the rotation of rotor 122, caused on each armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c The sensor of induced voltage, the detection signal of induced voltage test section 135 are input to control circuit 132.Control circuit 132 According to the detection signal inputted from induced voltage test section 135, the rotation position (phase of direction of rotation) for inferring rotor 122 is performed Processing.
Also, the brushless motor 119 in present embodiment passes through switching control switch element 130a connection and disconnected Open and invert the direction of the energization to armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c, so as to make the positive and negative rotation of rotor 122.If Switch element 130a is switched on, then external power source 131 is just connected with each armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c;If switch member Part 130a is disconnected, then external power source 131 is just cut off with each armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c.
Also, in the inside of framework 124, be provided with detection output shaft 126 revolution or absolute position in it is at least one Output shaft sensor 136.So-called absolute position, refer to the anglec of rotation of the output shaft 126 relative to reference position.Reference position Arbitrary position in may be prescribed as in the range of 360 degree.The detection signal of the output shaft sensor 136 will be input to Control circuit 132.Also, Hall IC 139 is installed in control base board 129.Hall IC 139 and sensor-magnet 138 are non-contact Ground is relative and is fixed.Hall IC 139 according to the rotation with rotor 122, the change of the magnetic pole of sensor-magnet 138 and opened Pass acts, and then produces switching signal (on/off signal).Control circuit 132 can be believed according to the switch of Hall IC 139 Number, the revolution (rotating speed) of detection rotor 122.Also, in the interior of vehicle 110, wiper switch 137 is provided with, with wiper switch 137 operation signal is input to the mode of control circuit 132 and is configured.
In Wiping device 112, the wiping speed of wiper arm 114,116 according to conditions such as rainfall, snowfalls, can be switched Degree.For example, when rainfall, snowfall are few, driver can be selected with predetermined low by operating wiper switch 137 Speed makes the low speed wipe mode that wiper arm 114,116 acts.In contrast, when rainfall, snowfall are more, driver passes through behaviour Make wiper switch 137 and the high speed wipe mode for acting wiper arm 114,116 with the speed higher than the low speed can be selected. Therefore, in control circuit 132, it is previously stored with to low speed wipe mode and high speed wipe mode, controlling switch element 130a mode, data, arithmetic expression etc..
Illustrate the control of the brushless motor 119 in present embodiment.Operated in wiper switch 137 and have selected low speed During pattern, the detection signal of induced voltage test section 135 is just input to control circuit 132.Control circuit 132 is according to induced electricity The detection signal of test section 135 is pressed, infers the rotation position (angle of direction of rotation) of rotor 122, and then perform and be based on rotor The power control of 122 rotation position.That is, by every 120 degree of electrical angles the positive terminal of sequentially turned-on each phase is opened Close element, and every 120 degree of electrical angles the sequentially turned-on phase different from positive terminal switch element negative terminal of the switch element, from And switch the energization to armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c of each phase and make phase current commutation.
If above-mentioned control forms rotating excitation field, rotor 122 rotates by repeatedly by stator 121.In addition, brushless electricity Motivation 119 has increasing with current value, the characteristic that revolution rises.Also, brushless motor 119 has upper with revolution Rise, the characteristic that torque can decline.When low speed wipe mode has been chosen, duty is performed by not performing field weakening control The control of ratio, so as to make the real number of revolutions of rotor 122 close to required revolution.
On the other hand, when high speed wipe mode has been chosen, supply is not changed to armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c Current value and performing the energization timing to armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c has been chosen phase than low speed wipe mode The field weakening control of position in advance.In field weakening control, when low speed wipe mode has been chosen compared with, to armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c energization timing are by advanced 30 degree of electrical angles.Field weakening control is made by supplying an electric current to armature The control that coil 121a, 121b, 121c and the magnetic field that is formed are weakened as much as possible.If performing the field weakening control, Caused counter electromotive force is reduced on armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c, and the revolution of rotor 122 just rises.
Figure 12 is the line chart for the characteristic for showing brushless motor 119.In fig. 12, brushless motor 119 is shown on the longitudinal axis Revolution, the torque of brushless motor 119 is shown on transverse axis.In addition, the dotted line shown in Figure 12 corresponds to low speed wipe mode One of low speed characteristic, the solid line shown in Figure 12 corresponds to one of the high speed characteristic of high speed wipe mode.
The brushless motor 119 of present embodiment set its fix when, in order to obtain correspond to Figure 12 low speed Revolution and torque with characteristic, such as there are setting property on by position shown in solid.Therefore, opened by windscreen wiper Close 137 operation and low speed wipe mode can obtain required turn when being chosen in the scope below setting property Number and torque.
On the other hand, it is chosen in the operation by wiper switch 137 and high speed wipe mode, and then the torque being required And revolution performs field weakening control when having exceeded setting property by control circuit 132, exceedes setting so as to obtain The revolution of characteristic and the scope of torque.Thus, the characteristic of brushless motor 119 turns into apparent above and as shown in double dot dash line Position on it is equal.Thus, it is possible to not change current value and the revolution of brushless motor 119 is increased, and then torque is set to increase This point means that torque constant relatively becomes big.In other words, the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment can be with less Energy consumption and produce torque as high as possible, motor efficiency improve.
In general, in for motor vehicle Wiping device, low speed wipe mode is higher than the frequency of use of high speed wipe mode. Therefore, if the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment is applied into Wiping device 112, it is chosen in low speed wipe mode When, the effect for reducing energy consumption is big.In addition, just become in design need not be with height for the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment Determine to fix on the basis of fast wiping pattern, and then the physique of brushless motor 119 can be made to diminish as much as possible.
