CN104227230B - Rapid laser manufacturing method for micropore foamy copper - Google Patents

Rapid laser manufacturing method for micropore foamy copper Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104227230B
CN104227230B CN201410355593.3A CN201410355593A CN104227230B CN 104227230 B CN104227230 B CN 104227230B CN 201410355593 A CN201410355593 A CN 201410355593A CN 104227230 B CN104227230 B CN 104227230B
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China
Prior art keywords
copper
fine
powder
laser
granularity
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CN201410355593.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104227230A (en
Inventor
杨家林
王宝瑞
吉方
阳红
樊亚丽
许超
滕文华
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中国工程物理研究院机械制造工艺研究所
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F30/00Computer-aided design [CAD]
    • G06F30/10Geometric CAD
    • G06F30/13Architectural design, e.g. computer-aided architectural design [CAAD] related to design of buildings, bridges, landscapes, production plants or roads
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T17/00Three dimensional [3D] modelling, e.g. data description of 3D objects

Abstract

The invention provides a rapid laser manufacturing method for micropore foamy copper. The rapid laser manufacturing method sequentially comprises the steps of (a) determining the components, the ratio and the particle size matching of foamable micro copper-based metal powder; (b) preparing the micro copper-based metal powder which has in-situ micro-area foaming performance; (c) carrying out three-dimensional modeling of parts; (d) saving an STL (Standard Template Library) file of a three-dimensional CAD (Computer Aided Design) mathematical model as a CLI (Command Line Interface) formatted file; (e) converting the CLI formatted file and outputting an AFI (Automatic Fault Indication) formatted file; (f) inputting the AFI formatted file to laser rapid prototyping equipment, and completing synchronous manufacturing of a micropore copper material and the parts. According to the rapid laser manufacturing method for the micropore foamy copper, provided by the invention, rapid laser preparation of a foamy copper material which has micron pore characteristics or a random complex shape and a random complex structure can be completed.

