CN104268787A - Technology for determining agriculture nitrogen surface source pollution quantity - Google Patents

Technology for determining agriculture nitrogen surface source pollution quantity Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104268787A
CN104268787A CN201410560676.6A CN201410560676A CN104268787A CN 104268787 A CN104268787 A CN 104268787A CN 201410560676 A CN201410560676 A CN 201410560676A CN 104268787 A CN104268787 A CN 104268787A
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nitrogen
pollution
product
ton
amount
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何文
葛红心
简红忠
高鹏
王晓峰
何锦飞
王永琦
李拴曹
田越
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何文
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q50/00Systems or methods specially adapted for specific business sectors, e.g. utilities or tourism
    • G06Q50/02Agriculture; Fishing; Mining

Abstract

The invention discloses a technology for determining the agriculture nitrogen surface source pollution quantity, belongs to the agricultural field, and particularly relates to a mathematic model for determining the agriculture nitrogen pollution generation quantity and the agriculture nitrogen pollution discharging quantity during crop farming fertilizer applying and losing, straw generating and using, livestock breeding and aquaculture. The total agriculture nitrogen pollution source generation quantity with the unit of ton is calculated in the mode that the product of the farmland area, the sum of K1 and K2 and the annual nitrogen application quantity and the product of 3.35, the crop farming area and 10 are added, two is subtracted from the result, then the result and the product of 28.3 and the sum of the number of pigs, the product of 5 and the number of cows, and the quotient of the number of chicken and 30 are added, the result and the product of 3.95 and 10 are added, and then the product of 3 and the fishery increased production yield with the unit of ton is subtracted from the result. The total agriculture nitrogen pollution discharging quantity with the unit of ton is calculated in the mode that the product of the farmland area, the sum of K1 and K2 and the annual mean nitrogen application quantity and the product of 3.35, the straw burning and incineration area and 10 are added, two is subtracted from the result, then the result and the product of 28.3 and the sum of the number of pigs, the product of 5 and the number of cows, and the quotient of the number of chicken and 30 are added, the result and the product of 3.95 and 10 are added, and then the product of 3 and the fishery increased production yield with the unit of ton is subtracted from the result. The number of the pigs in ten thousand, the number of the cows in ten thousand and the number of the chicken in ten thousand in the pollution source generation quantity mean the total breeding quantity. The number of the pigs in ten thousand, the number of the cows in ten thousand and the number of the chicken in ten thousand in pollution discharging mean the breeding quantity before dung disposal. The unit of the area is hectare. The unit of the nitrogen application quantity is ton per hectare. The unit of the fishery increased production yield is ton.

