CN104182636B - A kind of array antenna radiation field and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation - Google Patents

A kind of array antenna radiation field and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation Download PDF

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CN104182636B
CN104182636B CN201410419309.4A CN201410419309A CN104182636B CN 104182636 B CN104182636 B CN 104182636B CN 201410419309 A CN201410419309 A CN 201410419309A CN 104182636 B CN104182636 B CN 104182636B
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array antenna
antenna
array
radiation
scattered
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CN104182636A (en
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王从思
王伟锋
薛敏
康明魁
王艳
王猛
段宝岩
黄进
王伟
宋立伟
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Xidian Univ
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of array antenna radiation field and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, including:1) array antenna structure parameter, electromagnetism running parameter, and front layout parameter are determined;2) determine the initial sparse arrangement of array antenna, obtain the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit;3) radiation field of computing array antenna and scattered field mouth face phase contrast;4) the antenna pattern function of computing array antenna, and calculate the maximum sidelobe levels of array antenna radiation field under this sparse arrangement;5) the scattering pattern function of computing array antenna, and calculate the maximum sidelobe levels of array antenna scattered field under this sparse arrangement;6) whether radiation field and scattered field under the sparse arrangement of this array antenna are judged while meeting Sidelobe requirement, until realized the optimum sparse arrangement of array antenna radiation field and scattered field Sidelobe requirement simultaneously.The method can realize the Sidelobe performance of array antenna radiation field and scattered field simultaneously.

Description

A kind of array antenna radiation field and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation
Technical field
The invention belongs to antenna technical field, and in particular to realize while array antenna radiation field and scattered field Sidelobe Method.
Background technology
Stealth technology occupies highly important status in modern war, has obtained the attention of increasing country and has sent out Exhibition.With the development and the application of new material of Stealthy Technology, RCS (the Radar Cross of target itself Section, RCS) it is very little, thus antenna has become the significant contributor of its platform RCS for being carried.Array antenna The radiation characteristic different from general separate antenna can be formed, the ratio separate antenna for pointing to certain segment space can be especially formed Much better than radiation, and because its reliability is high, function is more, detection and the advantage such as ability of tracking is strong, have been widely used for respectively Plant in radar system, and become the main flow of current radar development, particularly in advanced airborne the synthetical electronics information system To applying well.Under increasingly serious military struggle, develop and just highlight with high-gain, the array antenna of high Stealth Fighter It is particularly important.
The scattered field of array antenna includes antenna mode scattering field and structural mode scattering field, both with array There is scattering peak value using arrival bearing as the direct reflection direction of incident direction as reflecting surface in plane.In order to avoid minute surface The detected threat that scattering peak value alignment detection radar is caused, inclines the main flow peace that mounting means has become stealthy array antenna Dress mode.This mounting means avoids the detected threat that specular scattering peak value is caused.Simultaneously so that array antenna structure pattern The main lobe of item and antenna mode scattering field deviates arrival bearing, and so as to reach stealthy purpose, and its radiance can pass through The feed amplitude and phase place for controlling each unit is ensured.Can be in the case where radiance be ensured, it is to avoid minute surface is anti- Penetrate peak value alignment detection radar and cause the detected threat of array antenna.Although avoiding direct reflection peak value however, inclining and installing The detected threat for being directed at detection radar and causing, but, now in array, the secondary lobe and scattering peak value of scattered field become inclination The significant contributor of the RCS of Array Antenna of placement, becomes the chief threat that array antenna is detected.Meanwhile, low sidelobe antenna To electronically jamproof ability, the secondary lobe performance of array antenna is an important indicator of array radar system with good, It determines the anti-interference and anti-clutter ability of radar to a great extent, and low or ultralow side lobe array antenna is modern radar Common demands, are to be badly in need of one of key technology of solution.
Therefore, no matter from the angle of radar data reduction, or from the angle of stealthy effect considering, all should be using suitable When method the secondary lobe of array antenna radiation field and scattered field is controlled.
Research of the Chinese scholars to radiation field Sidelobe performance is more deep at present, but the Sidelobe performance of scattered field Research is less.Both at home and abroad for radiation field Sidelobe is realized typically adopting amplitude weighting, phase weighting and Density Weighted method.Its In, amplitude weighting causes each unit of phased array antenna connect the attenuator of different weights, adds additional system The complexity of cost and feed.Also, the scattering problems of array antenna cannot reduce minor level using amplitude weighting method;Phase Position method of weighting realizes that the effect of Sidelobe is limited, because only being difficult to obtain more preferable Sidelobe performance indications by phase weighting, And, phase weighting can not be used for the Sidelobe for realizing array antenna scattered field;Constant amplitude unequal-interval battle array in Density Weighted Fractal antenna unit interval obtained by row is to front structure design, heat dissipation design, and the engineering construction band such as technique processing Very big difficulty is carried out, the Sparse Array Sidelobe implementation method in Density Weighted is can be not only used for while realizing radiation field and dissipating The Sidelobe of field is penetrated, and compared with the full battle array with identical bore, almost with identical main lobe width, and relative to unit Then Sparse Array has the resolution of narrower main lobe and Geng Gao to the same number of array, while cost is lower than full battle array, this side Method is adopted by some large-scale high-performance phased array antenna.Therefore it provides a kind of sparse arrangement of antenna element, comes same When the quick Sparse Array radiation field of aerial and the Sidelobe of scattered field combination property of being formed become this area skill urgently to be resolved hurrily at present Art problem.