In addition, the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment can be examined when performing field weakening control according to induced voltage The detection signal in survey portion 135 and infer the rotation position of rotor 122.Also, the inspection of induced voltage test section 135 can not be had to yet Survey signal and the rotation of rotor 122 is inferred according to the detection signal of output shaft sensor 136 and the speed reducing ratio of reducing gear 127 Indexing is put.Just like this, the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment can utilize the induced voltage test section being set in advance 135th, output shaft sensor 136 infers the rotation position of rotor 122.That is, the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment It is the no sensor structure of the sensor for the rotation position that detection rotor 122 need not be exclusively set.Therefore, it is possible to reduce nothing The components number and manufacturing cost of brush motor 119.
Also, the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment corresponds to height by performing field weakening control that can obtain The revolution of speed characteristic and torque are simultaneously provided with reducing gear 27.Therefore, brushless motor 119 can be with as suitable for windscreen wiper The characteristic of the operation condition of the wiper arm 114,116 of device 112 is that revolution, the mode of torque set the deceleration of reducing gear 127 Than.The speed reducing ratio of reducing gear 27 is to use the value after the revolution of rotor 122 divided by the revolution of output shaft 126, more makes reducing gear 127 speed reducing ratio becomes big, and the revolution of output shaft 126 more declines.
Also, the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment can make according to the inferred results of the rotation position of rotor 122 The leading angle control during rotating of brushless motor 119 optimizes.Also, the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment due to Brush, commutator (commutator) etc. are not provided with, thus will not also be produced as the friction caused by the slip of brush and commutator Moment of torsion, and then can prevent the efficiency of motor from declining.Also, the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment can also prevent Because in the generation of the noise with brush.
Also, the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment is that control base board 129 and reducing gear 127 are all configured in The structure i.e. structure of electromechanical integration in space surrounded by framework 124 and lower cover 128.Therefore, it is possible to compactly form Brushless motor 119 is overall, and layout when installing brushless motor 119 to car body improves.
Also, the brushless motor 119 of present embodiment has function as follows:Performing field weakening control When, control circuit 132 detects the control of the revolution of rotor 122 simultaneously by performing according to the on/off signal of Hall IC 139 Make the advanced 30 degree of electrical angles of energization timing to armature coil 121a, 121b, 121c, so as to control the revolution of rotor 122.
If here, to illustrate the corresponding relation of the structure that illustrated in the present embodiment and the structure of the present invention, Drive device 133 with control circuit 132 is equivalent to the first rotation speed control unit of the present invention, the second rotation speed control unit, rotation Location estimating portion and direction of rotation control unit;Framework 124 and lower cover 128 are equivalent to housing of the invention;Windshield 111 Equivalent to the glass of the present invention;Action component of the wiper arm 114,116 equivalent to the present invention;Hall IC 139 is equivalent to the present invention Switch element.Also, in fig. 12 with the characteristic that revolution and torque represent equivalent to the brushless motor in the present invention Characteristic.
The present invention is not limited to above-mentioned embodiment, in scope without departing from the spirit, can carry out various changes, This point is self-evident.For example, Wiping device 112 is not limited to wipe windshield 111 or wipes the dress of rear window Put.Although in addition, the wiper arm 114,116 of Wiping device 112 shown in Fig. 8 via Poewr transmission mechanism 120 and with output shaft 126 Link the structure directly linked but it is also possible to be wiper arm with output shaft.In addition, although the Wiping device 112 shown in Fig. 8 is logical Single brushless motor 119 is crossed to drive the structure of two wiper arms 114,116 but it is also possible to be the nothing by being individually separated Brush motor drives the structure of two wiper arms.In addition, the brushless motor of present embodiment can also be by permanent magnet It is embedded into IPM (the Interior Permanent Magnet of the structure of core:Built-in type permanent-magnet) type motor.Also, by windscreen wiper The pattern for switching selection is not limited to low speed wipe mode and high speed wipe mode both or more than three kinds.Also, electricity The quantity of pivot coil, the number of permanent magnet can be changed arbitrarily.
No matter also, the present invention brushless motor for be configured with the inside of stator rotor inner-rotor type it is brushless Motor or be configured with the outside of stator rotor outer-rotor type brushless motor in any can be applicable.And And comfortable facility of the brushless motor of present embodiment set by vehicle is device such as electric sliding door apparatus, skylight In device, power window apparatus etc., it can also act as to make the power source that the action components such as door, ceiling, glass act.
Hereinafter, the other embodiment of the present invention is explained using accompanying drawing.Vehicle 210 shown in Figure 13 has Windshield 211.In addition, vehicle 210 has the Wiping device 212 for wiping windshield 211.Wiping device 212 has with pivot The wiper arm 214 shaken centered on axle 213 and the wiper arm 216 shaken centered on pivot 215.In wiper arm 214 Free end, windshield wiper blade 217 is installed, in the free end of wiper arm 216, windshield wiper blade 218 is installed.In addition, Wiping device 212 has There is brushless motor 219, the power source as driving wiper arm 214,216.The power of brushless motor 219 is with via by thick stick The Poewr transmission mechanism 220 of the compositions such as bar, connecting rod and be respectively passed to wiper arm 214,216.
