CN104201380A - Preparation method of nano Ni3S2 material with lamellar structure - Google Patents

Preparation method of nano Ni3S2 material with lamellar structure Download PDF

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CN104201380A
CN104201380A CN201410408783.7A CN201410408783A CN104201380A CN 104201380 A CN104201380 A CN 104201380A CN 201410408783 A CN201410408783 A CN 201410408783A CN 104201380 A CN104201380 A CN 104201380A
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lamellar
nanometer
ni3s2
net
nano
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CN201410408783.7A
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CN104201380B (en
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赵海雷
张子佳
曾志鹏
高春辉
夏青
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北京科技大学
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M4/36Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids
    • H01M4/58Selection of substances as active materials, active masses, active liquids of inorganic compounds other than oxides or hydroxides, e.g. sulfides, selenides, tellurides, halogenides or LiCoFy; of polyanionic structures, e.g. phosphates, silicates or borates
    • H01M4/581Chalcogenides or intercalation compounds thereof
    • H01M4/5815Sulfides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y30/00Nanotechnology for materials or surface science, e.g. nanocomposites
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/05Accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte
    • H01M10/052Li-accumulators
    • H01M10/0525Rocking-chair batteries, i.e. batteries with lithium insertion or intercalation in both electrodes; Lithium-ion batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M4/04Processes of manufacture in general
    • H01M4/049Manufacturing of an active layer by chemical means
    • H01M4/0492Chemical attack of the support material
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/02Electrodes composed of or comprising active material
    • H01M2004/021Physical characteristics, e.g. porosity, surface area
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The invention discloses a preparation method of a nano Ni3S2 material and belongs to the field of novel energy resources and electrochemistry. The preparation method of the nano Ni3S2 material is characterized by synthesizing the nano Ni3S2 material by taking a Ni net with a three-dimensional porous structure by virtue of a solvothermal method. A nano Ni3S2 active substance formed during the solvothermal process is directly loaded on an upper matrix of the Ni net, so that the active substance Ni3S2 is in relatively firm contact with a Ni net of a current collector; gaps of the porous Ni net can effectively buffer the volume change of the Ni3S2 in the processes of removing and embedding lithium, so that the cycle stability of the composite material can be improved; meanwhile, by virtue of a three-dimensional conductive network of the Ni net, the electronic conductivity of the composite material can be improved, so that the rate performance of the material is improved. The preparation method of the nano Ni3S2 material is simple, green, free from pollution, low in cost and suitable for industrial production. The Ni3S2 material prepared by adopting the method is small in particle size and uniform in particle distribution; according to an electrode prepared from the material, a polymer adhesive and a conductive agent do not need to be added in the electrode; the electrode has the high electrochemical performance and can be widely used in the fields of various portable electronic devices, electric automobiles, aeronautics and astronautics, and the like.

Description

A kind of nanometer Ni with lamellar structure 3s 2the preparation method of material

Technical field

The invention belongs to new energy materials and electrochemical field, be specifically related to a kind of nanometer Ni with lamellar structure 3s 2material and preparation method thereof.

Technical background

Lithium ion battery is the best secondary cell of existing combination property, have that operating voltage is high, the feature such as energy density is large, have extended cycle life, memory-less effect, environmental friendliness, it is a kind of green high-capacity battery, be widely used in the portable electronic equipments such as mobile phone, notebook computer, and progressively to electric tool, Prospect of EVS Powered with Batteries and large-scale energy-storage battery field, expanded.The chemical property of lithium ion battery and the structure of electrode material and performance are closely related.The selection of electrode material has determined that the performance of battery is good and bad to a great extent.Conventional electrode material is as graphite etc., excellent combination property but specific capacity is lower.Current large-scale electric automobile (EV), hybrid vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid-power automobile (PHEV), scale energy storage, space technologies etc. have proposed urgent demand to energy-density lithium ion battery.Therefore, energy-density lithium ion battery be developed, just novel lithium ion battery electrode material need to be researched and developed.