The content of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is that the secondary lobe that scattered field when installing is inclined for stealthy array antenna becomes its detected master Threaten, while radiation field Sidelobe determines that array antenna is anti-interference and anti-clutter ability, existing research only exists array day The implementation method of beta radiation field Sidelobe, and to deficiency that array antenna scattered field Sidelobe performance is difficult to.For this purpose, this It is bright to realize in scattered field Sidelobe in the pluses and minuses for analyzing array antenna radiation field Sidelobe implementation method, and these methods In restriction, it is proposed that array antenna radiation field based on the sparse arrangement of antenna element and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe are quickly realized Method.The method can realize array antenna radiation field and scattered field simultaneously by the arrangement form of change array antenna unit Sidelobe performance.
The technical solution for realizing the object of the invention is:
A kind of array antenna radiation field and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, including following process:
(1) version according to the equidistant rectangular grid array antenna of plane, determines array antenna structure parameter, electromagnetism Running parameter, and front layout parameter;
(2) according to array antenna structure parameter and front layout parameter, the initial sparse arrangement of array antenna is provided, Obtain the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit;
(3) structural parameters and electromagnetism running parameter according to array antenna, using array antenna unit arrangement parameter, calculate The radiation field and scattered field mouth face phase contrast of array antenna;
(4) the sparse arrangement matrix of associative array radiation field of aerial mouth face phase contrast, and array antenna unit, computing array The antenna pattern function of antenna, and array antenna under this sparse arrangement is calculated according to array antenna antenna pattern function The maximum sidelobe levels of radiation field;
(5) the sparse arrangement matrix of associative array antenna scattering Chang Kou faces phase contrast, and array antenna unit, computing array The scattering pattern function of antenna, and array antenna under this sparse arrangement is calculated according to array antenna scattering pattern function The maximum sidelobe levels of scattered field;
(6) according to array antenna design index, judge the radiation field and scattered field under the sparse arrangement of this array antenna Whether Sidelobe requirement is met simultaneously;If meeting, the sparse arrangement of this array antenna is realizes array antenna spoke simultaneously Penetrate the optimum sparse arrangement of field and scattered field Sidelobe;Otherwise, according to previous radiation field and scattered field maximum secondary lobe electricity Level values, update the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit by the method intersected and make a variation, and repeat step (3) is to step (6) Until meet requiring.
Further, in step (1), the determination array antenna structure parameter, including front grid line number, columns With horizontal, longitudinal grid distance;The determination array antenna electromagnetism running parameter, including center operating frequency, incidence wave Frequency;The determination array antenna front layout parameter, including the sparse rate of front.
Further, the step (2) provides the initial sparse arrangement of array antenna, determines original array antenna In whether place antenna element at each grid, obtain the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit, carry out according to the following procedure:
(2a) M × N number of grid is had in setting equidistant rectangular grid array antenna, wherein horizontal grid number is M, longitudinal grid Lattice number is N;The grid point value is designated as into 1 if antenna element is placed on some grid, by the grid if antenna element is not placed Lattice value is designated as 0, sequential storage each grid point value numbered according to the grid of equidistant matrix grid array antenna according to this, so as to To the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit;
(2b) the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit is set as F, the sparse rate of front is ξ, takes original array antenna element dilute White-out cloth matrix F (0) is [0,1] matrix of the random M rows N row for generating, and does not place antenna element in equidistant grid battle array Grid number N0With the grid number N for placing antenna element1Ratio meet
Further, the grid number N of antenna element is not placed in equidistant grid battle array0For the number in matrix for 0 element; Place the grid number N of antenna element1For the number in matrix for 1 element.
Further, the step (3) is carried out according to the following procedure:
(3a) set in the array antenna battle array of equidistant rectangular grid arrangement, point of observation P is located relative to coordinate system O-xyz Direction(cos φ are expressed as with direction cosinesx,cosφy,cosφz), then obtain folders of the point of observation P relative to coordinate axess Angle with the relation of direction cosines is
(3b) the horizontal and vertical grid distance of array antenna for setting equidistant rectangular grid arrangement is respectively dxAnd dy, then phase The antenna element at adjacent two grids (i, j) and (i-1, j-1) place at the target along x-axis, y-axis and z-axis space quadratureRespectively
Wherein, kr=2 π/λrFor space wave constant;λrFor antenna electromagnetic wavelength;
(3c) radiation field of the antenna element at (m, n) individual grid relative to the antenna element at (1,1st) individual grid Phase contrast ΔΦr mnFor
Scattered field phase contrast in array antenna between antenna element is the twice of phase contrast between radiation field-based antenna unit, Then equidistantly in rectangular grid array antenna, the antenna element at (m, n) individual grid relative to the (1, the 1) day at individual grid The scattered field phase contrast ΔΦ of line units mnFor
Wherein, ks=2 π/λsFor scattered field space wave constant, λsFor radar detection ripple wavelength; Represent the antenna element at (m, n) individual grid relative to the antenna element at (1,1st) individual grid along x-axis, y respectively The space quadrature of axle and z-axis;
(3d) by equidistant rectangular grid array antenna, the antenna element at each grid relative in array (1, 1) the antenna element radiation field phase contrast and scattered field phase contrast at individual grid, according to the sequential storage that array antenna grid is numbered Into the form of matrix, the radiation field mouth face phase contrast and scattered field mouth face phase contrast of array antenna are obtained final product.