Brushless motor 219 has the structure shown in Figure 14, Figure 15, Figure 16.Brushless motor 219 in present embodiment It is the motor of three-phase dc type, the motor of three-phase hexapole type is listed as one.Brushless motor 219 has stator 221 and rotor 222.In addition, brushless motor 219 has the shell 223 of bottom cylindrical shape, in the inner circumferential of shell 223, Gu Surely it is provided with stator 221.As shown in figure 16, stator 221 have corresponding to three-phase, specifically U phases, V phases, each phases of W phases Winding is armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c.Specifically, the armature coil of three-phase is by the armature line of three-phase by Y tie lines Circle connects the mode of connection on neutral point at one end and connected.In addition, brushless motor 219 is each armature coil as positive pole The motor of the bipolar driving type to be played a role with both negative poles.Rotor 222 is arranged at the inner side of stator 221, rotor 222 Permanent magnet 222b with rotary shaft 222a and the quadrupole being installed on rotary shaft 222a.In shell 223, it is provided with multiple Bearing, rotary shaft 222a are pivotably supported by multiple bearings.The bearing is not shown.
In addition, that there is hollow framework 224, framework 224 and shell 223 to pass through is (not shown) tight for brushless motor 219 Firmware and fixed.Substantially half on rotary shaft 222a length direction is configured at the inside of shell 223, and remaining substantially one Partly it is configured in framework 224.On the periphery of part in rotary shaft 222a, being configured in framework 224, formed with worm screw 222c.In framework 224, worm gear 225 is provided with.In the periphery of the worm gear 225, formed with gear 225a, gear 225a and snail Bar 222c is engaged.Also, on position in rotary shaft 222a, being configured in framework 224, sensor-magnet is installed 238.Sensor-magnet 238 rotates integrally with rotary shaft 222a.Circumferencial direction of the sensor-magnet 238 along rotary shaft 222a, with N Mode that pole and S poles are alternately arranged and be magnetized.
In addition, worm gear 225 is formed in a manner of being rotated integrally with output shaft 226.Worm screw 222c and gear 225a structures Into the reducing gear 227 in present embodiment.The reducing gear 227 is that the power of rotor 222 is being transferred into output shaft 226 When, make the revolution of output shaft 226 than the mechanism of the revolution step-down of rotor 222.The revolution of rotor 222 is input revolutions, output shaft 226 revolution is output revolutions.Also, the top of framework 224 in fig. 14, is provided with axis hole (not shown), output shaft 226 are inserted into axis hole.In output shaft 226 and worm gear 225 is exposed to framework by the end of fixed end opposite side 224 outside.Poewr transmission mechanism 220 and the part of outside in output shaft 226, being exposed to framework 224 link.
The part of axis hole opposite side is provided with opening portion 224a in framework 224.Opening portion 224a be in order to The grade of worm gear 225 is installed in the inside of framework 224 and is formed.In addition, it is provided with occlusion of openings portion 224a lower cover 228.Lower cover 228 have tray shape, and control base board 229 is provided with the space surrounded by the lower cover 228 and framework 224.In fig. 14, Show that control base board 229 is installed in the example of lower cover 228.
In the control base board 229, the control unit of control brushless motor 219 is the drive device 233 as controller As Figure 16 is set.Drive device 233 has the inverter circuit of energization of the control to each armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c 230.Inverter circuit 230 is connected to terminal (not shown).In addition, connector is provided with framework 224, by that will be connected The socket for being connected to the power supply of external power source 231 is installed on connector, so as to which external power source 231 and inverter circuit 230 are connected. External power source 231 is battery or capacitor being equipped on vehicle 210 etc..In addition, connector and socket are not shown.
External power source 231 is connected and cut with armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c in addition, inverter circuit 230 possesses Disconnected switch element 230a.Switch element 230a is made up of the semiconductor element such as FET.More specifically, including:It is corresponding In U phases, V phases, W phases, be connected to three positive terminals of the positive pole of external power source 231 switch element and corresponding to U phases, V phases, W phases, it is connected to the switch element of three negative pole ends of the negative pole end of external power source 231.That is, switch element amounts to and is provided with six It is individual.If switch element 230a be connected i.e. connect, electric current just from external power source 231 be supplied to each armature coil 221a, 221b、221c.In contrast, disconnected if switch element 230a is cut off, electric current is not just supplied from external power source 231 To each armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c.Also, on inverter circuit 230, it is connected with switching switch element 230a's The control circuit 232 of on and off.
The control circuit 232 is that possess the well-known microcomputer for having CPU, RAM, ROM etc..In addition, driving dress Putting 233 has a pwm signal generation circuit 234, and the signal of pwm signal generation circuit 234 is to be input to the side of control circuit 232 Formula and form.The drive signal of three negative terminal of the switch element of output control of control circuit 232, it is overlapping on the drive signal Pwm signal.That is, three negative terminal of the switch element are controlled by PWM to be driven, so it is interrupted in the logical section of each electricity Connect to property.Moreover, with by control each ratio being switched on of three negative terminal of the switch element i.e. dutycycle, so as to supply to Each armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c current value are formed by the mode controlled.I.e. it is capable to make to armature line Increase and decrease during the energization of circle 221a, 221b, 221c power supply relative to the whole period that can be powered between 0%~100%.And And control circuit 232 is stored with the data of the control performed during the startup of brushless motor 219, program etc..So-called brushless electric During the startup of machine 219, exactly make the initial stage of the rotation of brushless motor 219 stopped.
Also, on each armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c non-terminals, it is connected with induced voltage test section 235. Induced voltage test section 235 is detected with the rotation of rotor 222, caused on each armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c The sensor of induced voltage, the detection signal of induced voltage test section 235 are input to control circuit 232.Control circuit 232 According to the detection signal inputted from induced voltage test section 235, the rotation position for performing deduction rotor 222 is the phase of direction of rotation Processing.
