CN104270814B - A kind of localization method mixed based on TDOA and ToF and system - Google Patents

A kind of localization method mixed based on TDOA and ToF and system Download PDF

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CN104270814B
CN104270814B CN201410523394.9A CN201410523394A CN104270814B CN 104270814 B CN104270814 B CN 104270814B CN 201410523394 A CN201410523394 A CN 201410523394A CN 104270814 B CN104270814 B CN 104270814B
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base station
label
tdoa
tof
time
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CN104270814A (en
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房宏
肖成海
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NANJING WOXU COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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NANJING WOXU COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/02Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves
    • G01S5/12Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves by co-ordinating position lines of different shape, e.g. hyperbolic, circular, elliptical or radial

Abstract

The present invention relates to the localization method that a kind of TDOA and ToF is mixed, it is characterised in that including:Step 1:Server chooses master base station and from base station and completes time synchronized between base station;Step 2:Tag broadcast TDOA messages, the time difference reached by it between each base station calculate the distance between label and each base station difference;Step 3:Label calculates it the distance between with the base station by sending ToF messages to certain base station;Step 4:The distance between label and all base stations are calculated by the result of step 2 and step 3;Step 5:The position of label is calculated by the distance between label and each base station.Pass through the improved method of the present invention, it is possible to achieve the same precision in the triangle of base station composition and outside triangle.

Description

A kind of localization method mixed based on TDOA and ToF and system
Technical field
The present invention relates to wireless real time positioning technology field, and in particular to one kind realizes two dimension using TDOA and TOF modes Or three-dimensional pinpoint technology.
Background technology
Real-time positioning system, and be exactly RTLS (Real Time Location Systems), RTLS is that one kind is based on The radio-positioning means of signal, active, or passive induction type can be used.RTLS can allow understands what is be positioned in real time Property, personnel, vehicle or other accurate locations for positioning object.
RTLS based on TDOA:
Wireless TDOA mode is currently based on, there are two crucial technologies, the time synchronized between a base station, second is Label sends message, and base station, to calculate reaching time-difference, then using hyperbola algorithm, is come real according to the time for receiving message Existing two dimension, three-dimensional positioning, the ratio of precision of positioning is higher, and highest can be with a centimetre rank.
The wireless signal that reaching time-difference TDOA is sent according to Unknown Label node reaches the time difference of different locating base stations, The distance between Unknown Label node and each locating base station difference can be calculated according to the spread speed of wireless signal, this away from Deviation meets the condition of Hyperbolic Equation, and Unknown Label node is just in this hyp branch.If there are three or three Locating base station above, it is possible to the position of unknown node is obtained by solving a plurality of hyp intersection point.TDOA mensurations profit The position of unknown node is determined with multiple positioning nodes, therefore need not be to time synchronized strict like that TOA, but still need Positioning node has accurate time synchronized.Positioning principle is as shown in Figure 1.
RTLS based on ToF (Time of Flight) mechanism
ToF refers to the time that electromagnetic wave is propagated in the air, by measure two points between the electromagnetic wave propagation time, multiplied by With the light velocity, the distance between two equipment are converted to.
Ranging is being carried out based on ToF mechanism, labeling requirement and each base station.Then by label and the distance of base station, really Make the position of label.
The problem of existing:
In TDOA systems, using hyperbola algorithm, there is very big limitation, asked using the algorithm is insurmountable Topic.The equipment being mainly positioned is when outside the scope of base station, its precision rapid decrease, this precision it is quick under Drop, is not the data deviation for being TDOA, but is of algorithm itself.Such as when being positioned with three base stations, three Individual base station location is laid in equilateral triangle, and when label is positioned in the triangle of base station, its positioning precision can reach To 30 centimetres.When positioning label is located at outside locating base station, its positioning precision is to 1 meter, bigger, the accuracy error of distance It is bigger, it might even be possible to reach several meters.With reference to figure 2.
In fig. 2, three base stations, A base stations 1A, B base station 1B, C base station 1C composition triangle in the range of, pass through hyperbolic Line algorithm, can obtain preferable precision, but the label outside triangle, and B label 2B and C labels 2C precision is unable to reach.Away from More remote from the scope of triangle, its precision is poorer.