Further, step (4) is carried out according to the following procedure:
(4a) according to array antenna electromagnetism superposition principle of wave and directional diagram product theorem, the array obtained using step (3c) Radiation field of aerial phase contrast ΔΦr mn, and the sparse arrangement matrix F of array antenna unit that step (2b) is obtainedmn, obtain the t time Under sparse arrangement F (t) of array antenna, the antenna pattern function of equidistant rectangular grid array antenna is
In formula, ImnIt is the exciting current of antenna element in battle array;For the radiating element factor;For spoke Penetrate array factor;According to interference and the principle of stacking of electromagenetic wave radiation, only need to calculate spoke in computing array antenna radiation characteristics Penetrate array factor
(4b) drawn according to antenna pattern function and obtain its antenna pattern, and calculate the sparse row of the t time array antenna Radiation field maximum sidelobe levels PSLL under cloth scheme F (t)r
Further, the radiation field under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antenna of step (4b) calculating is maximum Minor level PSLLrIt is accomplished by:
I) array antenna minor level is the corresponding field intensity value of each flex point in antenna pattern, forIt is flat Face, to obtain the flex point of antenna pattern function, order radiation array factorFirst derivative be zero, second dervative is little In zero, i.e.,
Wherein, θp=[θ12...θP] it is to radiate the corresponding orientation of each flex point in addition to main lobe in array factor directional diagram Angle, P are to radiate the flex point sum in array factor directional diagram;
II) each secondary lobe for being obtained in antenna pattern accordingly is
So as to the maximum sidelobe levels obtained in antenna pattern are
WhereinFor under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antennaPlane radiation field maximum sidelobe levels Corresponding azimuth.
Further, step (5) is carried out according to the following procedure:
(5a) analyzed according to the computing formula and antenna element phase contrast of RCS and understand that array radar dissipates Penetrating section is
Wherein, the scattering unit factorScattering array factor is
(5b) the array antenna scattered field phase contrast ΔΦ obtained using step (3c)s mn, and the battle array that step (2b) is obtained The sparse arrangement matrix F of array antenna unitmn, obtain under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antenna, equidistant rectangular grid battle array The scattering pattern function of array antenna is
According to interference and the principle of stacking of electromagenetic wave radiation, only need to calculate scattering in computing array antenna scattering characteristic Array factor
(5c) drawn according to scattering pattern function and obtain its scattering directional diagram, and calculate the sparse row of the t time array antenna Scattered field maximum sidelobe levels PSLL under cloth scheme F (t)s
Further, the scattered field under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antenna of step (5c) calculating is maximum Minor level PSLLsCarry out according to the following procedure:
I) array antenna scattered field minor level scatters the corresponding field intensity value of each flex point in directional diagram, forPlane, to obtain scattering the flex point of pattern function, order scattering array factorFirst derivative be zero, two Order derivative is less than zero, i.e.,
Wherein, θq=[θ12...θQ] it is to scatter the corresponding incidence of each flex point in addition to main lobe in array factor directional diagram Angle, Q are to scatter the flex point sum in array factor directional diagram;
II) obtain accordingly scatter directional diagram in each secondary lobe be
So as to obtain scattering the maximum sidelobe levels in directional diagram it is
WhereinFor under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antennaIn-plane scatter field maximum secondary lobe The corresponding angle of incidence of level.
Further, step (6) whether judge radiation field and scattered field under the sparse arrangement of this array antenna while Meet Sidelobe requirement, carry out according to the following procedure:
If (6a) while meeting
Then the sparse arrangement of this array antenna is and realizes array antenna radiation field and scattered field Sidelobe most simultaneously Excellent sparse arrangement, whereinWithArray antenna radiation field and scattered field Sidelobe respectively in engineering Design objective;
If (6b) being unsatisfactory for requiring, the method by intersecting and making a variation updates the sparse arrangement square of array antenna unit respectively Battle array;
Define the crossing-over rate G of F (t) and variation multiplying power H difference under the sparse arrangement matrix of the sparse arrangement of the t time antenna For
Then according to probability G by it is sparse arrangement matrix F (t) |M×NIn before (1-G) % rows, front (1-G) % column matrix element and (1-G) % rows, rear (1-G) % column matrix element exchange positions afterwards, if front (1-G) % matrix element and rear (1-G) % square Array element have overlap, then negate overlay elements value, and 0 element that will be in matrix is changed into 1 element;Meanwhile, by H in matrix, 2H...nH(nH<M) OK, H, 2H...nH (nH<N the matrix element for) arranging is negated, so as to obtain the sparse arrangement of the t+1 time antenna The sparse arrangement matrix of scheme is F (t+1) |M×N;Wherein, ω1, ω2, ω3, ω4For weight coefficient.
