CN104261914B - A kind of Household soilless culture matrix and its preparation and application - Google Patents

A kind of Household soilless culture matrix and its preparation and application Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104261914B
CN104261914B CN201410548637.4A CN201410548637A CN104261914B CN 104261914 B CN104261914 B CN 104261914B CN 201410548637 A CN201410548637 A CN 201410548637A CN 104261914 B CN104261914 B CN 104261914B
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matrix
substrate
plant
stalk
long
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CN104261914A (en
Inventor
黄波
肖龙
陈杰
何勇
张体刚
罗传浩
王茂理
胥岚
彭慧儒
陈年伟
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MIANYANG INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE SCIENCES
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MIANYANG INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE SCIENCES
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of Household soilless culture matrix and its preparation and application.The soilless culture substrate is mainly made up of substrate with adding ingredient, wherein substrate is the stalk of grain and oil crop, adding ingredient includes long-acting organic fertilizer, PH conditioning agents and nuisanceless soil sterilants, wherein long-acting organic fertilizer mixes and carries out becoming the soilless culture substrate for plant growth after PH adjustment and disinfectant sterilization with the stalk after crushing, can be with long-term cropping after the dilution to the soilless culture substrate and heap such as add at the process.The present invention rationally make use of the discarded stalk and farm manure and humus that are enriched containing element silicon, be easy to gather materials on the spot, and use on the spot, can improve root system of plant vigor, make plant grew well.