Description

A kind of laser fast method for preparing of fine-celled foam copper
Technical field
(the increasing material manufacturing or 3d print) technical applications the invention belongs to laser fast shaping are and in particular to a kind of micropore The laser fast method for preparing of foam copper.
Background technology
Foam metal material, also known as Porous metal material, produces in air filter, acoustic filter, hydrostatic spindle, guide rail etc. There is substantial amounts of application demand in product, such as in hydrostatic spindle and guide rail, produce due to when pressed gas are by porous material Throttle effect than typically other throttling form effects more preferably, therefore can greatly improve the bearing capacity of hydrostatic support.At present The preparation of Porous foam metal material mainly adopts powder metallurgic method and foam melt method, but it is multiple all to there is preparation technology Miscellaneous, manufacturing cycle length, high processing costs, pore character such as are difficult to control at technology and the technique bottleneck, thus seriously hinder popularization Application.
Traditional foam copper technology of preparing is very high to operator's skill set requirements, and also relates to the making of mould, becomes This height, risk are big, and very difficult acquisition has the foam copper of micro-void feature.In general, traditional foam copper preparation is required to Substantial amounts of raw material metal, large-scale smelting furnace, casting mould or powder metallurgy die, operation is many, cycle length, high cost it is impossible to Realize efficiently quickly preparing of foam copper;Greatest problem is, and the foam copper integrated with forming parts that be difficult to material preparation The machining of metalwork is again extremely difficult;And the utilization rate of raw materials of traditional method is low, high energy consumption is it is impossible to realize foam copper Green manufacturing, the energy-conserving and environment-protective that manufacturing industry proposed with current China require to contradict.
Laser rapid prototyping technology is a kind of advanced manufacturing technology growing up early 1980s it is considered to be near An important breakthrough of manufacturing technology field over year, it can be compared favourably with the appearance of Numeric Control Technology on manufacturing impact, permissible Automatically, directly, quickly and accurately design philosophy is turned materially and there is the prototype of certain function or directly manufacture part, thus can So that Fast Evaluation, modification and function test are carried out to product design, it is effectively shortened the R&D cycle of product.Laser is quickly former Type technology has market respond speed and very high processing flexibility quickly, does not need any tool and mould just can manufacture in theory Go out any Irregular Shaped Parts, of paramount importance material of exactly can synchronously realizing is prepared and forming parts, and almost Equivalent molding, stock utilization are very high, are particularly suitable for preparing foam metal material.Because laser energy density is high, focal spot chi Very little little, thus utilize laser rapid prototyping technology, it is expected to obtain the foam metal copper with micro-void feature, and hole is special Levy (as pore size, distribution of pores, pore shape, porosity etc.) can be efficiently controlled, can for fine-celled foam metal (such as Copper and copper alloy) a kind of material preparation brand-new efficient green manufacturing technology of offer, have broad application prospects.
Content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of laser fast method for preparing of fine-celled foam copper.Using this Bright, the bubble with micro-void feature or arbitrarily complicated shape and structure can be completed with micro-atomizing copper powder as original material The laser of foam copper product is quickly prepared.
The laser fast method for preparing of the fine-celled foam copper of the present invention, comprising:
A () is based on flux foaming principle and pore character requires, with spherical aerosolization copper powder as material of main part, with fine copper Phosphorus powder or titanium hydride are expanded material, determine component, proportioning and the blending powder of the fine bronze movable type that foams;
B () utilizes Mechanical Alloying, rationally setting ratio of grinding media to material, abrading-ball size, ball milling speed, Ball-milling Time, rotation The milling parameters such as direction, interval time, preparation has the fine bronze movable type of foam performance;
(c) according to the required geological information preparing foam copper product, using the general three-dimensional cad modeling software such as pro/e, ug Carry out the three-dimensional modeling of part, the three-dimensional cad mathematical model of design, and model is saved as stl file format;
D the stl file input rapid shaping exclusive data of three-dimensional cad mathematical model is processed software and carries out at layering by () Reason, saves as cli formatted file;
E cli formatted file is inputted rapid shaping path planning software, setting sweep span, scanning pattern and scanning by () Strategy, exports afi formatted file;
F afi formatted file is inputted laser fast shaping equipment by (), arrange molding technique parameter, complete fine-celled foam copper The synchronization of material parts makes;
G fine-celled foam copper product part is taken out from laser fast shaping equipment by (), cleared up, and removes excess surface Metal dust;
H the fine-celled foam cleared up copper product part is taken off from metal basal board by () using wire cutting, and fitted When surface treatment after obtain required fine-celled foam copper product part.
The fine-celled foam copper laser fast method for preparing of the present invention, has the following characteristics that
1. do not need any tool and mould, manufacturing process is simple, can be rapidly completed the making of fine-celled foam copper, and almost may be used To realize equivalent molding, raw material does not almost waste, good in economic efficiency, thus is expected to become a kind of commonly used Porous Foam metal copper manufacture method.
2. processing flexibility is high, can process the porous foam copper metal part of arbitrarily complicated shape, this is conventional foam Metal fabrication methods are difficult to.
3. the micron foam copper material internal prepared has the substantial amounts of pore size being mutually communicated being evenly distributed and is The micron order hole of below 30um, has good infiltration coefficient and solar term effect.
4. traditional foam copper preparation makees that method is very high to the dependency of people, needs the professional skill through long-time training Personnel, and it is difficult to prepare the foam copper product of micro-void feature.And rely on traditional handicraft, to synchronously realize micropore bubble The preparation of foam copper and molding, are hardly possible in the technology manufacturing and cost.