Description

The one of agricultural nitrogen pollution of area source amount determines technology
Technical field
Patent of the present invention belongs to agriculture field, and proprietary code is A01.Be specifically related to a kind of mathematical model that in agricultural fertilizer, straw, animal husbandry, fish production, agriculture nitrogen pollution of area source amount is determined.
Background technology
Environmental pollution is divided into point-source pollution and pollution of area source, and point-source pollution refers to the pollution source having fixed discharge point, and pollution of area source does not then have fixed-contamination emission point.According to pollution of area source generation area and feature, be generally divided into domestic pollution and the large class of widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area two; In Agricultural Activities, the diffuse polluting source such as the silt in farmland, nutritive salt, waste material, pathogenic bacteria, in precipitation or irrigation process, enters water body by forms such as agricultural surface runoff, farmland seepage and volatilizations and forms widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area.Current, Chinese agriculture environment pollution of area source is mainly reflected in the using of excessive chemical fertilizer, open incineration stalk, non-degradable plastic sheeting for farm use abandon, the manure of livestock and poultry dirt of large-scale plant is not done harmless treatment and arbitrarily stacked, nitrogen in these pollution source is to the pollution of environment, especially maximum to the pollution effect of water environment.
According to the investigation and assessment report display of U.S.'s nineteen ninety, U.S.'s pollution of area source accounts for 2/3 of gross contamination amount, and wherein widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area accounts for 68% ~ 83% of pollution of area source total amount, causes the surface water body of 50% ~ 70% contaminated or influenced.Effective improvement through more than 10 years controls, and the widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area of the U.S. significantly reduces; According to statistics in 2006, american agriculture pollution of area source area ratio nineteen ninety decreased 65%;
At present, Chinese agriculture pollution of area source accounts for 60% ~ 80% of river and lake eutrophication problem, widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area has become three overall situation and one of has polluted, and uses the agricultural pollution that chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals and intensive culture cause in a large number, become the main cause of environmental pollution in Agricultural Activities; And chemical fertilizer utilization ratio is low, the applications of pesticide are excessive, exacerbate the degree of widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area.Result of study shows, the chemical fertilizer used in agricultural production, except being absorbed by plants, has considerable part to enter water body and the soil body, also has considerable part with gaseous loss, mainly comprises ammonia volatilization, nitrification and denitrification form spills in air;
China widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area research start from the eighties in 20th century lake, reservoir eutrophication investigation and water quality of river project study.In widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area model, China there has also been certain development.As Chen Xi equality people have studied each Rainfall simulator erosion predictive equation of the 5 kinds of pollutants in Fuling Prefecture; The quantitative test such as Xu Xiangyang farmland precipitation, runoff yield, under ooze, draining, evapotranspiration, relation between irrigation, establish a simulation agricultural drainage and produce husky ammonia nitrogen loss mathematical model; Li Huaien is based on the Transport And Transformation mechanism of area source pollutants, from macroscopic perspective and the generating process of non-point pollution and the feature of directly studying actual basin, field compared with large scale, set up the mathematical model of time heavy rain non-point source pollution load, this model includes generation and the migration models of Rainfall Runoff Model and pollutant.In addition, the white domatic modelling of unit waiting people to propose non-point source pollution load calculating of Wang Xin is also had; These researchs are more single, major part only relate to the pollution of area source of soil erosion aspect and farmland precipitation, under ooze, irrigate between pollution of area source Study on Emission, widely different with the emphasis of the research of this patent.The water pollutions in most rivers of current China, river, lake, sea is serious, crisis to DRINKING WATER safety, Taihu Lake Blue Algae Event break out the alarm bell of having beaten pollution of area source.Eager needs ratio is more comprehensive, include the pollution of area source amount determination technology of the fertilising of plant husbandry, straw utilization, livestock and poultry breeding industry, aquaculture industry industry and domestic pollution full content, by brief and concise method determination pollution of area source amount, government is instructed to carry out prevention and cure of pollution decision-making.
This patent with source, Middle Line Project For Transferring Water From South To North main waterhead conservation face polluted by nitrogen for research object, to the Term Fertilization of plant husbandry and loss, stalk produce with utilize, the pollution of livestock and poultry cultivation produces with discharge, the breeding way of aquatic products industry and the product of pollution situation of arranging deeply study comprehensively.Produce row's situation to various types of pollution of area source to be on this basis analyzed, invented the one being applicable to the agriculture nitrogen pollution of area source amount in all regions and determined technology.Through retrieving domestic and international pertinent literature: find no the report with " one of agriculture nitrogen pollution of area source amount determines technology " identical content.
Summary of the invention
the mathematical model that agricultural nitrogen pollution of area source source quantity is determined:
the total nitrogen pollution sources generation (ton) of agricultural area source=farmland area × (K1+K2) × year amount of nitrogen+3.35 × plant husbandry area × 10-2+28.3 × (pig+5 × ox+chicken/30)+3.95 × 10-3 × Increasing The Fishery Production amount ton;