In addition, Hall IC 239 is installed in control base board 229.Hall IC 239 and 238 non-contact ground of sensor-magnet Opposite and fixed.Hall IC 239 according to the rotation with armature spindle 222a, the change of the magnetic pole of sensor-magnet 238 and carry out Switch motion, and then produce switching signal and turn on/off signal.In addition, Hall IC 239 can be along armature spindle 222a rotation Direction sets multiple such as three.Control circuit 232 is according to the switching signal of Hall IC 239, detection armature spindle 222a revolution And the anglec of rotation.In addition, it is provided with the anglec of rotation of detection output shaft 226 and the output shaft sensor 236 of revolution.Output The detection signal of axle sensor 236 inputs to control circuit 232.Also, in the interior of vehicle 210, it is provided with wiper switch 237, it is configured in a manner of the operation signal of wiper switch 237 is input to control circuit 232.Also, it is provided with speed Sensor 240, the signal of vehicle speed sensor 240 are input to control circuit 232.Vehicle speed sensor 240 is detection vehicle 210 The sensor of travel speed.
Illustrate the control of the brushless motor 219 in present embodiment.Control circuit 232 is according to induced voltage test section 235 detection signal, infer that armature spindle 222a direction of rotation and rotation position are the angle of direction of rotation, and then perform base Power control in armature spindle 222a rotation position.That is, by being connect in order per defined angle in electrical angle On/off opens the positive terminal switch element of each phase, and/disconnection sequentially turned-on per defined angle is opened with positive terminal in electrical angle The negative terminal of the switch element of the different phase of element is closed, so as to switching energization to armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c of each phase Make phase current commutation.If above-mentioned control forms rotating excitation field, armature spindle 222a rotations by repeatedly by stator 221.
In addition, the brushless motor 219 in present embodiment to switch element 230a on and off by carrying out Switching control and invert the direction of the energization to armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c, so as to make armature spindle 222a just Turn, stop, reversion.The reciprocating action in the range of predetermined angular using armature spindle 222a power of wiper arm 214,216, enters And windshield 211 is wiped by windshield wiper blade 217,218.
Also, the brushless motor 219 in present embodiment is able to carry out magnetic field when controlling armature spindle 222a revolution Weaken control.Field weakening control is exactly to make by supplying an electric current to armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c the magnetic field that is formed The control weakened as much as possible.If specifically describing field weakening control, be make to armature coil 221a, 221b, The 221c timing that is powered is the control of phase in advance than the common advanced 30 ° of electrical angles of timing that are powered.If perform field weakening Control, then caused counter electromotive force is reduced on armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c, and armature spindle 222a revolution just rises.
Also, the brushless motor 219 in present embodiment is revolution and torque when control armature spindle 222a output When, allow hand over the first control and the second control.As the condition of the control of switching first and the second control, can include Such as the travel speed of vehicle 210.In control circuit 232, it is previously stored with as the control of switching first and the second control Threshold value benchmark car speed.Also, if by the signal of vehicle speed sensor 240 and speed on the basis of detected actual vehicle speed Hereinafter, then the first control is performed.If control vehicle is exceeded and detected actual vehicle speed by the signal of vehicle speed sensor 240 Speed, then perform the second control.
Illustrate the example of the first control and the second control by Figure 17.0 °~360 ° of angle shown in Figure 17 is table Show the electrical angle during energization of the electric signal within 1 cycle.The positive energization for representing to carry out from positive pole, negative indication are carried out from negative pole It is powered.Figure 17 (A) is one of the first control.In U phases, using 0 ° as reference position, it is initially powered up on 30 ° from positive pole, After maintaining energization in the range of 120 ° of electrical angle, the energization carried out from positive pole terminates.In addition, lead to what is carried out from positive pole Electricity is spaced apart defined electrical angle after terminating, and since the energization again that negative pole is carried out, is maintained in the range of 120 ° of electrical angle It is powered and terminates after being powered.
On the other hand, in V phases, from the time point of the energization end carried out from positive pole in U phases, start what is carried out from positive pole It is powered, after maintaining energization in the range of 120 ° of electrical angle, energization terminates.In addition, in V phases, from U phases from negative pole The time point that the energization of progress terminates, start the energization carried out from negative pole, maintain from negative pole in the range of 120 ° of electrical angle After capable energization, the energization carried out from negative pole terminates.Also, in W phases, terminate from the energization carried out from positive pole of V phases Time point, start the energization carried out from positive pole, after the energization carried out from positive pole is maintained in the range of 120 ° of electrical angle, from just The energization that pole is carried out terminates.In addition, in W phases, from the time point of the energization end carried out from negative pole in V phases, start from negative pole The energization of progress, after the energization carried out from negative pole is maintained in the range of 120 ° of electrical angle, the energization knot that is carried out from negative pole Beam.So, in the first control, the energization carried out from positive pole and the scope i.e. electrical angle maintained from the energization of negative pole progress All it is 120 °.
Then, illustrated according to one Figure 17 (B) of the control of display second.In U phases, start on 0 ° from just The energization that pole is carried out, after the energization carried out from positive pole maintains in the range of 120 ° of+α of electrical angle, carried out from positive pole logical Electricity terminates.Also, after the energization carried out from positive pole terminates, since the energization that negative pole is carried out, from the energization of negative pole progress After being maintained in the range of 120 ° of+α of electrical angle, the energization carried out from negative pole terminates.
In V phases, in U phases from positive pole be powered during, since positive pole carry out energization.In addition, enter from positive pole After capable energization maintains in the range of 120 ° of+α of electrical angle, the energization carried out from positive pole terminates.Also, enter from positive pole The time point that the energization carried out from negative pole after capable energization terminates and in U phases is maintained, the energization carried out from negative pole is Start.After the energization carried out from negative pole maintains in the range of 120 ° of+α of electrical angle, the energization carried out from negative pole terminates.