The present invention compared with prior art, has the characteristics that:
1. become for scattered field secondary lobe and incline the detected chief threat of mounted array antenna, and the low pair of radiation field For the importance of its capacity of resisting disturbance, the present invention passes through the sparse arrangement for changing antenna element in array antenna to lobe performance, together When realize the Sidelobe performance of array antenna radiation field and scattered field.Overcome existing research and only exist array antenna radiation field The implementation method of Sidelobe, and to deficiency that array antenna scattered field Sidelobe performance is difficult to.
2. the present invention passes through the pluses and minuses for analyzing array antenna radiation field Sidelobe implementation method, and in the low pair of scattered field Restriction in lobe realization, have found can be while the method for realizing radiation field and scattering Sidelobe, be that array antenna is radiated and dissipated The synthesis for penetrating performance have found new thinking and method, while the development for high-gain, high Stealth Fighter array antenna is provided Structural design scheme basis.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of technical solution of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is equidistant rectangular grid array antenna schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 is the sparse scheme iterative process of array antenna unit.
Fig. 4 is the array antenna first quartile 3D antenna patterns under the sparse scheme of optimum array antenna unit.
Fig. 5 is array antenna radiation field E face and H faces directional diagram under the sparse scheme of optimum array antenna unit.
Fig. 6 is array antenna scattered field RCS directional diagrams under the sparse scheme of optimum array antenna unit.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and embodiment the present invention will be further described.
With reference to Fig. 1, the array antenna radiation field and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe based on the sparse arrangement of antenna element is quickly real Existing method, comprises the following steps that:
Step one, determines structural parameters, the electromagnetism running parameter of array antenna, and front layout parameter
1.1) structural parameters of array antenna are obtained, including the structural parameters of equidistant rectangular grid array antenna, Including the horizontal grid number M of front, longitudinal direction grid number N and lateral cell spacing dx, longitudinal grid distance dy, as shown in Figure 2;
1.2) the electromagnetism running parameter of array antenna, including operating frequency f of the array antenna are obtainedrCymometer according to this The antenna wavelength λ of calculationr, the incident wave frequency f during radar illumination antennasThe radar illumination antenna that frequency is calculated according to this Incidence wave wavelength Xs
1.3) the front layout parameter of array antenna, including sparse rate ξ of front are obtained.
Step 2, determines the initial sparse arrangement of array antenna, obtains the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit
2.1) by the grid point value if placement antenna element on some grid of certain equidistant rectangular grid array antenna 1 is designated as, the grid point value is designated as into 0 if antenna element is not placed, according to this according to the grid of equidistant matrix grid array antenna The sequential storage of numbering each grid point value, so as to obtain the sparse arrangement matrix F of array antenna unit;
2.2) [0,1] matrix that the sparse arrangement matrix F (0) of original array antenna element is the random M rows N row for generating is taken, And in equidistant grid battle array, do not place the grid number N of antenna element0(being the number of 0 element i.e. in matrix) and place antenna element Grid number N1The ratio of (being the number of 1 element i.e. in matrix) meets
Step 3, the radiation field and scattered field mouth face phase contrast of computing array antenna
3.1) set in the array antenna battle array of equidistant rectangular grid arrangement, point of observation P is located relative to coordinate system O-xyz Direction(cos φ are expressed as with direction cosinesx,cosφy,cosφz).Folders of the point of observation P relative to coordinate axess is obtained then Angle with the relation of direction cosines is
3.2) the horizontal and vertical grid distance of array antenna for setting equidistant rectangular grid arrangement is respectively dxAnd dy, then phase The antenna element at adjacent two grids (i, j) and (i-1, j-1) place at the target along x-axis, y-axis and z-axis space quadratureRespectively
Wherein, kr=2 π/λrFor space wave constant;λrFor antenna electromagnetic wavelength;
3.3) radiation field of the antenna element at (m, n) individual grid relative to the antenna element at (1,1st) individual grid Phase contrast ΔΦr mnFor
Knowable to the scattering mechanism of array antenna, the scattered field phase contrast in array antenna between antenna element is radiation field The twice of phase contrast between antenna element.Then equidistantly in rectangular grid array antenna, the antenna element at (m, n) individual grid Relative to the scattered field phase contrast ΔΦ of the antenna element at (1,1st) individual grids mnFor
Wherein, ks=2 π/λsFor scattered field space wave constant, λsFor radar detection ripple wavelength; Represent the antenna element at (m, n) individual grid relative to the antenna element at (1,1st) individual grid along x-axis, y respectively The space quadrature of axle and z-axis;
3.4) by equidistant rectangular grid array antenna, the antenna element at each grid relative in array (1, 1) the antenna element radiation field phase contrast and scattered field phase contrast at individual grid, according to the sequential storage that array antenna grid is numbered Into the form of matrix, you can obtain the radiation field mouth face phase contrast and scattered field mouth face phase contrast of array antenna.