Description

A kind of Household soilless culture matrix and its preparation and application
Technical field
It is available for household balcony to cultivate the soilless substrate for using the present invention relates to a kind of, more particularly to contains stalk in component Soilless culture substrate.
Background technology
The expansion year by year of demand is afforested with family, the demand to the plantation matrix suitable for small potted plant also constantly increases Plus, and take the method for fetching earth on the spot traditional plantation matrix more, and soil is sieved and selected again after fetching earth, this preparation On the one hand the yield because urban land resource is nervous is limited serious for method, on the other hand because screening operation needs to expend substantial amounts of labor Power and inefficiency, therefore it is clearly a kind of preferably selection to prepare soilless culture substrate.Common soilless culture method bag Nutrient fluid cultivation and substrate culture are included, using periodically drip irrigation or pouring nutrition after inanimate matter material is crushed wherein more than substrate culture There is certain defect in the planting form of liquid, both approaches, nutrient fluid cultivation easily causes root system of plant and rots, and inorganic Matter substrate culture program is complicated and needs the more nutrient solution of consumption.
The content of the invention
Defect based on prior art, the present invention is simple, plant grew well without soil desirable to provide a kind of preparation procedure Cultivation matrix, preparation and application method invention also provides the matrix.
To achieve the above objectives, the present invention is realized by following technical scheme:
The present invention proposes a kind of Household soilless culture matrix, and the matrix is made up of substrate with adding ingredient, and wherein substrate is The stalk of grain and oil crop, adding ingredient includes long-acting organic fertilizer, PH conditioning agents and nuisanceless soil sterilants.
Used as a kind of preferred embodiment of above technical scheme, base material can select paddy rice, corn, wheat, oil One or more in stalk after vegetable powder is broken;Long-acting organic fertilizer in adding ingredient is in wormcast or chicken, duck, cow dung Plant or various and humus is sufficiently mixed the product after fermentation;PH conditioning agents in adding ingredient are that can adjust matrix entirety PH To 6~7 acidulous material;Nuisanceless soil sterilants in adding ingredient is alcoholic solution that concentration is 2%.
In the preferred embodiment, the long-acting organic fertilizer in adding ingredient can only select wormcast, and wormcast is one Preferable organic fertilizer is planted, can be directly used in mixed way with substrate and other adding ingredients and no longer be needed individually treatment;It is long-acting to have Machine fertilizer can also select some animal wastes to be fermented after mixing with humus, wherein humus become thoroughly decomposed for animal wastes after shape Into dregs, be used to help fresh excreta to be fermented, therefore its consumption need to only meet and can make mixed animal wastes Fermentation, such as uses chicken manure 20kg, humus 2kg;PH conditioning agents in adding ingredient be in order to adjust the acid-base property of matrix, To be adapted to the growth of kind of plant, PH conditioning agents are gentle acidulous material in the present invention, for the benefit of most several plants Growth, it is 6~7 to adjust the PH of the matrix, certainly, if the crop of plantation has other acid-base property preferences, can be adjusted by PH Agent carries out corresponding acid-base property adjustment to matrix, such as when kind plant grows more preferable in the environment of slant acidity, can be further Regulation PH to 5~6.
According to above two basic scheme, the present invention further proposes a kind of specific Household soilless culture matrix, In every kilogram of matrix, the consumption of stalk is 800~850 grams, and the consumption of long-acting organic fertilizer is 90~140 grams, PH conditioning agents Consumption be 40~60 grams, the consumption of nuisanceless soil sterilants is 10~20 grams.
For example when preparing the matrix rape stalk 200kg, long-acting organic fertilizer is used to mix with humus 2kg for chicken manure 20kg Fermentation, PH conditioning agents are spirit of vinegar 15kg, and disinfectant is 2% alcohol 3kg.
For foregoing two kinds of basic scheme and the specific Household soilless culture matrix of the above, present invention further proposes Its preparation method, comprises the following steps:
A1. the preparation of substrate:The crushed stalk to average grain diameter is less than 3.0 millimeters;
B1. the preparation of adding ingredient:When the long-acting organic fertilizer in adding ingredient is the chicken containing humus impurity, duck, ox During one or more in excrement of fermentate, by one or more mixing stack retting in the chicken, duck, cow dung, in natural conditions Under become thoroughly decomposed, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed completely for 2~3 months, when long-acting organic fertilizer uses wormcast, without the step, wormcast Directly can be mixed with substrate etc.;
C1. the mixing of substrate and adding ingredient:Stalk after crushing is sufficiently mixed with long-acting organic fertilizer, in mixture Add PH conditioning agents, to matrix entirety pH value be to the alcoholic solution that spray concentration in matrix is 2% after 6~7, complete more than walk Matrix plastic sheeting is sealed two days at ambient temperature after rapid.
When matrix needs long-distance transport, it is also possible to adhesive is added in matrix, is fastened with to each composition, glue Mixture should not influence the growth of kind of plant, therefore can select degradable anaerobic adhesive, and consumption is that every kilogram of matrix use can drop 10 grams of anaerobic adhesive of solution;In the preparation, being pressed into using straw compression forming machine after adhesive is mixed with stalk, long-acting organic fertilizer is needed The shape wanted, is diluted using the preceding mixture by after compression, and the aqueous mixture is carried out PH regulations and disappeared again after dilution Malicious (spraying alcohol), in case plantation.
To above-mentioned all Household soilless culture matrix, the present invention further proposes its application method, including following step Suddenly:
A2. the dilution of matrix:The matrix that will be prepared is placed in container and is diluted with water, and every kilogram of matrix adds water 1.5~2,000 Gram, it is sufficiently stirred for;
B2. the preparation of bedding:Matrix after the dilution for completing previous step is placed in Pot for cultivating plant and is sprawled, flattened And compacting, the stromal thickness after compacting be when reaching 10~25 centimetres plantation needed for bedding, the bedding is watered to Its water content reaches saturation;
C2. plant:Vegetable seeds is sown in bedding surface, covered on seed 0.5 cm thick by step A2 Matrix after dilution, when it is plant seedlings to plant thing, seedling root is filled in bedding, and in covering 3~5 lis on bedding Rice is by the matrix after step A2 dilutions.
