CN104177137B - A kind of microbial straw composing agent and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

A kind of microbial straw composing agent and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN104177137B
CN104177137B CN201410407424.XA CN201410407424A CN104177137B CN 104177137 B CN104177137 B CN 104177137B CN 201410407424 A CN201410407424 A CN 201410407424A CN 104177137 B CN104177137 B CN 104177137B
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powder
straw
fermentation
adsorbent
trichoderma
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CN201410407424.XA
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CN104177137A (en
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崔桂侠
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安徽飞天农用生物科技股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention provides a kind of microbial straw composing agent, the present invention selects and mutually still can not produce again the strain of antagonism by synergism: cellulase preparation, whiterot fungi, bacillus subtilis, thermophilic spore bacterium, Bacillus pumilus, the saccharomyces cerevisiae of splitting are as producing strain, straw main component there is strong decomposition, there is Biological control function simultaneously, the growth of the pathogen such as crop banded sclerotial blight, rice blast, root rotof flax, grey mould fruit rot of strawberry can be suppressed.The fabrication cycle of product of the present invention is relatively short, and production efficiency is high, cost is low, uses conveniently, safely.

Description

A kind of microbial straw composing agent and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of microbial straw composing agent and preparation method thereof, belong to agricultural technical field of microbe application.
Background technology
China is a large agricultural country, Model on Sown Areas of Farm ranks first in the world, containing huge nutrients resource in straw, the nutrient of Crop has about 50% to be retained in straw with the form of biomass, and therefore agricultural crop straw is one of material of enriching the most in the world.At present, nearly 3,000,000,000 tons of whole world crop material, China's agricultural crop straw annual output about 1,000,000,000 tons, account for the 1/3 of whole world stalk resource total amount, be the first in the world straw big country, and total output also has continuous growth trend.Agricultural crop straw is a valuable source of production estimation system, containing the multiple effective ingredient being utilized, except being mostly carbon, also rich in effective ingredient such as the elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and cellulose, half fiber, lignin, protein, aminoacid, it is that one has multiduty reproducible living resources.The mode adopting straw directly returning to field can improve the soil organism, improve soil physico-chemical property, and the input of chemical fertilizer after straw-returning, can also be reduced, nutrients ratio is made more to coordinate, the nutrients such as molybdenum that crop is absorbed from soil, manganese, copper, chlorine return to soil, thus improving crop yield, reach the purpose of efficent use of resources.
At present, in agricultural production, the utilization of agricultural crop straw there is also problems with:
1, formally also field rate is not high for agricultural crop straw, burning more, and crop straw burning had both wasted resource, contaminated environment, and can produce again a large amount of dense smoke affects environment and traffic safety;
2, after crops straw returning field, although can utilize self, the microorganism of environment complete the digest process of self, owing to agricultural crop straw is mainly made up of cellulose, half fiber and lignin, it is difficult to be decomposed by the Institute of Micro-biology in natural environment, therefore straw be decomposed in soil convert cycle longer, can not be fully utilized, also can affect physical behavior and the field farming of soil simultaneously.
Therefore, a kind of crops decomposing agent of research and development makes crop material quick composting, improves the operability of straw-returning, and this has important practical significance for advancing the sustainable development of the ecological agriculture.
But, currently used part straw decomposing inoculant is that chemosynthesis material is made, some decomposing agent is made up of the bioactive substance such as microorganism, enzyme, makes straw decomposing make Agricultural organic fertilizer by adding decomposing agent, but existing straw decomposing inoculant exists following defect:
(1) strain composition is of a great variety, and the effect of enzyme bacterium Synergistic degradation straw is not ideal;
(2) strain definite value in the straw system with soil constitution is indifferent;
(3) fermentation temperature is of a relatively high, and the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is also longer;
(4) manufacturing condition is complicated, and cost of manufacture is higher, is unfavorable for promoting the use of.
Therefore, research and develop a kind of high-efficiency multi-function, practicality easily operates, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is short, low cost straw decomposing inoculant seems imperative.
