CN104206319B - A kind of cultural method of Penaeus vannamei - Google Patents

A kind of cultural method of Penaeus vannamei Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104206319B
CN104206319B CN201410333850.3A CN201410333850A CN104206319B CN 104206319 B CN104206319 B CN 104206319B CN 201410333850 A CN201410333850 A CN 201410333850A CN 104206319 B CN104206319 B CN 104206319B
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vitamin
penaeus vannamei
shrimp
cultural
seedling
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CN201410333850.3A
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CN104206319A (en
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邓登
王平川
潘唐贺
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深圳市澳华农牧有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • Y02A40/818Alternative feeds for fish, e.g. in aquacultures

Abstract

The present invention discloses the cultural method of a kind of Penaeus vannamei, comprises the steps: pond disinfection, oxygen supplement, water inlet, the selection of shrimp Seedling, shrimp Seedling growth promoter to P5, puts Seedling evening before yesterday, puts Seedling about 25 days and cultivation middle and late stage;The present invention is directed to the difference of the nutritional need of Penaeus vannamei different growth phases, the feedstuff of respective stage is provided, Penaeus vannamei is made to keep stable healthy physiological status, the feed coefficient of Penaeus vannamei can not only be reduced, improve its speed of growth, and be conducive to improving the premunition of Penaeus vannamei;The Penaeus vannamei survival rate height and the yield that use the cultural method cultivation of the present invention are high.

Description

A kind of cultural method of Penaeus vannamei

Technical field

The present invention relates to aquaculture field, particularly relate to the cultural method of a kind of Penaeus vannamei.

Background technology

Penaeus vannamei originates in sea, South America pacific rim, and 1998 are introduced this product by the Institute of Oceanology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Kind, it is strong that Penaeus vannamei has premunition, and yield is high, low cost, the advantages such as meat is good, adaptable, starts in China river Soviet Union, Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hainan etc. save cultivating large area, achieve prominent economic benefit and social benefit.But since Since 2002, constantly severe along with breeding environment, the factor such as fry quality variation, cause white spot syndrome virus the most quick-fried Send out, inflicted heavy losses on culture of Penaeus vannamei industry.Not only the most relevant with the quality degradation of shrimp Seedling, also expose China prawn simultaneously Cultural technique is the most backward, perplexs " the most dead ", " at the bottom of consumption " problem of numerous raisers always, is all due to for the height that covets Produce and ignore the protection key measure such as breeding ecological environment, feed diet nutritive equilibrium, often result in dead prawn, feed coefficient The problems such as high, aquaculture cost is high.Ecologic breeding so-called on market the most in recent years, ecology the most truly is supported Grow, the most commonly used microorganism formulation, less by disinfectant, few with or without antibiotic, the most excessively pursue high yield high Effect, but this kind of mode not only can not effectively control the disease of prawn, exacerbates the spreading of prawn disease on the contrary, more reduces and cultivate successfully Rate.

Subject matter present in current culture of Penaeus vannamei method:

1, think little of cultivating early stage, choose at random feedstuff;Undue weight middle and late stage, feeds intake desperately, fattens;

2, raiser generally believes and just can save feed cost with cheap low-grade feedstuff;

3, for meeting the different nutritional need of prawn or improving premunition, feedstuff is mixed with the so-called nutrient substance of excess Or medicine, but really be able to be utilized seldom by prawn, not only increase aquaculture cost, further increase cultivation risk, these Defect present on cultural method and mistaken ideas, significantly reduce culture of Penaeus vannamei benefit.

Summary of the invention

The present invention is directed to the problems referred to above of the prior art and the cultural method of a kind of Penaeus vannamei is provided, use this to support The Penaeus vannamei survival rate of culturing method cultivation is high and yield is high.