Step 4, the radiation field most first mate under computing array radiation field of aerial pattern function and now unit arrangement Lobe level
4.1) according to array antenna electromagnetism superposition principle of wave and directional diagram product theorem, the array day obtained using formula (4) Beta radiation field phase difference ΔΦr mn, and the sparse arrangement matrix F of array antenna unit that step (2.2) is obtainedmn, t is obtained Under sparse arrangement F (t) of secondary array antenna, the antenna pattern function of equidistant rectangular grid array antenna is
In formula, ImnIt is the exciting current of antenna element in battle array;For the radiating element factor;For spoke Penetrate array factor;According to interference and the principle of stacking of electromagenetic wave radiation, only need to calculate spoke in computing array antenna radiation characteristics Penetrate array factor
4.2) drawn according to antenna pattern function and obtain its antenna pattern, and calculate the sparse row of the t time array antenna Radiation field maximum sidelobe levels PSLL under cloth scheme F (t)r
Array antenna minor level is the corresponding field intensity value of each flex point in antenna pattern.ForPlane, To obtain the flex point of antenna pattern function, order radiation array factorFirst derivative be zero, second dervative is less than Zero, i.e.,
Wherein, θp=[θ12...θP] it is to radiate the corresponding orientation of each flex point in addition to main lobe in array factor directional diagram Angle, P are to radiate the flex point sum in array factor directional diagram;
Each secondary lobe that can be obtained in antenna pattern accordingly is
So as to the maximum sidelobe levels obtained in antenna pattern are
WhereinFor under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antennaPlane radiation field maximum sidelobe levels Corresponding azimuth.
Step 5, the scattered field most first mate under computing array antenna scattering field pattern function and now unit arrangement Lobe level
5.1) analyzed according to the computing formula and antenna element phase contrast of RCS and understand that array radar dissipates Penetrating section is:
Define the scattering unit factorScattering array factor is
5.2) the array antenna scattered field phase contrast ΔΦ obtained using formula (5)s mn, and the array that step (2.2) is obtained The sparse arrangement matrix F of antenna elementmn, it is obtained under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antenna, equidistant rectangular grid battle array The scattering pattern function of array antenna is:
According to interference and the principle of stacking of electromagenetic wave radiation, only need to calculate scattering when research calculates antenna scattering characteristic Array factor
5.3) drawn according to scattering pattern function and obtain its scattering directional diagram, and calculate the sparse row of the t time array antenna Scattered field maximum sidelobe levels PSLL under cloth scheme F (t)s
Array antenna scattered field minor level scatters the corresponding field intensity value of each flex point in directional diagram.For Plane, to obtain scattering the flex point of pattern function, order scattering array factorFirst derivative be zero, second dervative Less than zero, i.e.,
Wherein, θq=[θ12...θQ] it is to scatter the corresponding incidence of each flex point in addition to main lobe in array factor directional diagram Angle, Q are to scatter the flex point sum in array factor directional diagram;
Can obtain accordingly scatter directional diagram in each secondary lobe be
So as to obtain scattering the maximum sidelobe levels in directional diagram it is
WhereinFor under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antennaIn-plane scatter field maximum secondary lobe The corresponding angle of incidence of level.
Whether step 6, judge the radiation field and scattered field under the sparse arrangement of this array antenna while meeting Sidelobe Require
If 6.1) while meeting
Then the sparse arrangement of this array antenna as can realize array antenna radiation field and scattered field Sidelobe simultaneously Optimum sparse arrangement, whereinWithArray antenna radiation field and scattered field Sidelobe respectively in engineering Design objective;
If 6.2) be unsatisfactory for requiring, the method by intersecting and making a variation updates the sparse arrangement square of array antenna unit respectively Battle array;
Define the crossing-over rate G of F (t) and variation multiplying power H difference under the sparse arrangement matrix of the sparse arrangement of the t time antenna For:
Then according to probability G by it is sparse arrangement matrix F (t) |M×NIn before (1-G) % rows, front (1-G) % column matrix element and (1-G) % rows, rear (1-G) % column matrix element exchange positions afterwards, if front (1-G) % matrix element and rear (1-G) % square Array element have overlap, then overlay elements value is negated (0 element that will be in matrix is changed into 1 element).Meanwhile, by H in matrix, 2H...nH(nH<M) OK, H, 2H...nH (nH<N the matrix element for) arranging is negated, so as to obtain the sparse arrangement of the t+1 time antenna The sparse arrangement matrix of scheme is F (t+1) |M×N.Wherein, ω1, ω2, ω3, ω4For weight coefficient, in the present invention, ω is taken12 =1, ω34=2.