From hyp style characteristic, by the point of near focal point, its Curvature varying is big, the remote point of focal point, curvature Change smaller, it is closer to straight line, as shown in Figure 3:
When in the bigger place of curvature, systematic measurement error is not so sensitive, and right on the influence of hyperbola intersection error The line slope of the straight line two straight-line intersection site errors that have a great influence will be handed over greatly, so in the local phase more remote from hyperbolic focus Hand over, its error will be bigger.
For TDOA, another is exactly ToF mode, by the way of ToF, can solve label in base station Outer precision problem, but each labeling requirement and all base stations carry out the work of ToF rangings.The problem of so bringing be:
1st, power consumption increase, labeling task time length, power consumption increase, simplest system, at least 3 base stations, often increase One base station, label will increase the time of a ranging, and cause power consumption to increase;
2nd, the capacity problem of system, by the time of 1 second, if each label and all base station rangings, power system capacity drops It is low, it is necessary to by the way of time-division or frequency division, the capacity of ability effectively lifting system, but the complexity of system is so added again Degree.
The content of the invention
The invention provides a kind of improved method based on TDOA, pass through this improvement, it is possible to achieve the composition in base station Same precision in triangle and outside triangle, the present invention combine TDOA and ToF both of which.Concrete technical scheme is such as Under:
A kind of localization method mixed based on TDOA and ToF, including:
Step 1:Server chooses master base station and from base station and completes time synchronized between base station;
Step 2:Tag broadcast TDOA messages, the time difference reached by it between each base station calculate label and each base station The distance between difference;
Step 3:Label calculates it the distance between with the base station by sending ToF messages to certain base station;
Step 4:The distance between label and all base stations are calculated by the result of step 2 and step 3;
Step 5:The position of label is calculated by the distance between label and each base station.
Preferably, the step 1 base station is at least 3, and one of base station is selected as master base station by server, other From base station, time synchronized message periodically to be sent by master base station, after the positioning message that master base station is received from base station, is received by server Collect master base station and send the timestamp of time synchronized message and the timestamp from base station time of receipt (T of R) sync message, pass through each time Stamp and the respectively space length between base station and master base station are established and the corresponding time relationship of master base station.
Respective timestamp is sent to server by tag broadcast TDOA messages in the step 2, base station after receiving, by Server by master base station in step 1 and from the corresponding time relationship between base station calculate the TDOA messages of tag broadcast to Up to the time difference of each base station, and passage time difference calculates the distance between label and each base station difference.
Received to handle the ToF rangings message of label in real time and will be tied by the certain base station of server selection in the step 3 Fruit is sent to server, and the distance between label and selected certain base station are calculated by server.
The ToF rangings use bidirectional ranging.
The method that the step 5 is calculated the position of label by server is, respectively using each base station as the center of circle, base station and mark The distance between label are radius, according to round equation, seek round intersection point, the common intersection point position of each circle is exactly label place Position.
The invention further relates to a kind of alignment system mixed based on TDOA and TOF, the composition of system as shown in figure 4, including Server, label, the base station of more than three, the server are used for the data received according to each base station, carry out data operation, Each label position is drawn, and is showed in real time in map, and all base stations are managed, position setting, position Calibration, software upgrading, the one-to-one binding of pedestrian or thing is entered to label;Outside the base station division operation system, in addition to RF moulds Block, the RF modules mainly realize three functions, and first is time synchronized, realize time synchronized between base station, and second is real When receive the TDOA messages for carrying out label, the 3rd is the real-time ranging message for receiving processing label;The base station also includes data Module is returned, for all data and synchronizing signal that receive to be transferred back into server;The label is used to be bundled in often Individual to need on the people that positions or thing, and carry out efficient association in systems, the label is additionally provided with wireless module, for base station Send TDOA messages and TOF messages.
In this system, it is following several to realize that step is broadly divided into:
Step 1:System Construction
The work such as the installation and configuration of system Construction, mainly equipment, it is divided into following three phases.