After completing above-mentioned steps, plant seedlings can grow with seed in the cultivation matrix, according to varieties of plant and base The humidity of bed subsequently can keep the skin wet in right amount, can no longer provide other nutrients or fertilizer.
The present invention rationally make use of discarded crop material and farm manure and humus, its originate extensively, quantity greatly, be easy to Gather materials on the spot, use on the spot, and wherein stalk contains substantial amounts of element silicon, can significantly improve nutritional condition, meets plant to silicon The absorption of element, improves root system of plant vigor, strengthens plant epidermal cell wall siliceousization, improves anti-fall, resistance against diseases.Add PH adjusts and is grown under favourable environment beneficial to plant, makes its growth soon, and root of hair is good.
Specific embodiment
The realization of technical solution of the present invention includes to the preparation of soilless culture substrate and uses that wherein preparation process is:
A1. the preparation of substrate:The crushed stalk for using to average grain diameter will be selected to be less than 3.0 millimeters;
B1. the preparation of adding ingredient:Select the fermentation of one or more in the chicken containing humus impurity, duck, cow dung When thing is as long-acting organic fertilizer, one or more mixing stack retting in chicken, duck, cow dung becomes thoroughly decomposed under field conditions (factors), it is completely rotten The ripe time is 2~3 months, and during selection wormcast, without the step, wormcast directly can be mixed with substrate etc.;
C1. the mixing of substrate and adding ingredient:Stalk after crushing is sufficiently mixed with long-acting organic fertilizer, in mixture Add PH conditioning agents, to matrix entirety pH value be to the alcoholic solution that spray concentration in matrix is 2% after 6~7, complete more than walk Matrix plastic sheeting is sealed two days at ambient temperature after rapid.The use step of above soilless culture substrate is:
A2. the dilution of matrix:The matrix that will be prepared is placed in container and is diluted with water, and every kilogram of matrix adds water 1.5~2,000 Gram, it is sufficiently stirred for;
B2. the preparation of bedding:Matrix after dilution is placed in Pot for cultivating plant and is sprawled, is flattened and be compacted, after compacting Stromal thickness plantation is when reaching 10~25 centimetres needed for bedding, the bedding is watered to its water content, and it is full to reach With;
C2. plant:Vegetable seeds is sown in bedding surface, covered on seed 0.5 cm thick by step A2 Matrix after dilution, when it is plant seedlings to plant thing, seedling root is filled in bedding, and in covering 3~5 lis on bedding Rice is by the matrix after step A2 dilutions.
After completing above-mentioned steps, plant seedlings can grow with seed in the cultivation matrix, according to varieties of plant and base The humidity of bed subsequently can keep the skin wet in right amount, can no longer provide other nutrients or fertilizer.
With reference to embodiments of the invention, the invention will be further elaborated.
Embodiment one:
Using rape stalk 200kg, chicken manure 20kg, humus 2kg, the humus is the slag after former chicken manure becomes thoroughly decomposed Dregs, concentration is 2% alcohol 3kg, PH conditioning agent 15kg.The chicken manure of 20kg is mixed after nature with the chicken manure humus of 2kg Fermented under the conditions of stack retting 90 days and form fermentate;To mix with fermentate after crushed stalk to below particle diameter 3.0mm, add PH to adjust Section agent spirit of vinegar 15kg, adjusts pH value to 6.5 after stirring, then with the closed sterilization of 2% alcoholic solution two days.
Grown fruit tomato, capsicum, eggplant each 10 basin (matrix group) using this soilless substrate, while using conventional fine earth kind The plant of plant identical type and quantity is as a control group.Matrix group uses 1~1.5kg matrix per basin plant, and control group uses same The conventional fine earth of volume, its quality is 8~10 times of matrix.Matrix is disposed by the use step in aforementioned embodiments, Plant seedlings plantation no longer applies other fertilizer after entering;And the standard volume under control group is routinely cultivated applies composite fertilizer, institute It is Tai Wo boards composite fertilizer with composite fertilizer, is 500 grams per basin consumption, pure nitrogen level is about 18%, and hereafter control group is poured every other day Water, it is ensured that its humidity is 65% or so.After 60 days, four correlated traits of matrix group plant show as:Obvious well developed root system, strain Type is good, as a result many, quality better, and the root system of plant main root using substrate culture is averagely long by 2 compared with the plant planted using conventional fine earth ~4 centimetres, per young plant white root amount low by 15%, the false stem of many 4.03, average plant height to increase 0.12 centimetre of thick (width), fruit bearing rate average Increase by 27.4%;In quality, the obvious head of fruit of matrix growth is uniform, without scar.
Embodiment two:
Using wheat stalk 200kg, duck excrement 20kg, humus 2kg, the humus is the slag after former duck excrement is become thoroughly decomposed Dregs, concentration is 2% alcohol 3kg, PH conditioning agent 15kg.The duck excrement of 20kg is mixed after nature with the duck excrement humus of 2kg Fermented under the conditions of stack retting 90 days and form fermentate;To mix with fermentate after crushed stalk to below particle diameter 3.0mm, add PH to adjust Section agent spirit of vinegar 15kg, adjusts pH value to 6.3 after stirring, then with the closed sterilization of 2% alcoholic solution two days.
Grown fruit tomato, capsicum, eggplant each 10 basin (matrix group) using this soilless substrate, while using conventional fine earth kind The plant of plant identical type and quantity is as a control group.Matrix group uses 1~1.5kg matrix per basin plant, and control group uses same The conventional fine earth of volume, its quality is 8 times of matrix.Matrix is disposed by the use step in aforementioned embodiments, plant Seedling cultivation no longer applies other fertilizer after entering;It is used multiple and the standard volume under control group is routinely cultivated applies composite fertilizer Hefei is Tai Wo boards composite fertilizer, is 500 grams per basin consumption, and pure nitrogen level is 18%, and hereafter control group is watered every other day, it is ensured that Its humidity is 65% or so.After 60 days, the plant averagely relatively planted using conventional fine earth using the root system of plant main root of substrate culture Thing is long 1.5-4 centimetres, more 3.98 per young plant white root amount, average plant height is low by 15%, false stem increases 0.14 centimetre of thick (width), bears fruit Rate averagely increases by 23.2%, and the obvious head of fruit of matrix growth is uniform, without scar.
Although be described in detail to the present invention above in conjunction with the embodiments, those skilled in the art can manage Solution, on the premise of present inventive concept is not departed from, within the scope of the claims, above-described embodiment can also be carried out and more or Change etc..