Advantages of the present invention can be further illustrated by following emulation experiment:
1. the structural parameters and electromagnetic parameter of array antenna, and front layout parameter are determined
(1.1) this experiment is with operating frequency fr=3GHz, wavelength XrAs a example by certain airborne radar of=100mm, equidistant square is taken 20 × 20 grids are had in shape grid array antenna, it is considered to which this experimental array antenna is directed to onboard radar system, therefore, 20 Front bore D is taken in × 20 grids for 10 λr(1000mm) equidistant 0.5 λ in, x, y directionr(50mm).Take antenna element For half-wave symmetry a period of time.Consider that the operating frequency of antenna is found out by non-partner, take radar detection wave frequency fsFor the antenna spoke Penetrate the center operating frequency of field, i.e. fs=fr=3GHz, incides the array with Ψ angles (- pi/2≤Ψ≤pi/2).And assume antenna Uniform weighting of the exciting current in mouth face using constant amplitude homophase, i.e. Imn=1;
(1.2) the more common sparse rate according to engineering thinned array in practice, the sparse rate of front is taken in this experiment for ξ= 67%.
2. determine that the initial bare cloth scheme of array antenna obtains the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit
[0,1] matrix that the sparse arrangement matrix F (0) of original array antenna element is the random M rows N row for generating is taken, and it is dilute Element in thin matrix for 1 is the 67% of the total element of whole matrix.Generated according to front bare cloth rate ξ at random in Matlab softwares Array antenna initial cell it is sparse arrangement matrix be
3. computing array radiation pattern function, radiation field maximum sidelobe levels value, and scattering field pattern letter Number, and scattered field maximum sidelobe levels value.
(3.1) according to formula (6), array antenna antenna pattern function is obtained, this day is calculated according to formula (7)~formula (12) Array antenna radiation field maximum sidelobe levels under line unit bare cloth scheme;
(3.2) according to formula (12), array antenna scattered field pattern function is obtained, is calculated according to formula (13)~formula (16) Array antenna scattered field maximum sidelobe levels under this antenna element bare cloth scheme.
4. optimum array antenna unit bare cloth scheme and electrical property result
The unit bare cloth matrix of array antenna is updated by intersecting and making a variation respectively and repeated according to formula (18) and formula (19) Calculate, convergence process is as shown in figure 3, through 400 renewals, i.e., during t=400, realized that radiation field and scattered field are low simultaneously The optimum array antenna unit bare cloth matrix F (400) of secondary lobe performance is:
According to this array antenna unit bare cloth matrix calculus obtain array antenna radiation field gain 3D directional diagrams (first as Limit) and E faces and H faces directional diagram are as shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5, scattering field pattern is as shown in Figure 6.Concrete data compare such as 1 institute of table Show.
Radiation field and scattered field maximum sidelobe levels value under the arrangement of 1 optimal antenna unit of table
Can be seen that under this array antenna unit bare cloth matrix from the data of Fig. 4~Fig. 6 and table 1, this array antenna Radiation field E face and H faces maximum sidelobe levels are respectively -24.98dB and -23.18dB, and scattered field secondary lobe is below -25dBsm. It can be seen that under this array antenna unit bare cloth scheme, array antenna radiation field and scattered field realize Sidelobe performance simultaneously.
Above-mentioned emulation experiment can be seen that and can pass through to change the unit arrangement of array antenna according to the inventive method, from And while realize the Sidelobe performance of array antenna radiation field and scattered field, while the method for the present invention is also array antenna radiation New thinking and method are provided with the synthesis of scattering property, the development for high-gain, high Stealth Fighter array antenna is provided Structural design scheme basis.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of array antenna radiation field and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, it is characterised in that including following mistake Journey:
(1) version according to the equidistant rectangular grid array antenna of plane, determines array antenna structure parameter, electromagnetism work Parameter, and front layout parameter;
(2) according to array antenna structure parameter and front layout parameter, the initial sparse arrangement of array antenna is given, is obtained The sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit;
(3) structural parameters and electromagnetism running parameter according to array antenna, using array antenna unit arrangement parameter, computing array The radiation field and scattered field mouth face phase contrast of antenna;
(3a) set in the array antenna battle array of equidistant rectangular grid arrangement, the direction that point of observation P is located relative to coordinate system O-xyz(cos φ are expressed as with direction cosinesx,cosφy,cosφz), then obtain point of observation P relative to coordinate axess angle with The relation of direction cosines is
(3b) the horizontal and vertical grid distance of array antenna for setting equidistant rectangular grid arrangement is respectively dxAnd dy, then obtain phase The antenna element at adjacent two grids (i, j) and (i-1, j-1) place at the target along x-axis, y-axis and z-axis space quadratureRespectively
&Delta;&Phi; x i , j = k r &CenterDot; d x &CenterDot; cos&phi; x &Delta;&Phi; y i , j = k r &CenterDot; d y &CenterDot; cos&phi; y &Delta;&Phi; z i , j = 0
Wherein, kr=2 π/λrFor space wave constant;λrFor antenna electromagnetic wavelength;
(3c) obtain radiation field of the antenna element at (m, n) individual grid relative to the antenna element at (1,1st) individual grid Phase contrast ΔΦr mnFor
&Delta;&Phi; r m n = &Delta;&Phi; x m , n + &Delta;&Phi; y m , n + &Delta;&Phi; z m , n = k r &CenterDot; &lsqb; ( m - 1 ) &CenterDot; d x &CenterDot; cos&phi; x + ( n - 1 ) &CenterDot; d y &CenterDot; cos&phi; y &rsqb; ;
Scattered field phase contrast in array antenna between antenna element is the twice of phase contrast between radiation field-based antenna unit, then To in equidistant rectangular grid array antenna, the antenna element at (m, n) individual grid relative to (1, the 1) day at individual grid The scattered field phase contrast ΔΦ of line units mnFor