Technical scheme is as follows:

The cultural method of a kind of Penaeus vannamei, comprises the steps:

(1) pond disinfection: uniformly splash with 50~80kg/ mu quicklime slurryings or with 8kg/ mu bleaching powder, pond entered Row sterilization;Afterflush pond, pond is shone through 3~4 days;Intaking, making water pH value is 8.0~8.6 again;Then by every mu 200~ Splashed sterilization in full pond by 250g bromine chlorine hydantoin;

(2) oxygen supplement: every 4 mu of waters surface, 1 1.5 kw of power aerator of configuration;

(3) water inlet: water inlet in 2~3 days after the sterilization of above-mentioned bromine chlorine hydantoin, making dissolved oxygen is 5mg/L, and pH value is 7.8~8.5, Transparency is 30~40cm;

(4) shrimp Seedling selects: choosing shrimp Seedling a length of 0.8~1.2cm, breeding density is 2~80,000 tails/mu;It is 22 in water temperature ~35 DEG C put in a suitable place to breed shrimp Seedling;

(5) shrimp Seedling growth promoter is to P5: replace that shrimp crack are as usual throws something and feeds with opening material to be incremented by every day 10%;

(6) Seedling evening before yesterday is put: mix biological water purification product with opening material and shrimp Eriocheir sinensis viable product edgewise is splashed;

(7) Seedling is put about 25 days: enter and turn the liver phase, 5~7 days by a definite date, material reducing 1/3, put into composite B vitamin class hepatoprotective Product spice is fed;

(8) cultivation middle and late stage: VC class anti-stress product of throwing something and feeding when night, shelling phase, typhoon and change in weather, selects to throw something and feed Penaeus vannamei is fattened, is increased weight and promote shell by feed for fattening product.

Above-mentioned Seedling of putting can coordinate opening material biological water purification product and shrimp Eriocheir sinensis viable product with VC class anti-stress product the evening before yesterday.

Above-mentioned opening material is by Erythroculter ilishaeformis powder, inlet steam fish flour, import fish oil, decortication bean cake, special phagostimulant, compound organic Acid, nucleotide, Chinese herbal medicine extract, natural active matter, compound micro-ecological preparation mix.

Above-mentioned biological water purification product be Lactobacillus plantarum, saccharomyces cerevisiae profitable strain, several amino acids, vitamin mixing and Become.

Above-mentioned shrimp Eriocheir sinensis viable product is that calcium, magnesium, ferrum, copper, manganese, zinc mix.

Above-mentioned VC class anti-stress product is L-AA-2-phosphate ester and feedstuff mixes.

Above-mentioned composite B vitamin class liver-protecting product is vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, nicotiamide, pantothenic acid Calcium, diluent mix.

Above-mentioned feed for fattening product is inlet steam fish flour, Erythroculter ilishaeformis powder, import fish oil, decortication bean cake, beer yeast, Semen sojae atricolor Phospholipid, flour, compound vitamin, composite mineral matter, immunostimulant mix.Compound vitamin includes that vitamin A, dimension are raw Element D, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin, calcium pantothenate, nicotinoyl Amine, inositol.Composite mineral matter include dalcium biphosphate, magnesium sulfate monohydrate magnesium, ferrous sulfate monohydrate, cupric glycinate, zinc glycinate, Manganese methionine, cobalt methionine, calcium iodate, sodium selenite.

Beneficial effects of the present invention: for the difference of the nutritional need of Penaeus vannamei different growth phases, provide phase The feedstuff in the stage of answering, makes Penaeus vannamei keep stable healthy physiological status, can not only reduce the bait system of Penaeus vannamei Number, improves its speed of growth, also advantageously improves the premunition of Penaeus vannamei;Use the south of the cultural method cultivation of the present invention Penaeus vannamei Boone survival rate is high and yield is high.

Detailed description of the invention

In order to better illustrate the present invention, now it is further described.