Stage one:Equipment is installed, mainly server software installation and configuration, is pacified in server software and wireless base station 2 Work(is dressed up afterwards, it is necessary to configure particular location of each base station 2 in actual scene, and the IP parameters of each base station 2 are set, really Protecting the data of each base station 2 can correctly be transferred on server 1, and the heartbeat message of all base stations 2 is normal;
Stage two:In the self-validation stage of base station 2, according to the position of the installation of base station 2, self-validation is realized between base station 2, this stage Confirm two problems, one is that the radiofrequency signal of base station 2 is visible, if radiofrequency signal is invisible, needs to adjust installation site; Another is to verify that the position of base station 2 and the position of actual installation are correct.
Stage three:All labels 3 are configured, all labels 3 and the people to be positioned or thing are corresponded.
Step 2:Time synchronized
Refer to system after installation, beginning normal work, the automatic time synchronization of base station 2, in this system, All base stations 2 are required for realizing that adjacent base station 2 is synchronous automatically, refer to Fig. 5.By taking three base stations 2 as an example, server 1 selects it In base station 2A be master base station, initiated by base station 2A to base station 2B, base station 2C time synchronized;
Step 3:Selected ranging base station
According to the location of label 3, the selected ranging base station of system dynamic, decision-making is carried out by server, with reference to figure 6. In Fig. 6, it is assumed that C base stations 2C is selected as ranging base station, and after the TDOA messages that label 3 is sent are received, C base stations 2C should be returned ToF message is sent, completes ranging flow.
Step 4:Position calculates
Label 3 within each cycle of work,
Step 1:TDOA message is sent first, and base station 2A, 2B, 2C can receive this message.Server 1 can To obtain the arrival time (T that all base stations 2 receive label 3 and send messagerx), so as to the time difference that must be reached.Label 3 is sent out The TDOA messages sent, are the modes based on broadcast, in system Construction, it is to be ensured that the report that label 3 is sent in any one position Text, at least three base stations 2 can receive its position broadcasting packet;
Step 2:C base stations 2C is with label 3 (specifically from which base station, by the decision-making of server 1, it is necessary to ensure that C base stations 2C And the TDOA messages that label 3 is sent are have received, and otherwise can not calculate) ranging is initiated, after the completion of ranging, C base stations can be obtained 2C and label 3 time gap.
Beneficial effects of the present invention are as follows:
The advantages of remaining TDOA and TOF, while solve the deficiency of both approaches again.Mainly have following several excellent Point:
1st, the defects of improving based on TDOA systems
Solve in TODA systems, the system accuracy problem in the case that label 3 is located at outside base station.Ensure No matter label 3 is within base station range or outside scope, can obtain identical positioning precision.It is most typical to answer With being outside very small scope of the arrangement of base stations in an alignment system, and label is distributed in the scope of a non-constant width Orientation problem.With reference to figure 7, arrangement of base stations on one 2 meters × 2 meters of roof, personnel positions outside 20 meters, according to TDOA modes, it is probably difference rice that its position, which calculates,.
2nd, power system capacity is increased
Relative to ToF mode, the capacity of system is effectively improved, is done in real system, completing a ranging needs TCtof, ranging at least needs 3 × TC successively for 3 base stationstof,.Consider from system reliability, it is necessary to 4 base stations, then need 4 × TCtof
And in the present invention, no matter how many individual base stations, it is only necessary to a ToF message, in the present invention, by TDoA broadcast report Text is merged in ToF first message, then a locating periodically only needs a TCtof, its power system capacity be at least ToF appearance 4 times of amount.
3rd, power consumption is reduced
Relative to ToF systems, because its working time is short, more times are in park mode, so as to extend system Working time.If working time power consumption is 100 times of dormancy, one locating periodically working time of ToF systems is 4 × TCtof, The working time of the present invention is 1.5 milliseconds, then the power consumption of ToF systems is 2.8 times of power consumption of the present invention.