&Delta;&Phi; s m n = 2 &CenterDot; ( &Delta;&Phi; x m , n + &Delta;&Phi; y m , n + &Delta;&Phi; z m , n ) = 2 &CenterDot; k s &CenterDot; &lsqb; ( m - 1 ) &CenterDot; d x &CenterDot; cos&phi; x + ( n - 1 ) &CenterDot; d y &CenterDot; cos&phi; y &rsqb;
Wherein, ks=2 π/λsFor scattered field space wave constant, λsFor radar detection ripple wavelength; Represent the antenna element at (m, n) individual grid relative to the antenna element at (1,1st) individual grid along x-axis, y-axis and z respectively The space quadrature of axle;
(3d) by equidistant rectangular grid array antenna, the antenna element at each grid relative in array (1, it is 1) individual Antenna element radiation field phase contrast and scattered field phase contrast at grid, according to the sequential storage of array antenna grid numbering into square The form of battle array, obtains final product the radiation field mouth face phase contrast and scattered field mouth face phase contrast of array antenna;
(4) the sparse arrangement matrix of associative array radiation field of aerial mouth face phase contrast, and array antenna unit, computing array antenna Antenna pattern function, and array antenna radiation is calculated under this sparse arrangement according to array antenna antenna pattern function The maximum sidelobe levels of field;
(5) the sparse arrangement matrix of associative array antenna scattering Chang Kou faces phase contrast, and array antenna unit, computing array antenna Scattering pattern function, and pattern function scattered according to array antenna calculate under this sparse arrangement array antenna scattering The maximum sidelobe levels of field;
(6) according to array antenna design index, judge whether are radiation field and scattered field under the sparse arrangement of this array antenna Meet Sidelobe requirement simultaneously;If meeting, the sparse arrangement of this array antenna is realizes array antenna radiation field simultaneously With the optimum sparse arrangement of scattered field Sidelobe;Otherwise, according to previous radiation field and scattered field maximum sidelobe levels value, The sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit, and repeat step (3) are updated to step (6) until full by the method intersected and make a variation Foot is required.
2. array antenna radiation field according to claim 1 and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, its feature It is, in step (1), the determination array antenna structure parameter, including front grid line number M, columns and horizontal, longitudinal direction Grid distance;The determination array antenna electromagnetism running parameter, including center operating frequency, incident wave frequency;It is described true Determine array antenna front layout parameter, including the sparse rate of front.
3. array antenna radiation field according to claim 1 and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, its feature It is that the step (2) provides the initial sparse arrangement of array antenna, determines in original array antenna at each grid Whether antenna element is placed, obtain the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit, carry out according to the following procedure:
(2a) M × N number of grid is had in setting equidistant rectangular grid array antenna, wherein horizontal grid number is M, longitudinal grid number For N;The grid point value is designated as into 1 if antenna element is placed on some grid, by the grid point value if antenna element is not placed 0 is designated as, sequential storage each grid point value numbered according to the grid of equidistant matrix grid array antenna according to this, so as to obtain battle array The sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit;
(2b) the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit is set as F, the sparse rate of front is ξ, takes the sparse row of original array antenna element Cloth matrix F (0) is [0,1] matrix of the random M rows N row for generating, and the grid of antenna element is not placed in equidistant grid battle array Number N0With the grid number N for placing antenna element1Ratio meet
N 1 N 1 + N 0 = &xi; .
4. array antenna radiation field according to claim 3 and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, its feature It is the grid number N that antenna element is not placed in equidistant grid battle array0For the number in matrix for 0 element;Place antenna element Grid number N1For the number in matrix for 1 element.
5. array antenna radiation field according to claim 3 and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, its feature It is that step (4) is carried out according to the following procedure:
(4a) according to array antenna electromagnetism superposition principle of wave and directional diagram product theorem, the array antenna obtained using step (3c) Radiation field phase contrast ΔΦr mn, and the sparse arrangement matrix F of array antenna unit that step (2b) is obtainedmn, obtain the t time array Under sparse arrangement F (t) of antenna, the antenna pattern function of equidistant rectangular grid array antenna is
In formula, ImnIt is the exciting current of antenna element in battle array;For the radiating element factor;For radiate battle array because Son;According to interference and the principle of stacking of electromagenetic wave radiation, only need in computing array antenna radiation characteristics calculate radiation battle array because Son
(4b) drawn according to antenna pattern function and obtain its antenna pattern, and calculate the sparse arrangement side of the t time array antenna Radiation field maximum sidelobe levels PSLL under case F (t)r
6. array antenna radiation field according to claim 5 and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, its feature It is, radiation field maximum sidelobe levels PSLL under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antenna of step (4b) calculatingr It is accomplished by:
I) array antenna minor level is the corresponding field intensity value of each flex point in antenna pattern, forPlane, be Obtain the flex point of antenna pattern function, order radiation array factorFirst derivative be zero, second dervative be less than zero, i.e.,Single order local derviation and second order local derviation to θ
Wherein, θp=[θ12...θP] it is to radiate the corresponding azimuth of each flex point in addition to main lobe in array factor directional diagram, P To radiate the flex point sum in array factor directional diagram;
II) each secondary lobe for being obtained in antenna pattern accordingly is
So as to the maximum sidelobe levels obtained in antenna pattern are
WhereinFor under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antennaPlane radiation field maximum sidelobe levels correspondence Azimuth.