In W phases, in U phases from negative pole be powered and V phases in from positive pole be powered during, from positive pole carry out energization Start.In addition, after the energization carried out from positive pole maintains in the range of 120 ° of+α of electrical angle, from the energization knot of positive pole progress Beam.Also, after the energization carried out from positive pole terminates and in U phases from positive pole carry out energization be maintained and in V phases from During the energization that negative pole is carried out is maintained, the energization carried out from negative pole has begun to.The energization carried out from negative pole is in electric angle After being maintained in the range of 120 ° of+α of degree, the energization carried out from negative pole terminates.In Figure 17 (B), in U phases and V phases, V phases and W Phase, W phases and in V phases, each overlapping part in the energization of positive pole turn into α scope, the energization for negative pole, and equally 's.
Also, the other example of the control of explanation second further according to Figure 17 (C).In U phases, from more than 0 ° and being less than 30 ° of electrical angle starts the energization carried out from positive pole, and the energization carried out from positive pole maintains in the range of 120 ° of+α of electrical angle Afterwards, the energization carried out from positive pole terminates.In addition, the power control on the negative pole of U phases, leading on the positive pole and negative pole of V phases Electric control, W phases positive pole and negative pole on power control it is identical with Figure 17 (B).In addition, 120 ° of+α of ohmic heatingp refer to ohmic heatingp For the value more than 120 °.In the present embodiment, brushless motor 219 is controlled more than 120 ° and in less than 180 ° of scope Ohmic heatingp.
So, the ohmic heatingp in the second control is than the energization angular width in the first control.That is, the first control and the second control Ohmic heatingp is different.In Figure 17 (C), U phases with V phases, V phases and W phases, W phases and V phases, it is each in the energization of positive pole Overlapping part turns into α scope, as the energization of negative pole, and same.
Moreover, the control by performing above-mentioned dutycycle in the lump with the first control or the second control, controls armature spindle 222a revolution.Figure 18 is the line chart for the characteristic for showing brushless motor 219, and the monomer properties of brushless motor 219 are by solid line Show.Moreover, the ohmic heatingp by controlling brushless motor 219, becomes as by some line so as to the characteristic on will be apparent Shown position.Monomer properties be exactly vehicle 210 actual vehicle speed on the basis of below speed when target output, i.e. meet low The characteristic of speed characteristic.Characteristic on apparent is exactly that the target when actual vehicle speed of vehicle 210 has exceeded benchmark car speed exports, That is, the characteristic of high speed characteristic is met.Represent that target exports with armature spindle 222a revolution and torque.Determine target output Condition includes:The operation signal of wiper switch 237, the travel speed of vehicle 210, wiper arm 214,216 operating position etc..
In the brushless motor 219 of present embodiment, in the case where target output is the characteristic below monomer properties, Decline armature spindle 222a revolution by performing the first control and controlling dutycycle, so as to obtain low speed characteristic. In contrast, in the case where target output is more than the characteristic of monomer properties, armature spindle is made by performing the second control 222a revolution rises and control dutycycle, so as to obtain high speed characteristic.Therefore, brushless motor 219 is in design It can be fixed on the basis of monomer properties, the physique of brushless motor 219 can be made to diminish as much as possible.By not changing Become the current value of brushless motor 219 and ohmic heatingp is broadened, so that armature spindle 222a revolution rises and then can make to turn Square rises this point and means that torque constant relatively becomes big.In other words, the brushless motor 219 of present embodiment can Torque as high as possible is produced with less energy consumption, motor efficiency improves.Also, if it is assumed that brushless motor 219 Export to be constant, then consumption electric power can be set to relatively low.
In addition, can make brushless motor 219 fix diminish as much as possible this point mean to make armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c rugosity attenuate as much as possible.As a result, armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c for being wound on stator 221 Number of turn increase, the resistance as brushless motor 219 relatively increases.Thus, for example in drive device 233, there occurs failure When, the electric current for flowing to switch element 230a can be made to allow electric current relatively to diminish.Permission electricity in switch element 230a Flowing this point that relatively diminishes contributes to the miniaturization of drive device 233.Therefore, the miniaturization of brushless motor 219 is contributed to, With the advantages of layout improves when brushless motor 219 is configured in the enging cabin of vehicle 210.
Herein, one of the characteristic of brushless motor 219 and the relation of ohmic heatingp is illustrated according to Figure 19.Brushless electric The characteristic of machine 219 is represented with revolution and torque.In fig. 19 it is shown that 120 °, 135 °, 150 °, 165 ° are used as ohmic heatingp.Such as Shown in Figure 19, brushless motor 219 has if it is assumed that the characteristic that torque is identical, then ohmic heatingp is bigger, revolution more uprises.
Then, explanation performs other examples of the condition of the first control and the second control successively.For example, such as Figure 20 institutes Show, the first control and the can be also performed according to the operating angle for the armature spindle 222a that the detection signal by Hall IC 239 is obtained Two controls.In fig. 20, armature spindle 222a revolution is shown on the longitudinal axis, operating angle is shown on transverse axis.Armature spindle 222a's Revolution is represented by solid line.Operating angle includes the armature spindle 222a of the operating position corresponding to wiper arm 214,216 operating angle.