agricultural area source total nitrogen discharge amount of pollution (ton)=farmland area × (K1+K2) × annual amount of nitrogen+3.35 × straw burning and burning area × 10-2+28.3 × (pig+5 × ox+chicken/30)+3.95 × 10-3 × Increasing The Fishery Production amount ton;
Pig in pollution source generation, ox, chicken (ten thousand, ten thousand plumages) refer to cultivation total amount; Pig in disposal of pollutants, ox, chicken (ten thousand, ten thousand plumages) refer to the cultivation amount of not carrying out treatment for cow manure; Square measure: hectare; Amount of nitrogen: ton/hectare; Increasing The Fishery Production amount: ton.
Embodiment
plant husbandry agricultural polluted by nitrogen amount determination mathematical model
6.1 loss of nitrogen fertilizer contaminant capacity determination mathematical models
Arable land ratio is accounted for respectively with nonirrigated farmland in total cultivated area and paddy field.Level land (gradient < 5 degree), ground, gentle slope (gradient 5 ~ 15 degree) and steep hillslope (> 15 degree), account for the ratio of the farmland total area respectively, determine rainwash fertilizer nutrient loss contaminant capacity, each region fertilizer nitrogen rainwash, leaching run off corresponding loss coefficient.Volatilization and nitrated, denitrification loss, this season utilization factor of current nitrogenous fertilizer only has 30% ~ 40%, has 3 whereabouts after nitrogenous fertilizer is manured into soil, and one is utilized (being generally 30% ~ 40%) by this season Crop; Two is remain in (25% ~ 35%) in soil; Three is leave soil by volatilization and nitrated, denitrification loss (20% ~ 60%).Oneself can carry out testing and determine volatilization and ratio that is nitrated, denitrification loss.This patent, when the widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area of Middle Line Project For Transferring Water From South To North main watershed is studied, is the experimental data applying the Chinese Academy of Sciences, calculates waterhead conservation use nitrogenous fertilizer rainwash, leaching, volatilization and nitrated, denitrification loss according to total nitrogen loss 11.32%.
stalk polluted by nitrogen amount produces and whereabouts determination mathematical model
Plant husbandry polluted by nitrogen amount relates to the stalk output that stalk mainly refers to rape in cereal in cereal crops, beans and industrial crops, and other crops such as vegetables, potato class are not added up.Stalk use-pattern is classified by the whereabouts according to nitrogen in stalk.Fuel, field burn, also field, compost, feed, raw material, abandon, other several form, nitrogen in stalk can be discharged in air with oxides of nitrogen form after straw burning, burning and cause atmospheric pollution, also field compost and feed are the processes nitrogen in stalk also being entered again soil.The nitrogen content of the stalks such as wheat, paddy rice, corn is 0.5% ~ 0.9%.The average nitrogen content unification of stalk calculates according to 0.7% herein, determines nitrogen total amount that stalk produces every year, straw burning is discharged into atmospheric nitrogen total amount, direct returning to farmland and compost after burning also field nitrogen total amount, feed applications nitrogen total amount, stalk otherwise take away nitrogen amount.
livestock and poultry breeding industry agricultural polluted by nitrogen amount determination mathematical model
According to the difference of livestock and poultry cultivation enterprise schema; livestock and poultry breeding industry is divided into scale livestock farming, Animal Raising Zone and professional raising farmer three class; on average produce 292.83 kilograms, ight soil with scale animal and poultry cultivation pig cultivation equivalent, urine 354.1 kilograms determines that region livestock and poultry cultivation produces ight soil and urine total amount, then amount to total nitrogen product discharge capacity.The cultivation amount of chicken, ox is converted into the cultivation amount of pig.That beef cattle, epidemic disease ox, milk cow growth course all more than 1 year, therefore can be equivalent to 5 with 1 livestock on hand ox and deliver pig for sale in contaminant capacity determination journey; Major part is for the normal culturing time of native chicken of peasant household's cultivation was close to more than 2 years or 2 years, the breeding layer chicken cycle is 1.5 years, therefore laying hen, broiler chicken, native chicken are all equivalent to 1 according to average 30 chickens and deliver pig for sale, the generation of nitrogen and total emission volumn in conversion ight soil, urine.When livestock and poultry breeding industry contaminant capacity is determined; no matter large-scale cultivation or peasant household's short run cultivation; all to produce feces of livestock and poultry and urine pollution source; livestock and poultry cultivation ight soil, urine can not be utilized to carry out agricultural production because of peasant household's short run cultivation, and ignore the impact of peasant household's short run cultivation on regional agriculture nitrogen pollution of area source aggregate data.Therefore advise with whole livestock and poultry cultivation amount as radix when zoning agricultural nitrogen pollution of area source total amount.
culture fishery polluted by nitrogen amount determination mathematical model
Culture fishery polluted by nitrogen amount is determined; mainly to the pond culture of scale livestock farming and professional raising farmer, industrial aquaculture, cage culture, enclosure culture, net enclosure culture situation; determine its waste water whereabouts, cultivation drops into feed total amount, the cultivation total production of generation and polluted by nitrogen produce relation between discharge capacity, then determine generation and the total emission volumn of nitrogen according to the units increased in production of reality.
agricultural nitrogen pollution of area source total amount determination mathematical model
With arable land, region, farmland, burning area (hectare), pig, ox, chicken total amount (ten thousand, ten thousand plumages), per hectare arable land nitrogenous fertilizer sowing amount (ton) is data, according to K 1-river rising in Ningxia and flowing into central Shaanxi stream, leaching loss coefficient, K 2-volatilization and nitration denitrification loss coefficient, determine generation and the total emission volumn of regional agriculture nitrogen pollution of area source amount.