7. array antenna radiation field according to claim 5 and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, its feature It is that step (5) is carried out according to the following procedure:
(5a) analyzed according to the computing formula and antenna element phase contrast of RCS and understand that array radar scattering cuts Face is
&sigma; = lim r &RightArrow; &infin; { 4 &pi;r 2 | E &RightArrow; s | 2 | E &RightArrow; i | 2 } = lim r &RightArrow; &infin; { 4 &pi;r 2 | E &RightArrow; E s e | 2 &CenterDot; | E &RightArrow; a s | 2 | E &RightArrow; i | 2 } = lim r &RightArrow; &infin; { 4 &pi;r 2 | E &RightArrow; E s e | 2 | E &RightArrow; i | 2 &CenterDot; | E &RightArrow; a s | 2 }
Wherein, the scattering unit factorScattering array factor is
(5b) the array antenna scattered field phase contrast ΔΦ obtained using step (3c)s mn, and the array that step (2b) is obtained The sparse arrangement matrix F of antenna elementmn, obtain under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antenna, equidistant rectangular grid array The scattering pattern function of antenna is
Wherein, j ' is plural number,
According to interference and the principle of stacking of electromagenetic wave radiation, only need in computing array antenna scattering characteristic calculate scattering battle array because Son
(5c) drawn according to scattering pattern function and obtain its scattering directional diagram, and calculate the sparse arrangement side of the t time array antenna Scattered field maximum sidelobe levels PSLL under case F (t)s
8. array antenna radiation field according to claim 7 and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, its feature It is, scattered field maximum sidelobe levels PSLL under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antenna of step (5c) calculatings Carry out according to the following procedure:
I) array antenna scattered field minor level scatters the corresponding field intensity value of each flex point in directional diagram, forIt is flat Face, to obtain scattering the flex point of pattern function, order scattering array factorFirst derivative be zero, second dervative is little In zero, i.e.,Single order local derviation and second order local derviation to θ
Wherein, θq=[θ12...θQ] it is to scatter the corresponding angle of incidence of each flex point in addition to main lobe in array factor directional diagram, Q To scatter the flex point sum in array factor directional diagram;
II) obtain accordingly scatter directional diagram in each secondary lobe be
So as to obtain scattering the maximum sidelobe levels in directional diagram it is
WhereinFor under sparse arrangement F (t) of the t time array antennaIn-plane scatter field maximum secondary lobe electricity Put down corresponding angle of incidence.
9. array antenna radiation field according to claim 1 and scattered field synthesis Sidelobe Fast implementation, its feature It is that step (6) judges whether radiation field and scattered field under the sparse arrangement of this array antenna are wanted while meeting Sidelobe Ask, carry out according to the following procedure:
If (6a) while meeting
PSLL r &le; PSLL r C PSLL s &le; PSLL s C
Then the sparse arrangement of this array antenna is and simultaneously realizes the optimum dilute of array antenna radiation field and scattered field Sidelobe Thin arrangement, whereinWithThe design of array antenna radiation field and scattered field Sidelobe respectively in engineering Index;
If (6b) being unsatisfactory for requiring, the method by intersecting and making a variation updates the sparse arrangement matrix of array antenna unit respectively;
Define the crossing-over rate G of F (t) and variation multiplying power H under the sparse arrangement matrix of the sparse arrangement of the t time antenna to be respectively
G = ( &omega; 1 &CenterDot; | PSLL r C PSLL r &lsqb; F ( t ) &rsqb; | &times; 100 % , &omega; 2 &CenterDot; | PSLL s C PSLL s &lsqb; F ( t ) &rsqb; | &times; 100 % ) m a x
Then according to probability G by it is sparse arrangement matrix F (t) |M×NIn before (1-G) % rows, front (1-G) % column matrix element and after (1-G) % rows, rear (1-G) % column matrix element exchange positions, if front (1-G) % matrix element and rear (1-G) % matrix Unit have overlap, then negate overlay elements value, and 0 element that will be in matrix is changed into 1 element;Meanwhile, by H in matrix, OK, the matrix element that H, 2H ... nH (nH < N) is arranged is negated 2H ... nH (nH < M), so as to obtain the sparse arrangement of the t+1 time antenna The sparse arrangement matrix of scheme is F (t+1) |M×N;Wherein, ω1, ω2, ω3, ω4For weight coefficient.
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