4th, reliability is lifted
In the system using ToF, it is necessary to carry out ToF rangings with 4 base stations 2 within a cycle, and in the present invention In, it is only necessary to a wheel ToF rangings, within ToF 4 ranging cycles, it is necessary to which guarantee is arrived can not within 3 ranging cycles It is interfered, otherwise will be unable to complete the computing of positioning.Time is longer, and the chance being interfered is bigger.
5th, performance under non line of sight pattern is optimized
Under non line of sight pattern, if one of base station 2 and label 3 are non line of sight, the result of calculation of its TDOA position has Larger deviation, its precision may one times of even more high of deviation, but secondary correction is done by ToF distance measurement modes, can be effective Improve its positioning precision.
6th, three-dimensional localization is realized in three base stations
Under TDOA patterns, 4 complete three-dimensional localizations of the ability of base stations 2 are at least needed, in the present invention, it is only necessary to 3 base stations 2 Three-dimensional localization can be completed.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is based on hyperbola algorithm schematic diagram used in TDOA RTLS;
Fig. 2-3 is based on hyperbola algorithm deviation schematic diagram used in TDOA RTLS;
Fig. 4 is present system composition schematic diagram;
Fig. 5-6 is present system time synchronized schematic diagram;
Fig. 7 is the typical case schematic diagram of the present invention, i.e. very small model of the arrangement of base stations in an alignment system Outside enclosing, and label is distributed in the scope of a non-constant width;
Fig. 8 is ToF bidirectional ranging schematic diagrames in the present invention;
Fig. 9 is distance-finding method schematic diagram of the present invention;
Figure 10 is the method schematic diagram that the present invention calculates label position;
Wherein 1- servers;2- base stations;3- labels;1A-A base stations;1B-B base stations;1C-C base stations;3A-A labels;3A-A is marked Label;3B-B labels;3C-C labels.
Embodiment
Below, the invention will be further described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and embodiments:
Embodiment one
With regard to the specific implementation of system, be broadly divided into four following Step Times are synchronous, obtain the time difference, obtain distance and Location Calculation.
1st, time synchronized
Time synchronized, the mainly function to be completed of base station 2, in this system, a base station 2 is selected by server 1 As master base station, time synchronized message is periodically sent by it, after other locating base stations 2 receive the message of master positioning base station 2, built Vertical and master base station corresponding time relationship.As shown in Figure 6:
A base stations 2A is master base station, and B base stations 2BC, base station 2C are from base station.Time synchronized message is sent by A base stations 2A;
TXts:A base stations 2A sends the timestamp of time synchronized message;
RXts2B:B base stations 2B receives the timestamp of A base stations 2A time synchronized message;
d2A2B:A base stations 2A and B base stations 2B space length;
RXts2C:C base stations 2C receives the timestamp of A base stations 2A time synchronized message;
d2A2C:A base stations 2A and C base stations 2C space length;
Thus, it is possible to complete base station 2A and base station 2B, base station 2C time synchronized.
2nd, the time difference is obtained
ToF rangings, in the present invention, using bidirectional ranging, to ensure range accuracy, as shown in figure 8, label can be obtained 3 and the distance of base station be:
D=((T32-T31-(T22-T21))+(T23-T22-(T33-T32)))/4×c
In order to shorten the time that system is completed a wheel location data and collected, first InitPakcet is using the side broadcasted Formula, all base stations 2 can receive the message.And the timestamp of reception is recorded, calculated for TDOA, as shown in Figure 9.
After label 3 sends out InitPacket, three base stations 2 can receive, and have respective timestamp, thus, lead to The conversion of time synchronized is crossed, the time difference that reaches of outgoing packet can be calculated, further calculates range difference, Δ d2C-2A, Δ d2C-2B
3rd, distance is obtained
As shown in figure 9, by follow-up ToF messages, the distance between outgoing label 3 and C base stations 2C d can be calculated2c-3
4th, location Calculation
According to second and third two step, the distance of label 3 and three base stations 2, respectively d can be obtained2A-3, d2B-3, d2C-3, then The particular location of outgoing label 3 can be calculated.Computational methods are as shown in Figure 10, and respectively using positioning node as the center of circle, r1, r2, r3 are The circle of radius, r1, r2, r3 length are respectively d2A-3, d2B-3, d2C-3, according to round equation, round intersection point is sought, intersection point institute is in place It is exactly label position to put.