5. material preparation is integrated with forming parts, and flow process is short, energy consumption is low, cycle is short, low cost.Due to being almost equivalent Molding, thus Raw Material Demand amount very little, and utilization rate of raw materials is very high, may be up to 98%, can be in a few hours to tens of hours Inside complete material preparation and the precise forming of fine-celled foam metallic copper.
6. pass through to change laser energy, scanning strategy and powder property, can rapidly regulate and control fine-celled foam metallic copper Pore character, thus change performance and the functional parameter of fine-celled foam metallic copper.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is the fine-celled foam copper sample using method of the present invention preparation;
Fig. 2 is the pore character figure of the fine-celled foam copper using method of the present invention preparation;
Fig. 3 is the airing function measured drawing of the fine-celled foam copper using method of the present invention preparation.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples.
The first step, determines component, proportioning and the blending powder of expandable fine bronze movable type.
Based on laser in-situ microcell foam theory, melt increasing material manufacturing technological requirement in conjunction with precinct laser, it is suitable to determine Material component, proportioning and blending powder.Material of main part selects spherical aerosolization fine copper powder, and granularity is 200 mesh, and expanded material selects With fine copper phosphor powder or titanium hydride powder, granularity is 500 mesh, and mass percent is respectively 95% atomized copper powder+5% copper phosphorus powder With 95% atomized copper powder+3% copper phosphorus powder+2% dihydro titanium valve
Second step, preparation has the fine bronze movable type of in-situ micro area foam performance.
Based on mechanical alloying principle, using planetary ball mill (qm-sp-4l), determine suitable key ball grinder Skill parameter (ratio of grinding media to material, abrading-ball size, rotational speed of ball-mill, Ball-milling Time, interval time etc.), prepares with in-situ micro area foaminess The fine Cu-base powder being suitable for precinct laser melt molding of energy, milling parameters are: rotating speed 200r/min, time 1 are little When, ratio of grinding media to material 5:1.The pattern of the fine bronze movable type after ball milling is spherical or subsphaeroidal as far as possible, and granularity is in normal distribution, Mean diameter is about 60um.
3rd step, part three-dimensional modeling.
Built using the three-dimensional geometry that the general three-dimensional cad modeling software such as pro/e, ug carries out fine-celled foam copper product part Mould.After the completion of modeling, three-dimensional cad model is saved as stl formatted file, when deriving stl file, by action control parameter and angle Degree control parameter is respectively set to 0.05 and 0.001.
4th step, threedimensional model is layered.
Process software using rapid shaping exclusive data to read and the three-dimensional stl model of editor, and according to rapid forming equipment Working ability, adjustment threedimensional model, to equipment initial point, considers formed precision, difficulty and efficiency requirements, the suitable one-tenth of setting Type direction simultaneously carries out layered shaping, exports cli formatted file, and lift height is 0.1mm~0.15mm, and cutter compensation value is 0.2mm.
5th step, planning parameters of scanning paths.
Read in the synusia file of cli form using rapid shaping path planning software, carry out laser beam scan path planning department Reason, the output afi formatted file that is capable of identify that of laser fast shaping equipment, sweep span is 0.05mm~0.10mm, defeated Going out type is path optimizing, and optimization principles are depth-range mixed principle, and profile scan mode is rear scanning profile, scanning side To for the alternate sweep of x, y direction, do not export adjacent connecting line in the ranks.
6th step, laser fast shaping.
Afi formatted file is read in laser fast shaping equipment (afs320-mz/q), setting most important two molding ginseng Number: laser power 600w about, scanning speed 0.15m/s, complete laser in-situ synthesis and the precise forming of fine-celled foam copper Integration, realizes the laser quick Fabrication of fine-celled foam copper product part, and molding atmosphere is atmospheric environment.
7th step, part post processing.
Take out fine-celled foam copper sample from laser fast shaping equipment, remove the unnecessary metal dust of prototypic surface, profit With abrasive paper for metallograph or small sandblasting machine, suitable surface treatment is carried out to fine-celled foam copper surface, the fine-celled foam after surface treatment Copper sample is as shown in Figure 1.
Find that by sem scanning electron microscopic observation there are inside the fine-celled foam copper using present invention preparation many random points The micro-meter scale hole of cloth, maximum pore yardstick is some tens of pm, minimum pore scale up to submicron, as shown in Figure 2.Fig. 3 Airing function measured drawing for the fine-celled foam copper of the present invention.Test result shows, the fine-celled foam copper sample of present invention preparation There is good breathability it was demonstrated that being substantially be mutually communicated between hole within slm fine-celled foam copper.
In the high-end technological equipment independent development field that country is just advocating energetically now, the fine-celled foam copper laser of the present invention The sharpest edges of fast method for preparing are to need any tool and mould and with high stock utilization, rapidly real The laser in-situ synthesis of existing fine-celled foam copper is integrated with precise forming, but also can be referred to by adjusting the physical property of powder body material Mark, fast neatly regulation and control fine-celled foam copper product pore character (such as porosity, pore size with distribution etc.), can be There is in the products such as static pressure support, high-speed main spindle, vibration damping guide rail porous material preparation and the part processing of pivotal role, provide A kind of brand-new, efficient, green advanced manufacturing methods, also can promote the use of other high-melting-point fine-celled foam metal materials Laser quickly prepare.The fine-celled foam metal copper laser fast method for preparing of the present invention can make not in a short period of time The fine-celled foam copper sample of same size, different shape and different aperture feature, has quick response speed and very high processing Flexible.