Embodiment 1

The cultural method of a kind of Penaeus vannamei, comprises the steps:

(1) pond disinfection: uniformly splash with 50~80kg/ mu quicklime slurryings and pond is carried out disinfection;Pond is shone through 3 days Afterflush pond, washes out lime water;Intaking 5~10cm again, making water pH value is 8.0~8.6;Then by every mu 200~ Splashed sterilization in full pond by 250g bromine chlorine hydantoin;

(2) oxygen supplement: about depth of water 1.2m of pond, is equipped with 3 1.5 kw of power aerators;

(3) water inlet: water inlet in 2~3 days after the sterilization of above-mentioned bromine chlorine sea, making dissolved oxygen is 5mg/L, and pH value is 7.8~8.5, thoroughly Lightness is 30~40cm;

(4) shrimp Seedling selects: choose shrimp Seedling a length of 0.8~1.2cm, in 370,000 tail shrimp Seedlings put into 12 mu of ponds;At water Temperature is 22~35 DEG C and puts shrimp Seedling in a suitable place to breed;

(5) shrimp Seedling growth promoter is to P5: replace that shrimp crack are as usual throws something and feeds with 14kg opening material to be incremented by every day 10%;Shrimp Seedling Need not experience again behind the shrimp pool food transformation stress the phase, directly shake down, it is to avoid idle food is eliminated, directly improve shrimp Seedling and survive Rate;

(6) Seedling evening before yesterday is put: mix 8L biological water purification product with 10kg opening material and 4kg shrimp Eriocheir sinensis viable product edgewise is splashed;

(7) Seedling is put about 25 days: enter and turn the liver phase, 5~7 days by a definite date, material reducing 1/3, put into 600g composite B vitamin class Liver-protecting product is fed;To strengthen the body constitution of shrimp, make that shrimp is fast in cultivation middle and late stage length speed, disease is few and material ratio is low;

(8) cultivation middle and late stage: 4kgVC class anti-stress product product of throwing something and feeding when night, shelling phase, typhoon and change in weather, Selection is thrown something and fed safe and comfortable No. 0 200kg of shrimp, the safe and comfortable No. 1 broken material 400kg of shrimp, safe and comfortable No. 1 particulate material 1000kg of shrimp and safe and comfortable No. 2 of shrimp Penaeus vannamei is fattened by the feed for fattening product of particulate material 1712.8kg.

Embodiment 2

The cultural method of a kind of Penaeus vannamei, comprises the steps:

(1) pond disinfection: uniformly splash with 8 kgs/acre of bleaching powder and pond is carried out disinfection;Pond afterflush is shone through 4 days Pond, washes out lime water;Intaking 5~10cm again, making water pH value is 8.0~8.6;Then by every mu 200~250g bromine chlorine Splashed sterilization in full pond by glycolylurea;

(2) oxygen supplement: about depth of water 1.2m of pond, is equipped with 3 1.5 kw of power aerators;

(3) water inlet: water inlet in 2~3 days after the sterilization of above-mentioned bromine chlorine sea, making dissolved oxygen is 5mg/L, and pH value is 7.8~8.5, thoroughly Lightness is 30~40cm;

(4) shrimp Seedling selects: choose shrimp Seedling a length of 0.8~1.2cm, in 390,000 tail shrimp Seedlings put into 13 mu of ponds;At water Temperature is 22~35 DEG C and puts shrimp Seedling in a suitable place to breed;

(5) shrimp Seedling growth promoter is to P5: replace that shrimp crack are as usual throws something and feeds with 15kg opening material to be incremented by every day 10%;Shrimp Seedling Need not experience again behind the shrimp pool food transformation stress the phase, directly shake down, it is to avoid idle food is eliminated, directly improve shrimp Seedling and survive Rate;

(6) Seedling evening before yesterday is put: mix 9L biological water purification product with 11kg opening material and 4kg shrimp Eriocheir sinensis viable product edgewise is splashed;