Specifically, armature spindle 222a operating angle is exactly wiper arm 214,216 shown in Figure 13 from closest to brushless The initial position of motor 219 is anglec of rotation when assigned position is acted.The maximum of armature spindle 222a operating angle Value corresponds to the position that wiper arm 214,216 inverts.That is, the operating position of wiper arm 214,216 is further away from brushless Motor 219, armature spindle 222a operating angle more become big.Here, if wiper arm 214,216 moves since initial position Make, then as the increase revolution of armature spindle 222a operating angle rises, from operating angle θ 1 between operating angle θ 2, armature spindle 222a revolution becomes nearly constant.Also, during maximum is turned into from operating angle θ 2, armature spindle 222a revolution is gradual Ground declines.
In contrast, when wiper arm 214,216 inverts, from maximum to operating angle θ during, armature spindle 222a turn Number rises.In addition, during from operating angle θ 2 to operating angle θ 1, armature spindle 222a revolution becomes nearly constant.Also, During turning into initial position from operating angle θ 1, armature spindle 222a revolution little by little declines.Then, the first control can be with fortune Rotational angle theta 1 is performed, and the second control can be performed with operating angle θ 2.Herein, operating angle θ 2 is bigger than operating angle θ 1.In addition, work as basis The operating angle of wiper arm 214,216 and perform the first control and second control when, can also be according to output shaft sensor 236 Detection signal and obtain the operating angle of wiper arm 214,216.
In addition, illustrate other examples of condition for performing the first control and the second control according to Figure 21.Herein, can The armature spindle 222a obtained according to the detection signal by Hall IC 239 revolution, perform the first control and the second control.Scheming In 21, revolution is shown on the longitudinal axis, on transverse axis is shown the time.Revolution is shown by solid line.Time shown in Figure 21 refers to wiper arm 214th, 216 acted and elapsed time untill backward position is reached from initial position.If moreover, armature spindle 222a reality Border revolution is that revolution N1 then performs the first control, and the second control is performed if armature spindle 222a actual revolution is revolution N2. Here, revolution N2 specific revolutions N1 is high.
As the revolution shown in Figure 21, the revolution of output shaft 226 can be also used.That is, can be by output shaft sensor 236 Signal obtain the revolution of output shaft 226, perform the first control and the second control., can be according to rain if performing the control The responsiveness of scraping arm 214,216, the control of switching first and the second control.
Also, if armature spindle 222a rotates since corresponding to the position of the initial position of wiper arm 214,216, then with The process of time, armature spindle 222a revolution rises.Thereafter, armature spindle 222a revolution is maintained during the stipulated time To be constant, armature spindle 222a revolution little by little declines.When wiper arm 214,216 returns from backward position, just turn into it is upper State the variation characteristic of opposite revolution.
In addition, illustrate other examples of condition for performing the first control and the second control according to Figure 22.Herein, according to The armature spindle 222a detected by Hall IC 239 revolution, perform the first control and the second control.In fig. 22, in the longitudinal axis On armature spindle 222a revolution is shown, the time is shown on transverse axis.Time shown in the meaning and Figure 21 of time shown in Figure 22 Meaning it is identical.Moreover, the time point of action has begun to pass through the stipulated time from wiper arm 214,216 since initial position At the time of t1 perform first control.Also, performing the second control from t2 at the time of the moment, t1 have passed through the stipulated time again.This Outside, the revolution as Figure 22, the revolution of the output shaft 226 detected by output shaft sensor 236 can also be used.Namely Say, the first control and the second control can be switched according to the responsiveness of wiper arm 214,216.
In addition, illustrate other examples of condition for performing the first control and the second control according to Figure 23.Figure 23 (A) is shown Corresponding to the second control of high-speed wipe, Figure 23 (B) shows the first control corresponding to low speed wipe.Here, Figure 23 (A), (B) on, show under any speed, if operating angle θ changes, all change the control of advance angle and ohmic heatingp.In addition, Advance angle, ohmic heatingp relative to operating angle θ variable quantity variable quantity both can in all speeds it is all identical, can also be every Kind speed just changes.
Then, the configuration example of the rotor 222 for brushless motor 219 is illustrated according to Figure 24.Brushless motor 219 turns The structure of son 222 has IPM (Interior Permanent Magnet:Built-in type permanent-magnet) structure and SPM (Surface Permanent Magnet:Durface mounted permanent magnet) structure.Such as Figure 24 (A), IPM structures are being internally embedded in rotor core 222d The structure of permanent magnet 222b rotor 222.Such as Figure 24 (B), SPM structures are the surface fixed permanent magnets in rotor core 222d The structure of 222b rotor 222.That is, the rotor 222 of IPM structures rotor 222 surface configuration by iron system magnetic The rotor core 222d of material forming.On the other hand, surface configuration permanent magnet of the rotor 222 of SPM structures in rotor 222 222b.Moreover, the permeability of the magnetic material of iron system relative to air with 103Rank is big, and the permeability of permanent magnet approaches In the value of air.Therefore, compared with the rotor 222 of IPM structures, inductance diminishes the rotor 222 of SPM structures.
In the control of the brushless motor 219 of present embodiment, due to ohmic heatingp being expanded for 120 ° than in general, thus Each phase narrows without energization section.Therefore, in order that the switching of electric current accelerates, it is desirable to disconnect the switch element as caused by inductance When the delay between the area of electric current diminish.Therefore, the structure as rotor 222, SPM structures are more preferred than IPM structure.