Sulfur-bearing inorganic electrode material has unique advantage at aspects such as specific capacity, energy density and power densities, therefore becomes one of focus of electrode material research in recent years.Sulfur-bearing inorganic electrode material comprises simple binary metal sulfide, oxysulfide, Chevrel phase compound, spinel-type sulfide, polyanion type phosphorus sulfide etc., wherein binary metal sulfide electrode material is of a great variety, they generally have higher theoretical specific capacity and energy density, and good conductivity, cheap and easy to get, stable chemical nature, safety non-pollution, is potential lithium ion battery negative material.

Ni 3s 2theoretical capacity is up to 445 mAh/g, aboundresources, and low toxicity, conductivity is better, has been subject in recent years researchers' extensive concern.But, Ni 3s 2in removal lithium embedded process, follow larger change in volume, in charge and discharge process, the easy efflorescence of active particle, causes active material to lose and electrically contacts or come off from collection liquid surface, causes the quick decay of capacity.In addition, huge change in volume in charge and discharge process, makes the SEI membrane structure that generates unstable, or the unsalted surface being caused by particle fracture react generation SEI film again with electrolyte, causes the cycle efficieny of electrode low.Cause capacity to be decayed fast.At present, much research is all attempted to improve its chemical property by the whole bag of tricks, as (1) nanometer: the Ni for preparing nanoscale 3s 2material, as nano particle, nano wire, nanotube and nano flower, can make the change in volume of active material more even, and electrode material absolute volume is diminished, can also shorten the diffusion length of lithium ion, improve electrode reaction speed, improve electrode cycle performance simultaneously.But nano material is easily reunited, pure nano nickel sulphide material can not fundamentally solve cyclical stability problem.(2) porous hollow structuring: utilize surfactant, ion compatibility to synthesize to have micropore, the particle of the hollow-core construction character such as mesoporous, macropore, the space in these particles can be used as the buffer of change in volume, improves the cyclical stability of electrode.Hollow-core construction contributes to the infiltration of electrolyte simultaneously, improves the efficiency of transmission of lithium ion.But this type of material majority in building-up process is used organic noxious substance of Denging, and preparation technology is comparatively complicated, is not suitable for scale preparation.(3) Composite: the Composite of nickel sulfide sill is mainly to introduce good conductivity, active or nonactive buffering matrix that bulk effect is little when reducing active material bulk effect, by volume compensation, increase the cyclical stability that the modes such as conductivity improve nickel sulfide material.Composite material mainly contains curing three nickel/carbon (Ni 3s 2/ C) composite material, curing three nickel/conducting base composite material etc.

In document, the research work of representative nickel sulfide base electrode material comprises:

(1) Zhejiang University's material is that first Zhao Xinbing professor research group prepares graphite oxide, then take graphite oxide, four water acetic acid nickel, thiocarbamide and trisodium citrate is raw material, by one step hydro thermal method, prepares ultra-thin nanometer nickel sulfide sheet/Graphene in-situ composite.Due to the microstructure of this uniqueness and the conduction of Graphene, dispersant and effect of contraction, NiS/ graphene composite material shows excellent chemical property.Under the current density of 50 mA/g, 100 times circulation after, NiS/ Graphene electrodes still have 481 mAh/g discharge capacity (RSC Adv., 2013,3,3899-3906).But graphite oxide preparation method is complicated, and cost is high.

(2) Su Changwei of department of chemistry of Yunnan Institute for nationalities professor research group is with NiSO 46H 2o is nickel source, and thiocarbamide is sulphur source, adopts electrodeposition process to prepare Ni 3s 2/ Ni composite material.This material list reveals excellent cycle performance and high rate performance.Under the current density of 0.6C, discharge capacity is 338 mAh/g first, after 100 circulations, still has 322 mAh/g, its capability retention up to 95.3% (J. Phys. Chem. C, 2014,118,767-773).But this preparation process complex process, governing factor and to affect parameter many, energy consumption is high.

(3) Tsing-Hua University's material is that Chen Lih-Juann professor research group adopts solwution method to prepare the nanometer NiS array that Ni net supports.The electrode of preparing with this material, under the current density of 0.1 C, first charge-discharge capacity is respectively 430,480 mAh/g, its capability retention that circulates after 100 times be greater than 80% (J. Mater. Chem., 2009,19,7277-7283).But this electrode is capacity continuous decrement in front 30 circulations, and cyclical stability is poor.