Summary of the invention
Present invention aim to overcome that the deficiency that prior art exists, it is provided that a kind of high-efficiency multi-function, practicality easily operates, the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed is short, save the straw decomposing inoculant and preparation method thereof of cost.This microbial straw composing agent makes to utilize in soil has strong decomposition to straw main component, mutually do not produce again the microbial strains of antagonism, there is Biological control function simultaneously, the growth of the pathogen such as crop banded sclerotial blight, rice blast, root rotof flax, grey mould fruit rot of strawberry can be suppressed, in manufacturing process, produce straw quick composting agent by Technologies such as the purification and rejuvenation, the liquid production of hybrid seeds, solid culture, cold drying.
The invention provides a kind of microbial straw composing agent, the present invention selects and mutually still can not produce again the strain of antagonism by synergism: cellulase preparation, whiterot fungi, bacillus subtilis, thermophilic spore bacterium, Bacillus pumilus, the saccharomyces cerevisiae of splitting are as producing strain.
Preferably, cellulase preparation is two or more hybrid solids fermentation in Trichoderma spp. and aspergillosis, prepares after fermented product drying and crushing.
Wherein, Trichoderma spp. includes Trichoderma viride, trichoderma reesei, healthy and free from worry Trichoderma spp., Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma harzianum, long shoot Trichoderma spp. etc..
Aspergillosis includes aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, solution equisetic acid aspergillosis, Aspergillus flavus etc..
Most preferably, described cellulase preparation is that fermented product drying and crushing prepares by two or more hybrid solid fermentation in trichoderma reesei, healthy and free from worry Trichoderma spp. and aspergillus niger.
Preferably, described whiterot fungi >=0.4 hundred million cfu/g.
Preferably, described bacillus subtilis >=0.2 hundred million cfu/g.
Preferably, described thermophilic splitting spore bacterium >=0.2 hundred million cfu/g, this suitableeest catalytic temperature of bacterium is 65 DEG C, the vigor of more than 75% is still had at 70 DEG C after being incubated 1 hour, optimum pH is 7.5, still has the vigor of 80% when pH10, has good temperature tolerance and pH stability.
Preferably, described Bacillus pumilus (Bacilluspumilus) is bacillus, thalline thin rod shape, it is generally 0.6-0.7 μ m 2.0-3.0 μm, Gram-positive, there is Biological control function, the growth of the pathogen such as crop banded sclerotial blight, rice blast, root rotof flax, grey mould fruit rot of strawberry can be suppressed.
Preferably, described saccharomyces cerevisiae >=0.2 hundred million cfu/g.
Preferably, described straw decomposing inoculant is powder dose-type.
The preparation method that present invention also offers a kind of mentioned microorganism straw decomposing inoculant, comprises the following steps:
(1) cellulase preparation is prepared
Two or more hybrid solids in Trichoderma spp. and aspergillosis are fermented, after fermented product drying and crushing, prepares cellulase preparation;
Wherein, Trichoderma spp. includes Trichoderma viride, trichoderma reesei, healthy and free from worry Trichoderma spp., Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma harzianum, long shoot Trichoderma spp. etc.;
Aspergillosis includes aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, solution equisetic acid aspergillosis, Aspergillus flavus etc.;
Preferably, described cellulase preparation is that fermented product drying and crushing prepares by two or more hybrid solid fermentation in trichoderma reesei, healthy and free from worry Trichoderma spp. and aspergillus niger;
Most preferably, described cellulase preparation is that trichoderma reesei and aspergillus niger are carried out 1:1 hybrid solid fermentation, and fermented product drying and crushing prepares;
Solid fermentation culture medium comprises wheat bran 50-80wt%, rice straw powder 25-40wt%, ammonium sulfate 1-5wt%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1-5wt%, calcium carbonate 1-5wt%, magnesium sulfate 0.1-1wt%, calcium chloride 0.1-1wt%, sodium chloride 0.1-1wt%;
Research shows, Trichoderma spp. can secrete the compositions such as the lignin in the exoenzyme decomposing straws such as lignoenzyme, cellulase, hemicellulase and cellulose;Aspergillus niger has the stronger ability dissolving multiple Phos and promotes the effect of plant growth.