(7) Seedling is put about 25 days: enter and turn the liver phase, 5~7 days by a definite date, material reducing 1/3, put into 650g composite B vitamin class Liver-protecting product is fed;To strengthen the body constitution of shrimp, make that shrimp is fast in cultivation middle and late stage length speed, disease is few and material ratio is low;

(8) cultivation middle and late stage: 4kgVC class anti-stress product product of throwing something and feeding when night, shelling phase, typhoon and change in weather, Selection is thrown something and fed safe and comfortable No. 0 200kg of shrimp, the safe and comfortable No. 1 broken material 400kg of shrimp, safe and comfortable No. 1 particulate material 1000kg of shrimp and safe and comfortable No. 2 of shrimp Penaeus vannamei is fattened by the feed for fattening product of particulate material 1714.8kg.

Embodiment 3

The cultural method of a kind of Penaeus vannamei, comprises the steps:

(1) pond disinfection: uniformly splash with 8 kgs/acre of bleaching powder and pond is carried out disinfection;Pond afterflush is shone through 3 days Pond, washes out lime water;Intaking 5~10cm again, making water pH value is 8.0~8.6;Then by every mu 200~250g bromine chlorine Splashed sterilization in full pond by glycolylurea;

(2) oxygen supplement: about depth of water 1.2m of pond, is equipped with 6 1.5 kw of power aerators;

(3) water inlet: water inlet in 2~3 days after the sterilization of above-mentioned bromine chlorine sea, making dissolved oxygen is 5mg/L, and pH value is 7.8~8.5, thoroughly Lightness is 30~40cm;

(4) shrimp Seedling selects: choose shrimp Seedling a length of 0.8~1.2cm, in 800,000 tail shrimp Seedlings put into 10 mu of ponds;At water Temperature is 22~35 DEG C and puts shrimp Seedling in a suitable place to breed;

(5) shrimp Seedling growth promoter is to P5: replace that shrimp crack are as usual throws something and feeds with 12kg opening material to be incremented by every day 10%;Shrimp Seedling Need not experience again behind the shrimp pool food transformation stress the phase, directly shake down, it is to avoid idle food is eliminated, directly improve shrimp Seedling and survive Rate;

(6) Seedling evening before yesterday is put: mix 7L biological water purification product with 8kg opening material and 3kg shrimp Eriocheir sinensis viable product edgewise is splashed;

(7) Seedling is put about 25 days: enter and turn the liver phase, 5~7 days by a definite date, material reducing 1/3, put into 500g composite B vitamin class Liver-protecting product is fed;To strengthen the body constitution of shrimp, make that shrimp is fast in cultivation middle and late stage length speed, disease is few and material ratio is low;

(8) cultivation middle and late stage: 3kgVC class anti-stress product product of throwing something and feeding when night, shelling phase, typhoon and change in weather, Selection is thrown something and fed safe and comfortable No. 0 200kg of shrimp, the safe and comfortable No. 1 broken material 500kg of shrimp, safe and comfortable No. 1 particulate material 1400kg of shrimp and safe and comfortable No. 2 of shrimp Penaeus vannamei is fattened by the feed for fattening product of particulate material 1520kg.

Embodiment 4

The cultural method of a kind of Penaeus vannamei, comprises the steps:

(1) pond disinfection: uniformly splash with 50~80kg/ mu quicklime slurryings and pond is carried out disinfection;Pond is shone through 4 days Afterflush pond, washes out lime water;Intaking 5~10cm again, making water pH value is 8.0~8.6;Then by every mu 200~ Splashed sterilization in full pond by 250g bromine chlorine hydantoin;

(2) oxygen supplement: about depth of water 1.2m of pond, is equipped with 1 1.5 kw of power aerator;

(3) water inlet: water inlet in 2~3 days after the sterilization of above-mentioned bromine chlorine sea, making dissolved oxygen is 5mg/L, and pH value is 7.8~8.5, thoroughly Lightness is 30~40cm;