Make a general survey of document and patent, prepare the Ni of special appearance 3s 2material is used surfactant, organic formwork etc. more, but this type of preparation method's complex technical process, raw material are mostly poisonous and expensive, and productive rate is low, and energy consumption is large, and cost is high, is unfavorable for large-scale production.Prepare compound and adopt spray pyrolysis, electrodeposition process more, but this type of preparation method's complex technical process, poor controllability, cost is high.

Summary of the invention

The present invention seeks in order to solve existing preparation method's complex technical process, raw material are mostly poisonous and expensive, and productive rate is low, and energy consumption is large, and cost is high, is unfavorable for the problem of large-scale production.Provide a kind of grain diameter little and be evenly distributed, have lamellar structure, lithium ion battery negative material Ni that chemical property is good 3s 2preparation method.

A kind of nanometer Ni with lamellar structure 3s 2the preparation method of material, is characterized in that adopting solvent-thermal method, utilizes the Ni net with three-dimensional porous structure as carrier, synthesizes the nanometer Ni with lamellar structure 3s 2material, its concrete steps are:

(1) synthetic presoma: selecting nickel salt and weak base is raw material, takes certain mass, is dissolved in a certain amount of solvent, the formation settled solution that stirs, wherein the concentration of nickel salt is controlled at 1 * 10 -3~ 1 mol/L, the concentration of weak base is controlled at 1 * 10 -2~ 1 mol/L.The settled solution obtaining is poured into in teflon-lined water heating kettle, and put into a slice Ni net in polytetrafluoroethyllining lining, in insulating box, under uniform temperature, react 2 ~ 20 h;

(2) deionized water and ethanol washing for product step (1) being obtained, and product is dried in vacuum drying chamber to 1 ~ 5 h under uniform temperature, obtain the presoma of Ni net load;

(3) synthetic Ni 3s 2material: selecting inorganic sulfosalt is raw material, takes certain mass, is dissolved in a certain amount of solvent, and the concentration of inorganic sulfosalt is controlled at 1 * 10 -3~ 1 mol/L, formation settled solution stirs, the settled solution obtaining is poured into in teflon-lined water heating kettle, and the presoma of the Ni net load that step (2) is obtained is placed in polytetrafluoroethyllining lining, in insulating box, under uniform temperature, reacts 1 ~ 10 h;

(4) deionized water and ethanol washing for product, and product is dried in vacuum drying chamber to 1 ~ 5 h under uniform temperature, obtain having the nanometer Ni of lamellar structure 3s 2material.

The described nickel salt of step in above-mentioned preparation method (1) is nickel nitrate, nickel chloride, nickel acetate or its crystallization water compound.

The described weak base of step (1) is urea, ammoniacal liquor, sodium carbonate, sodium acetate or its crystallization water compound.

The described solvent of step (1) is one or more in deionized water, absolute ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol.

The uniform temperature that step (1) is described, the temperature that refers to insulating box is 120 ~ 200 oc.

The described inorganic sulfosalt of step (3) is vulcanized sodium, cobalt sulfide, artificial gold or its crystallization water compound.

The described solvent of step (3) is one or more in deionized water, absolute ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol.

The uniform temperature that step (3) is described, the temperature that refers to insulating box is 120 ~ 200 oc.

The present invention adopts the raw material of industry of extensive use, by simple solvent-thermal method, utilizes the Ni net with three-dimensional porous structure as carrier, prepares the nanometer Ni with lamellar structure 3s 2material.Wherein usining Ni matrix can be directly as electrode current collecting body, so the present invention has realized in the situation that not adding any polymeric binder and conductive agent and active material can have been loaded on collector.The unique three-dimensional porous conductive network of Ni net can improve the electronic conductance of composite material, the change in volume in buffering removal lithium embedded process, and finally make material list reveal excellent chemical property.This preparation process technique is simple, green non-pollution, low, the easy suitability for industrialized production of cost.The Ni preparing with the method 3s 2material particle size is little and be evenly distributed, and there is lamellar structure feature, this electrode is without adding any polymeric binder and conductive agent and showing excellent chemical property, be a kind of desirable lithium ion battery negative material, can be widely used in the fields such as various portable electric appts, electric automobile and Aero-Space.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the field emission scanning electron microscope picture of curing three nickel materials of embodiment 1.