The invention further relates to a kind of alignment system mixed based on TDOA and TOF, mainly there are three parts.
Calculating and presence server 1:
The data that it is received according to each base station, data operation is carried out, draws each position for being positioned object, and on ground Showed in real time in figure, the server can be managed to all base stations, position setting, position correction, software upgrading, right Label enters the one-to-one binding of pedestrian or thing.
Locating base station 2:
Locating base station, outside division operation system, mainly there are two parts, one is RF parts, and RF mainly realizes three work( Can,
1st, one is time synchronized, realizes time synchronized between base station,
2nd, real-time reception carrys out the TDOA messages of label
3rd, the ranging message of processing label is received in real time
Another is data back function, can transfer back to all data and synchronizing signal that receive on server. Server 3 is allowed to carry out computing.
Position label 3:
Label 3 is positioned, is to bind on the people for each needing to be positioned or thing, and carry out efficient association, system in systems Position where positioning label 3 in real time, to determine the position of be positioned people.
The wireless of label 3 is positioned, is mainly used in sending TDOA positioning messages, and complete the function of ranging.

Claims (7)

  1. A kind of 1. localization method mixed based on TDOA and ToF, it is characterised in that including:
    Step 1:Server chooses master base station and from base station and completes time synchronized between base station;
    Step 2:Tag broadcast TDOA messages, the time difference reached by it between each base station are calculated between label and each base station Range difference;
    Step 3:Label calculates it the distance between with the base station by sending ToF messages to certain base station;
    Step 4:The distance between label and all base stations are calculated by the result of step 2 and step 3;
    Step 5:The position of label is calculated by the distance between label and each base station.
  2. A kind of 2. localization method mixed based on TDOA and ToF according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step One base station is at least 3, and one of base station is selected as master base station by server, and other are from base station, are periodically sent out by master base station Time synchronized message is sent, after the positioning message that master base station is received from base station, master base station is collected by server and sends time synchronized report The timestamp and the timestamp from base station time of receipt (T of R) sync message of text, by each timestamp and respectively from base station and master base station Between space length establish and master base station corresponding time relationship.
  3. A kind of 3. localization method mixed based on TDOA and ToF according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step Respective timestamp is sent to server after receiving, passes through step 1 by server by tag broadcast TDOA messages in two, base station Middle master base station and the TDOA messages of tag broadcast calculated from the corresponding time relationship between base station reach time difference of each base station, And passage time difference calculates the distance between label and each base station difference.
  4. A kind of 4. localization method mixed based on TDOA and ToF according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step Receive to handle the ToF rangings message of label in real time by the certain base station of server selection in three and send result to server, The distance between label and selected certain base station are calculated by server.
  5. 5. a kind of localization method mixed based on TDOA and ToF according to claim 4, it is characterised in that the ToF is surveyed Away from using bidirectional ranging.
  6. A kind of 6. localization method mixed based on TDOA and ToF according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the step The method of the position of calculating label in five is, respectively using each base station as the center of circle, the distance between base station and label are radius, root According to round equation, round intersection point is sought, the common intersection point position of each circle is exactly label position.
  7. 7. a kind of alignment system mixed based on TDOA and TOF, it is characterised in that including server, label, the base of more than three To stand, the server is used for the data received according to each base station, carries out data operation, draws each label position, and on ground Showed in real time in figure, and all base stations are managed, position setting, position correction, software upgrading, label carried out People or the one-to-one binding of thing;Outside the base station division operation system, in addition to RF modules, the RF modules mainly realize three Function, first is time synchronized, realizes time synchronized between base station, and second is TDOA message of the real-time reception from label, 3rd is the real-time ranging message for receiving processing label;The base station also includes data back module, for that will receive All data and synchronizing signal are transferred back on server;The label is used to be bundled in each people for needing to position or thing, and Efficient association is carried out in systems, and the label is additionally provided with wireless module, for sending TDOA messages and TOF messages to base station.
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