In addition, even if rotor 222 is SPM structures, if using ferrite lattice as permanent magnet 222b, formed The axial length of magnetic circuit can also become big.In general, the inductance in armature coil is directly proportional to the axial length of magnetic circuit, thus if used Ferrite lattice will become big as permanent magnet 222b, the then inductance in armature coil 221a, 221b, 221c.On the other hand, If having used the rotor 222 of the SPM structures of rare-earth sintered magnet as permanent magnet 222b, then the magnetic circuit formed Axial length just diminish, and the inductance in armature coil can be reduced.However, due to containing costliness in rare-earth sintered magnet Heavy rare earth dvielement (Dy, Tb), thus brushless motor 219 be changing to costliness motor.
It is preferable therefore that as permanent magnet 222b, using the axial length of formed magnetic circuit can be made to diminish and do not contain weight The annular magnet of the rare earth-like bonded permanent magnet of rare earth element, turn into the rotor 222 of SPM structures.Here, rare earth-like bonded permanent magnet Bonded including neodymium iron boron binding, SmFeN.In addition, neodymium iron boron binding, SmFeN, which bond the two, all includes isotropism, respectively to different Property.
Then, to number, the i.e. number of poles of permanent magnet that is installed on rotor and the groove for the stator for winding armature coil Number illustrates.If with number of poles: slot number represents the ratio between number of poles and slot number, rough classification has 2n: 3n, 4n: 3n, 8n: 9n, 10n: 9n, 10n: 12n, 14n: 12n relation.Here, n is more than 1 integer.8n∶9n、10n∶9n、10n∶12n、14n∶12n Structure due to the armature coil in identical phase it is different from the position relationship of permanent magnet, thus by be powered timing assign Give advance angle or expand ohmic heatingp, the phase of energization will more shift to an earlier date relative to the value on basis.Therefore, permanent magnet just becomes It must be easy to demagnetize.
Figure 25 is the schematic diagram of one for showing rotor and stator corresponding to the groove of sextupole nine, and Figure 26 is to show to correspond to The rotor of the groove of the ends of the earth nine and the schematic diagram of one of stator.That is, Figure 25 be above-mentioned 2n: 3n and n be 3 in the case of Example.In Figure 25,26, V represents V phases, and U represents U phases, and W represents W phases.In addition, the symbol of the "-" in each phase represents armature line Enclose reverse-winding.In addition, Figure 26 be above-mentioned 8n: 9n and n be 1 in the case of example.In fig. 25, in a circumferential direction, phase It is equal with permanent magnet 222b position relationship with armature coil U1, U2, U3 of phase.Therefore, if by the advanced of energization timing Angle setting value is set to electrical angle θ 1, then the advance angle of each armature coil can be represented with U1: θ 1=U2: θ 1=U3: θ 1.
On the other hand, in fig. 26, in a circumferential direction, armature coil U1, U2, U3 and permanent magnet 222b of identical phase Position relationship it is different.Therefore, if the advance angle setting value of energization timing is set into electrical angle θ 1, each armature coil surpasses Anterior angle can use U1: θ 1-20 °=U2: θ 1=U3: θ 1+20 ° of expression.In addition, the direction of rotation of rotor 222 is defined as from worm gear Clockwise direction is CW from the point of view of the shaft end of 225 sides.So, the permanent magnet 222b opposed with U3 greatly thus becomes due to advance angle It is easy to demagnetize.
Therefore, in order to perform the first control and second control, it is preferable to have the armature coil and permanent magnetic of identical phase The brushless motor of 2n: 3n or 4n: 3n equal structure of the position relationship of iron.Also, if the number of permanent magnet becomes more, Then influence of the electrical angle to the anglec of rotation mechanically just becomes big, i.e. the influence of the delay of electric current becomes big.Therefore, it is if identical Slot number, then the quantity of permanent magnet is preferably formed to 2n: the 3n structure that must lack.In addition, drive device 233 and stator 221 Be structure as a whole can also, be isolating construction can also.However, in order to make matching somebody with somebody from drive device 233 to armature coil Line shortens, and then wiring resistance diminishes, and preferably drive device 233 is structure as a whole with stator 221.
Also, if the dutycycle of control brushless motor 219, then dutycycle is higher, for as motor characteristic For the motor efficiency of one, the motor efficiency including drive device 233 more uprises.This is because, dutycycle More step-down, the loss caused by drive device 233 more become big.The one of the relation of dutycycle and motor characteristic is shown in Figure 27 Example.In figure 27, revolution, the motor efficiency of armature spindle are shown on the longitudinal axis, the torque of armature spindle is shown on transverse axis.In addition, In figure 27, Duty represents dutycycle.In addition, in figure 27, solid line represents the relation of torque and revolution, dotted line represent torque with The relation of efficiency.
In the brushless motor 219 of present embodiment, the operation of wiper switch 237 can be used as the control of switching first System and the condition of the second control.In rainfall or few snowfall, driver can be selected with pre- by operating wiper switch 237 The low speed first determined makes the low speed wipe mode that wiper arm 214,216 acts.
In contrast, in rainfall or more snowfall, driver can be selected with than upper by operating wiper switch 237 State the high speed wipe mode that the high speed of low speed acts wiper arm 214,216.Driver is exactly the subjective judgement drop with oneself Rainfall or snowfall it is more, few, not there is difference rainfall or more, the few objective benchmark of snowfall.Wiper switch will be passed through 237 and high speed wipe mode and low speed wipe mode can be carried out switching as premise, be chosen in low speed wipe mode In the case of, the first control can be performed, in the case where high speed wipe mode has been chosen, the second control can be performed.