Fig. 2 is the first charge-discharge curve chart of curing three nickel materials of embodiment 1.

Fig. 3 is the circulation volume figure of curing three nickel materials of embodiment 1.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention will be further described, but be not limited to protection scope of the present invention:

Embodiment 1:

Take 0.19 g NiCl 26H 2o, 0.10 g urea is dissolved in 70 ml deionized waters, stirs and forms light green color settled solution.Mixed solution continues to stir 1 h, then the settled solution obtaining is poured into 100 ml with in teflon-lined water heating kettle, and is put into a slice Ni net in polytetrafluoroethyllining lining, 100 ounder C, react 18 h.The presoma that reaction is obtained washs with deionized water and ethanol respectively, and in vacuum condition 50 odry 2 h under C.Take 0.14 g Na 2s9H 2o is dissolved in 70 ml deionized waters, and then the formation settled solution that stirs is poured the settled solution obtaining into 100 ml with in teflon-lined water heating kettle, and put into presoma obtained above, 140 ounder C, react 7 h.The product that reaction is obtained washs with deionized water and ethanol respectively, and in vacuum condition 50 ounder C, dry 2 h, finally obtain being carried on the online Ni of Ni 3s 2material.The product making is stamped into circular electrode pole piece, take lithium metal as to electrode, 1 mol/L LiPF 6/ EC+DEC+DMC(volume ratio is 1:1:1) be electrolyte, Celgard 2400 is barrier film, is assembled into button cell.Battery is carried out to constant current charge-discharge test, and charging/discharging voltage scope is 0.01 ~ 3.0 V, and result shows, this electrode has good chemical property, 0.2 mA/cm 2current density under, discharge capacity is 1.92 mAh/cm first 2, the discharge capacity after 20 times that circulates is 1.16 mAh/cm 2, cyclical stability is good.

 

Embodiment 2:

Take 0.48 g Ni (NO 3) 26H 2o, 0.19 g ammonia solvent, in 70 ml absolute ethyl alcohols, stirs and forms light green color settled solution.Mixed solution continues to stir 1 h, then the settled solution obtaining is poured into 100 ml with in teflon-lined water heating kettle, and is put into a slice Ni net in polytetrafluoroethyllining lining, 180 ounder C, react 10 h.The presoma that reaction is obtained washs with deionized water and ethanol respectively, and in vacuum condition 50 odry 2 h under C.Take 0.2 g SnS 2be dissolved in 70 ml absolute ethyl alcohols, the formation settled solution that stirs, then pours the settled solution obtaining into 100 ml with in teflon-lined water heating kettle, and puts into presoma obtained above, 180 ounder C, react 18 h.The product that reaction is obtained washs with deionized water and ethanol respectively, and in vacuum condition 50 ounder C, dry 2 h, finally obtain being carried on the online Ni of Ni 3s 2material.The product making is stamped into circular electrode pole piece, take lithium metal as to electrode, 1 mol/L LiPF 6/ EC+DEC+DMC(volume ratio is 1:1:1) be electrolyte, Celgard 2400 is barrier film, is assembled into button cell.Battery is carried out to constant current charge-discharge test, and charging/discharging voltage scope is 0.01 ~ 3.0 V, and result shows, this electrode has good chemical property, 0.2 mA/cm 2current density under, discharge capacity is 2.02 mAh/cm first 2, the discharge capacity after 20 times that circulates is 1.13 mAh/cm 2, cyclical stability is good.

 

Embodiment 3:

Take 0.6 g Ni (CH 3cOO) 24H 2o, 0.9 g urea is dissolved in 70 ml ethanol and alcohol blend (1:1, V/V), stirs and forms light green color settled solution.Mixed solution continues to stir 1 h, then the settled solution obtaining is poured into 100 ml with in teflon-lined water heating kettle, and is put into a slice Ni net in polytetrafluoroethyllining lining, 120 ounder C, react 12 h.The presoma that reaction is obtained washs with deionized water and ethanol respectively, and in vacuum condition 50 odry 2 h under C.Take 0.7 g CoS and be dissolved in 70 ml ethanol and alcohol blend (1:1, V/V), in, the formation settled solution that stirs, then pours the settled solution obtaining into 100 ml with in teflon-lined water heating kettle, and put into presoma obtained above, 160 ounder C, react 7 h.The product that reaction is obtained washs with deionized water and ethanol respectively, and in vacuum condition 50 ounder C, dry 2 h, finally obtain being carried on the online Ni of Ni 3s 2material.The product making is stamped into circular electrode pole piece, take lithium metal as to electrode, 1 mol/L LiPF 6/ EC+DEC+DMC(volume ratio is 1:1:1) be electrolyte, Celgard 2400 is barrier film, is assembled into button cell.Battery is carried out to constant current charge-discharge test, and charging/discharging voltage scope is 0.01 ~ 3.0 V, and result shows, this electrode has good chemical property, 0.2 mA/cm 2current density under, discharge capacity is 2.12 mAh/cm first 2, the discharge capacity after 20 times that circulates is 1.12 mAh/cm 2, cyclical stability is good.

Claims (8)

1. a nanometer Ni with lamellar structure 3s 2the preparation method of material, is characterized in that adopting solvent-thermal method, utilizes the Ni net with three-dimensional porous structure as carrier, synthesizes the nanometer Ni with lamellar structure 3s 2material, concrete technology step is:
(1) synthetic presoma: selecting nickel salt and weak base is raw material, takes certain mass, is dissolved in a certain amount of solvent, the formation settled solution that stirs, wherein the concentration of nickel salt is controlled at 1 * 10 -3~ 1 mol/L, the concentration of weak base is controlled at 1 * 10 -2~ 1 mol/L; The settled solution obtaining is poured into in teflon-lined water heating kettle, and put into a slice Ni net in polytetrafluoroethyllining lining, in insulating box, under uniform temperature, react 2 ~ 20 h;
(2) deionized water and ethanol washing for product step (1) being obtained, and product is dried in vacuum drying chamber, the presoma of Ni net load obtained;
(3) the synthetic online Ni of Ni that is carried on 3s 2material: selecting inorganic sulfosalt is raw material, takes certain mass, is dissolved in a certain amount of solvent, and the concentration of inorganic sulfosalt is controlled at 1 * 10 -3~ 1 mol/L, formation settled solution stirs, the settled solution obtaining is poured into in teflon-lined water heating kettle, and the presoma of the Ni net load that step (2) is obtained is placed in polytetrafluoroethyllining lining, in insulating box, under uniform temperature, reacts 1 ~ 10 h;
(4) deionized water and ethanol washing for the product that step (2) obtained, and product is dry in vacuum drying chamber, what obtain having lamellar structure is carried on the online nanometer Ni of Ni 3s 2material.
2. the nanometer Ni with lamellar structure according to claim 1 3s 2the preparation method of material, is characterized in that: the described nickel salt of step (1) is nickel nitrate, nickel chloride, nickel acetate or its crystallization water compound.
3. the nanometer Ni with lamellar structure according to claim 1 3s 2the preparation method of material, is characterized in that: the described weak base of step (1) is urea, ammoniacal liquor, sodium carbonate, sodium acetate or its crystallization water compound.
4. the nanometer Ni with lamellar structure according to claim 1 3s 2the preparation method of material, is characterized in that: the described solvent of step (1) is one or more in deionized water, absolute ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol.
5. the nanometer Ni with lamellar structure according to claim 1 3s 2the preparation method of material, is characterized in that: the uniform temperature that step (1) is described, the temperature that refers to insulating box is 120 ~ 200 oc.
6. the nanometer Ni with lamellar structure according to claim 1 3s 2the preparation method of material, is characterized in that: the described inorganic sulfosalt of step (3) is vulcanized sodium, cobalt sulfide, artificial gold or its crystallization water compound.
7. the nanometer Ni with lamellar structure according to claim 1 3s 2the preparation method of material, is characterized in that: the described solvent of step (3) is one or more in deionized water, absolute ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, ethylene glycol.
8. the nanometer Ni with lamellar structure according to claim 1 3s 2the preparation method of material, is characterized in that: the uniform temperature that step (3) is described, the temperature that refers to insulating box is 120 ~ 200 oc.
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