Claims (2)

1. a kind of laser fast method for preparing of fine-celled foam copper, in turn includes the following steps:
A () determines component, proportioning and the blending powder of the fine bronze movable type that foams;
B () adopts planetary ball mill, preparation has the fine bronze movable type of in-situ micro area foam performance;
C () carries out the three-dimensional modeling of part, the three-dimensional cad mathematical model of design using general three-dimensional modeling software, and incite somebody to action Model saves as stl file format;
D the stl file input rapid shaping exclusive data of three-dimensional cad mathematical model is processed software and carries out layered shaping by (), protect Save as cli formatted file;
E cli formatted file is inputted rapid shaping path planning software by (), plan scanning pattern, exports afi formatted file;
F afi formatted file is inputted laser fast shaping equipment by (), arrange molding technique parameter, complete fine-celled foam copper product The synchronization of part makes;
G fine-celled foam copper product part is taken out from laser fast shaping equipment by (), cleared up, and removes the gold of excess surface Belong to powder;
H the fine-celled foam cleared up copper product part is taken off from metal basal board by () using wire cutting, and carry out suitable Required fine-celled foam copper product part is obtained after surface treatment;
Powder body material composition in described step a is respectively as follows: with mass percent
Atomized copper powder (granularity 200 mesh) 95%;
Copper phosphorus powder (granularity 500 mesh) 5%;
Powder process parameter in described step b is: rotating speed 200r/min, 1 hour time, ratio of grinding media to material 5:1, powder shape Looks are spherical or subsphaeroidal as far as possible, and granularity is in normal distribution, and mean diameter is about 60um;
Molding technique parameter in described step f is: lift height 0.05mm-0.10mm, sweep span 0.15mm, laser work( Rate 600w about, scanning speed 0.15m/s.
2. fine-celled foam copper according to claim 1 laser fast method for preparing it is characterised in that: the powder in step a Body material composition is respectively as follows: with mass percent
Atomized copper powder (granularity 200 mesh) 95%;
Copper phosphorus powder (granularity 500 mesh) 5%;
Substituted using following content:
Atomized copper powder (granularity 200 mesh) 95%;
Copper phosphorus powder (granularity 500 mesh) 3%;
Dihydro titanium valve (granularity 500 mesh) 2%.
CN201410355593.3A 2014-07-24 2014-07-24 Rapid laser manufacturing method for micropore foamy copper CN104227230B (en)

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Families Citing this family (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105274379B (en) * 2015-10-28 2017-04-26 西北有色金属研究院 Preparation method of metal porous material
CN107225243A (en) * 2017-05-25 2017-10-03 北京康普锡威科技有限公司 A kind of foam metal material preparation method
CN108526824B (en) * 2018-04-18 2020-05-15 中国工程物理研究院机械制造工艺研究所 Micropore composite processing method

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US6609043B1 (en) * 2000-04-25 2003-08-19 Northrop Grumman Corporation Method and system for constructing a structural foam part
CN1970202A (en) * 2006-12-08 2007-05-30 华中科技大学 Method for selective laser sintering for quick and direct production of injection die
CN101298746A (en) * 2008-05-19 2008-11-05 江南大学 Method for manufacturing paper pulp molding vacuum filtration die based on SLS quick forming principle
CN102554474A (en) * 2012-03-05 2012-07-11 刘继常 Method for directly manufacturing porous part of complicated cavity by using laser
CN103495731A (en) * 2013-09-03 2014-01-08 广州中国科学院先进技术研究所 Method for manufacturing pure titanium porous structure through selective laser melting

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6609043B1 (en) * 2000-04-25 2003-08-19 Northrop Grumman Corporation Method and system for constructing a structural foam part
CN1970202A (en) * 2006-12-08 2007-05-30 华中科技大学 Method for selective laser sintering for quick and direct production of injection die
CN101298746A (en) * 2008-05-19 2008-11-05 江南大学 Method for manufacturing paper pulp molding vacuum filtration die based on SLS quick forming principle
CN102554474A (en) * 2012-03-05 2012-07-11 刘继常 Method for directly manufacturing porous part of complicated cavity by using laser
CN103495731A (en) * 2013-09-03 2014-01-08 广州中国科学院先进技术研究所 Method for manufacturing pure titanium porous structure through selective laser melting

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