Claims (1)

1. the one of agriculture nitrogen pollution of area source amount determines technology, it is characterized in that:
The invention belongs to agriculture field; Be specifically related to the Term Fertilization of plant husbandry and loss stalk produce with utilize livestock and poultry cultivation, the polluted by nitrogen of aquaculture produces and in discharge process, determines a kind of mathematical model of agriculture nitrogen pollution of area source total amount
the total nitrogen pollution sources generation (ton) of agricultural=farmland area × (K 1+ K 2) × year amount of nitrogen+3.35 × plant husbandry area × 10 -2+ 28.3 × (pig+5 × ox+chicken/30)+3.95 × 10 -3× Increasing The Fishery Production amount ton;
agricultural total nitrogen discharge amount of pollution (ton)=farmland area × (K 1+ K 2) × annual amount of nitrogen+3.35 × straw burning and burning area × 10 -2+ 28.3 × (pig+5 × ox+chicken/30)+3.95 × 10 -3× Increasing The Fishery Production amount ton;
Pig in pollution source generation, ox, chicken (ten thousand, ten thousand plumages) refer to cultivation total amount; Pig in disposal of pollutants, ox, chicken (ten thousand, ten thousand plumages) refer to the cultivation amount of not carrying out treatment for cow manure; Square measure: hectare; Amount of nitrogen: ton/hectare; Increasing The Fishery Production amount: ton.
CN201410560676.6A 2014-10-21 2014-10-21 Technology for determining agriculture nitrogen surface source pollution quantity Pending CN104268787A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104778505A (en) * 2015-03-27 2015-07-15 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 Method for predicting county-scale leaching total nitrogen discharge caused by farmland non-point source pollution
CN104966128A (en) * 2015-03-27 2015-10-07 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 Method for predicting agricultural non-point source pollution county-scale surface runoff total nitrogen emissions
CN104965057A (en) * 2015-03-27 2015-10-07 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 Prediction method for county-scale surface-runoff total phosphorus discharge in area with non-point source pollution of farmland
CN112232680A (en) * 2020-10-19 2021-01-15 三峡大学 Watershed nitrogen metabolism environment risk evaluation method based on Copula function

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
李怀恩 等: "《非点源污染数学模型》", 31 July 1996, 西北工业大学出版社 *
郝芳华 等: "《非点源污染模型——理论方法与应用》", 31 October 2006, 中国环境科学出版社 *

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104778505A (en) * 2015-03-27 2015-07-15 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 Method for predicting county-scale leaching total nitrogen discharge caused by farmland non-point source pollution
CN104966128A (en) * 2015-03-27 2015-10-07 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 Method for predicting agricultural non-point source pollution county-scale surface runoff total nitrogen emissions
CN104965057A (en) * 2015-03-27 2015-10-07 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 Prediction method for county-scale surface-runoff total phosphorus discharge in area with non-point source pollution of farmland
CN104965057B (en) * 2015-03-27 2017-05-10 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 Prediction method for county-scale surface-runoff total phosphorus discharge in area with non-point source pollution of farmland
CN104778505B (en) * 2015-03-27 2018-02-23 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 A kind of Forecasting Methodology of agricultural non -point pollution county domain subrosion total nitrogen discharge capacity
CN104966128B (en) * 2015-03-27 2018-04-03 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所 A kind of agricultural non -point pollution county domain rainwash total nitrogen forecasting of discharged quantity method
CN112232680A (en) * 2020-10-19 2021-01-15 三峡大学 Watershed nitrogen metabolism environment risk evaluation method based on Copula function

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Application publication date: 20150107