Also, the brushless motor 219 of present embodiment is due to being not provided with brush, commutator (commutator) etc., thus Also will not produce can prevent the efficiency of motor from declining as the friction torque caused by the slip of brush and commutator, brush Temperature rise, can avoid motor output be restricted.Also, the brushless motor 219 of present embodiment can prevent Due to the generation of the noise with brush, the generation of operation noise, it can be ensured that quietness.In addition, in above-mentioned embodiment In, although the description of the revolution according to armature spindle 222a, torque, operating angle and switch the first control and second control, but due to Armature spindle 222a is the key element for the part for forming rotor 222, thus even if by armature spindle described in the above-described embodiment 222a replaces with rotor 222, and technical meaning is also identical.
The present invention is not limited to above-mentioned embodiment, and various changes can be carried out in scope without departing from the spirit, This point is self-evident.For example, the armature spindle that Wiping device includes brushless motor only rotates in one direction, wiper arm is with pivot The structure shaken centered on axle.Also, wiper switch is not limited by the operation of driver and is operated or had Detect the detection switch of the function of rainfall, snowfall etc..If so formed, according to rainfall, snowfall etc., revolution Control unit is carried out being automatically activated Wiping device and automatically switches the control of low-speed mode, fast mode.In this feelings Under condition, in rotation speed control unit, rainfall, the snowfall of the benchmark as switching low-speed mode, fast mode are previously stored with Deng data.
Also, the travel speed of vehicle can not also directly be detected and lead to by detecting the vehicle speed sensor of the travel speed of vehicle State of resistance or wiping surface etc. is crossed to be transferred to the information of Wiping device from rain shaving blade or be transferred to brushless motor indirectly Information detects.Here, so-called resistance, precisely due to traveling wind, resistance suffered by windshield wiper blade or resistance when wiping wiping surface Power, Wiping device detect state of resistance or wiping surface etc. from windshield wiper blade via output shaft.In addition, nothing is transferred to indirectly The information of brush motor be for using by the information that state of resistance or wiping surface etc. obtains as vehicle travel speed and The information of identification, in addition, the information can be by being become in a manner of detected by drive device using the travel speed as vehicle Change and detect.Also, the quantity of armature coil, the number of permanent magnet can be changed arbitrarily.
In addition, the Wiping device of the present invention includes the device of wiped rear window.That is, Wiping device of the invention In glass for vehicle window include windshield and rear window.In addition, the Wiping device of the present invention includes being coaxially disposed with worm gear Output shaft double as pivot structure.Also, the Wiping device of the present invention includes independent by the brushless motor being individually separated Drive the structure of two wiper arms.
Also, the brushless motor of the present invention is included in the brushless electric for the inner-rotor type that rotor is configured with the inside of stator Machine or be configured with the outside of stator rotor outer-rotor type brushless motor.Also, the brushless electric of present embodiment Machine is in addition to including making the windscreen wiper motor that Wiping device acts, in addition to set comfortable facility on vehicle is device In electric sliding door apparatus, skylight device, power window apparatus etc., in order that the action component such as door, ceiling, glass action and The brushless motor being set.
Industrial usability
Brushless motor is used as the driving source of the Wiping device being equipped on the vehicles such as automobile etc., by making brushless electricity Motivation rotation driving, so as to windshield wiper blade reciprocal wiping action on glass surface, thus, the visual field of driver etc. is protected well Hold.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of brushless motor, possesses:Stator, there is the armature coil for being supplied to electric current;Rotor, by the armature coil The rotating excitation field of formation rotates and is connected to action component;And switch element, it is arranged to the armature coil and supplies electricity On the path of stream, the brushless motor be applied to windshield wiper blade vehicle windscreen wiper motor, the brushless motor its It is characterised by,
Rotation speed control unit with the revolution that the rotor is controlled with least two different control models of the revolution of the rotor,
When have selected the first control model, the rotation speed control unit supplies electricity with predetermined energization timing to the armature coil Stream, and control as the dutycycle of the connection ratio of the switch element and control the revolution of the rotor, on the other hand, selecting When having selected the second control model, the timing that the is powered when rotation speed control unit is with than have selected first control model is advanced The timing that is powered supplies electric current to the armature coil, have selected so as to perform the rotating excitation field for making to be formed by armature coil ratio The field weakening control that weakens during first control model and control the revolution of the rotor,
The rotation speed control unit according to the vehicle traveling in when dependent on the windshield wiper blade wind resistance, the windshield wiper blade Wiping resis- tance or the two resistances caused by the rain shaving blade wiping speed change, select the control model, make institute The wiping speed of windshield wiper blade is stated close to target wiping speed.
2. brushless motor according to claim 1, it is characterised in that possess and be arranged at from the rotor to the action Reducing gear on the bang path of the power of part, the reducing gear have the knot for making output revolutions be less than input revolutions Structure.
3. brushless motor according to claim 1, it is characterised in that possess by switching supply to the armature coil Sense of current and make the direction of rotation control unit of the rotor positive and negative rotation.
4. brushless motor according to claim 2, it is characterised in that be provided with the control with the rotation speed control unit Substrate, the reducing gear and the control base board are housed inside in common housing.
5. a kind of Wiping device, possess the wiper arm of the action component as the glass for wiping vehicle, it is characterised in that
The wiper arm is connected with the rotor of the brushless motor any one of Claims 1-4.
6. Wiping device according to claim 5, it is characterised in that be provided with:The sensing rotated integrally with the rotor Device magnet and when the rotor rotates according to the change of the magnetic pole of the sensor-magnet and the revolution of output signal sense Device,
The rotation speed control unit when performing the field weakening control, detected according to the signal of the tachometer generator described in The revolution of rotor, and make to be powered the advanced 30 degree of electrical angles of timing to the armature coil to control the revolution of the rotor.
CN201380020371.XA 2012-04-16 2013-04-16 Brushless motor and Wiping device Active CN104272579B (en)

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