Claims (3)

1. a kind of Household soilless culture matrix, it is characterised in that:The matrix is made up of substrate with adding ingredient,
The substrate is the stalk of grain and oil crop, and the adding ingredient includes long-acting organic fertilizer, PH conditioning agents and nuisanceless soil Disinfectant;
The substrate be selected from crushing after paddy rice, corn, wheat, rape stalk in one or more;It is described long-acting organic Fertilizer is sufficiently mixed the product after fermentation for one or more in wormcast or chicken, duck, cow dung and humus;The PH conditioning agents For matrix entirety PH can be adjusted to 6~7 acidulous material;The nuisanceless soil sterilants is alcohol that concentration is 2% Solution;
The consumption of stalk described in every kilogram of matrix is 800~850 grams, and the consumption of long-acting organic fertilizer is 90~140 grams, PH regulations The consumption of agent is 40~60 grams, and the consumption of nuisanceless soil sterilants is 10~20 grams.
2. the preparation method of the Household soilless culture matrix described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:Comprise the following steps:
A1. the preparation of substrate:The crushed stalk to average grain diameter is less than 3.0 millimeters;
B1. the preparation of adding ingredient:One or more in the long-acting organic fertilizer in adding ingredient is chicken, duck, cow dung and corruption When growing the product after matter mixed fermentation, stack retting after one or more in the chicken, duck, cow dung is well mixed with humus, Become thoroughly decomposed under field conditions (factors), the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed completely was for 2~3 months;
C1. the mixing of substrate and adding ingredient:Stalk after crushing is sufficiently mixed with the long-acting organic fertilizer, in mixture Add PH conditioning agents, to matrix entirety pH value be to the alcoholic solution that spray concentration in matrix is 2% after 6~7, complete more than walk Matrix plastic sheeting is sealed two days at ambient temperature after rapid.
3. the application method of Household soilless culture matrix according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:Comprise the following steps:
A2. the dilution of matrix:The matrix that will be prepared is placed in container and is diluted with water, and every kilogram of matrix adds water 1.5~2 kilograms, It is sufficiently stirred for;
B2. the preparation of bedding:Matrix after the dilution for completing previous step is placed in Pot for cultivating plant and is sprawled, flattened and pressed Real, the stromal thickness after compacting is the bedding needed for planting when reaching 10~25 centimetres, the bedding is watered to base Bed water content reaches saturation;
C2. plant:Vegetable seeds is sown in bedding surface, being diluted by step A2 for 0.5 cm thick is covered on seed Matrix afterwards, when it is plant seedlings to plant thing, seedling root is filled in the bedding, and in covering 3~5 lis on bedding Rice is by the matrix after step A2 dilutions.
CN201410548637.4A 2014-10-16 2014-10-16 A kind of Household soilless culture matrix and its preparation and application Active CN104261914B (en)

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CN105432449B (en) * 2015-12-02 2018-05-01 绵阳市农业科学研究院 A kind of Rice Seedling Culture Under Dry Condition water pipe without native straw substrate and method for culturing seedlings
CN106212225A (en) * 2016-07-15 2016-12-14 内蒙古嘉恒农业科技有限责任公司 A kind of potato seed soilless culture method
CN108782200A (en) * 2018-06-07 2018-11-13 张浓田 A method of realizing hard soilless culture using organic fertilizer

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CN100515175C (en) * 2006-08-02 2009-07-22 中国科学院植物研究所 Method for cultivation of arabidopsis
CN101485282B (en) * 2009-02-18 2011-04-06 安徽农业大学 Ecological protection greening substrate for rock slope
CN103086806A (en) * 2011-11-04 2013-05-08 天津市北方园林生态科学技术研究所 Matrix for greening between railway sleepers
CN102701876A (en) * 2012-07-09 2012-10-03 绥化京绥生物工程有限公司 Matrix special for tobacco soilless seedling and preparation method thereof
CN103214320B (en) * 2013-04-18 2014-11-12 淮安柴米河农业科技发展有限公司 Soil improvement matrix for alleviating soil continuous cropping obstacles and preparation method thereof

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