(4) shrimp Seedling selects: choose shrimp Seedling a length of 0.8~1.2cm, in 200,000 tail shrimp Seedlings put into 4 mu of ponds;In water temperature It is 22~35 DEG C and puts shrimp Seedling in a suitable place to breed;

(5) shrimp Seedling growth promoter is to P5: replace that shrimp crack are as usual throws something and feeds with 5kg opening material to be incremented by every day 10%;Shrimp Seedling arrives Need not experience again behind the shrimp pool food transformation stress the phase, directly shake down, it is to avoid idle food is eliminated, directly improve shrimp Seedling and survive Rate;

(6) Seedling evening before yesterday is put: mix 3L biological water purification product with 3kg opening material and 1kg shrimp Eriocheir sinensis viable product edgewise is splashed;

(7) Seedling is put about 25 days: enter and turn the liver phase, 5~7 days by a definite date, material reducing 1/3, put into 200g composite B vitamin class Liver-protecting product is fed;To strengthen the body constitution of shrimp, make that shrimp is fast in cultivation middle and late stage length speed, disease is few and material ratio is low;

(8) cultivation middle and late stage: 1kgVC class anti-stress product product of throwing something and feeding when night, shelling phase, typhoon and change in weather, Selection is thrown something and fed safe and comfortable No. 0 80kg of shrimp, the safe and comfortable No. 1 broken material 160kg of shrimp, safe and comfortable No. 1 particulate material 600kg of shrimp and safe and comfortable No. 2 of shrimp Penaeus vannamei is fattened by the feed for fattening product of pellet 1032kg.

Table 1: various embodiments of the present invention contrast

As shown in Table 1, the cultural method of the present invention is used to throw something and feed period different types of feed product for different breeding, Material ratio is low, illustrates that efficiency of feed utilization is high;Survival rate, more than 80%, is illustrated as motility rate high;The highest per mu yield 1050 jin explanation yield High.

Claims (9)

1. the cultural method of a Penaeus vannamei, it is characterised in that: comprise the steps:
(1) pond disinfection: uniformly splash with 50~80kg/ mu quicklime slurryings or with 8kg/ mu bleaching powder, pond disappeared Poison;Afterflush pond, pond is shone through 3~4 days;Intaking, making water pH value is 8.0~8.6 again;Then by every mu 200~250g bromine Splashed sterilization in full pond by chlordantoin;
(2) oxygen supplement: every 4 mu of waters surface, 1 1.5 kw of power aerator of configuration;
(3) water inlet: water inlet in 2~3 days after the sterilization of above-mentioned bromine chlorine hydantoin, making dissolved oxygen is 5mg/L, and pH value is 7.8~8.5, transparent Degree is 30~40cm;
(4) shrimp Seedling selects: choosing shrimp Seedling a length of 0.8~1.2cm, breeding density is 2~80,000 tails/mu;It is 22~35 in water temperature DEG C put shrimp Seedling in a suitable place to breed;
(5) shrimp Seedling growth promoter is to P5: replace that shrimp crack are as usual throws something and feeds with opening material to be incremented by every day 10%;
(6) Seedling evening before yesterday is put: mix biological water purification product with opening material and shrimp Eriocheir sinensis viable product edgewise is splashed;Put Seedling to resist by VC class the evening before yesterday Opening material biological water purification product and shrimp Eriocheir sinensis viable product stress be coordinated by product;
(7) Seedling is put about 25 days: enter and turn the liver phase, 5~7 days by a definite date, material reducing 1/3, put into composite B vitamin class liver-protecting product Spice is fed;
(8) cultivation middle and late stage: VC class anti-stress product of throwing something and feeding when night, shelling phase, typhoon and change in weather, selecting throws something and feeds fattens Penaeus vannamei is fattened, is increased weight and promote shell by feed product.
The cultural method of Penaeus vannamei the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described opening material by Erythroculter ilishaeformis powder, enter Mouth steam fish flour, import fish oil, decortication bean cake, special phagostimulant, composite organic acid, nucleotide, Chinese herbal medicine extract, natural work Property material, compound micro-ecological preparation mix.
The cultural method of Penaeus vannamei the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described biological water purification product is plant Lactobacillus, saccharomyces cerevisiae profitable strain, several amino acids, vitamin mix.
The cultural method of Penaeus vannamei the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described shrimp Eriocheir sinensis viable product be calcium, Magnesium, ferrum, copper, manganese, zinc mix.
The cultural method of Penaeus vannamei the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described VC class anti-stress product is L-AA-2-phosphate ester and feedstuff mix.
The cultural method of Penaeus vannamei the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described composite B vitamin class is protected Liver product is that vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, nicotiamide, calcium pantothenate, diluent mix.
The cultural method of Penaeus vannamei the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: described feed for fattening product is import Steam fish flour, Erythroculter ilishaeformis powder, import fish oil, decortication bean cake, beer yeast, soybean phospholipid, flour, compound vitamin, complex mineral Matter, immunostimulant mix.
The cultural method of Penaeus vannamei the most according to claim 7, it is characterised in that: described compound vitamin includes that dimension is raw Element A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin, pantothenic acid Calcium, nicotiamide, inositol.
The cultural method of Penaeus vannamei the most according to claim 7, it is characterised in that: described composite mineral matter includes phosphoric acid Calcium dihydrogen, magnesium sulfate monohydrate, ferrous sulfate monohydrate, cupric glycinate, zinc glycinate, manganese methionine, cobalt methionine, calcium iodate, Asia Sodium selenate.
CN201410333850.3A 2014-07-15 2014-07-15 A kind of cultural method of Penaeus vannamei CN104206319B (en)

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CN104782550A (en) * 2015-05-14 2015-07-22 莆田市天然星农业开发有限公司 Cultivation method of prawns
CN105075943A (en) * 2015-08-12 2015-11-25 澧县华润水产生物科技有限公司 Penaeus vannemei high-yield culturing method
CN105248996A (en) * 2015-10-20 2016-01-20 南宁创才阿里科技有限公司 Chinese herbal medicine decocting powder feed additive formula for later-stage culture of prawns
CN105724838A (en) * 2016-03-10 2016-07-06 青岛农业大学 Feed for Penaeus vannamei Boone in mature period and preparation method of feed
CN106305552B (en) * 2016-08-19 2019-03-15 杭州潇楠科技有限公司 Improve the cultural method of Penaeus Vannmei yield
CN106614178A (en) * 2016-11-17 2017-05-10 南京正源生物技术有限公司 Composite preparation for preventing and treating water retention disease of river crab and application thereof
CN107156537A (en) * 2017-06-01 2017-09-15 湛江市千舟渔水产有限公司 A kind of Penaeus Vannmei turns liver phase special feed
CN107242164A (en) * 2017-07-03 2017-10-13 合肥卓畅农业科技有限公司 A kind of fish shrimp crab efficient ecological polyculture method
CN107667934B (en) * 2017-08-31 2018-08-31 海南良之缘生物科技有限公司 The cultural method of South America prawn
CN107821259A (en) * 2017-11-02 2018-03-23 广西浙缘农业科技有限公司 A kind of cultural method of Penaeus Vannmei

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US20120204801A1 (en) * 2011-02-14 2012-08-16 Addison Lawrence System and Method of Shrimp Aquaculture Using Floating Feed
CN103814837A (en) * 2012-11-17 2014-05-28 刘绍振 Prawn culture method and prawn culture pond
CN103843707B (en) * 2013-12-30 2015-10-21 浙江省海洋开发研究院 A kind of culture of Penaeus vannamei method using Ozone Water
CN103875575B (en) * 2014-04-20 2015-06-10 常德家华水产科技有限公司 Breeding method for South American white shrimps in freshwater lake

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