(2) whiterot fungi is prepared
By whiterot fungi through fermenting twice, first time fermentation condition is 30-35 DEG C, cultivates 2-3 days, and every day stirs 2-3 time;Second time fermentation condition is 30-35 DEG C, cultivates 8-10 days, and every day stirs 5-10 time;First time fermented product joins in second time fermentation medium according to weight ratio 1:5-10, cultivates and adds adsorbent after terminating, and the weight of adsorbent is 10-15 times of culture substrate, prepares whiterot fungi powder after drying and crushing;
Wherein, whiterot fungi fermentation broth is glucose 20g/L, sucrose 15g/L, yeast powder 2g/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1.5g/L, Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate 0.5g/L and VB14 mg/L;
Solid medium is Testa Tritici 10-30wt%, rice straw powder 10-30wt%, Pericarppium arachidis hypogaeae 35-55wt%, soybean cake powder 1-5wt%, carbamide 0.1-2wt%, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 0.1-0.5wt%, magnesium sulfate 0.1-0.5wt% and a small amount of water;
Adsorbent is selected from one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, zeolite powder, bentonite and precipitated calcium carbonate.
(3) bacillus subtilis is prepared
By the original bacteria of bacillus subtilis after shaking table cultivation, seed culture, fermentor cultivation, by fermentation liquid centrifugal treating, being subsequently adding adsorbent, drying and crushing prepares bacillus subtilis powder;
Bacillus subtilis shaking table culture medium is meat soup, seed culture medium comprises Semen Maydis powder 1-10wt%, peptone 0.5-3wt%, soybean cake powder 0.5-3wt%, carbamide 0.1-1wt%, and fermentation tank culture medium comprises Semen Maydis powder 2-8%, peptone 0.5-3%, soybean cake powder 0.5-5%, carbamide 0.1-1%, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 0.1-1%;
Adsorbent is selected from one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, zeolite powder, bentonite and precipitated calcium carbonate.
(4) prepare and thermophilic split spore bacterium
By the thermophilic original bacteria splitting spore bacterium after shaking table cultivation, seed culture, fermentor cultivation, by fermentation liquid centrifugal treating, being subsequently adding adsorbent, drying and crushing is prepared and thermophilic is split spore mycopowder end;
Wherein, seed culture medium and fermentation medium are peptone 10g, yeast extract 5g, Carnis Bovis seu Bubali cream 5g, CMC-Na10g, distilled water 1000mL, pH7.2,121 DEG C;
Adsorbent is selected from one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, zeolite powder, bentonite, precipitated calcium carbonate.
(5) Bacillus pumilus is prepared
Liquid seed culture medium and fermentation medium be: Carnis Bovis seu Bubali cream 3g, peptone 10g, sodium chloride 10g, distilled water 1000mL;Bacillus pumilus is inoculated into liquid seed culture medium cultivate, after 2 days, is inoculated into fermentation tank and carries out liquid fermentation production, after fermentation liquid concentration retrogradation, according to 40%(v:w) add Testa Tritici, vacuum drying, being ground into strain powder, solid absorption microbial inoculum, cryopreservation is standby.
(6) saccharomyces cerevisiae is prepared
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inoculated into bean sprout juice seed culture medium, cultivation temperature 30 DEG C, is inoculated into fermentation tank in 8% ratio after cultivating 2 days and carries out liquid fermentation production, cultivates and adds adsorbent after terminating, the weight of adsorbent is 10-15 times of culture substrate, prepares after drying and crushing;
Adsorbent is selected from one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, zeolite powder, bentonite and precipitated calcium carbonate.
(7) straw decomposing inoculant is prepared
The above-mentioned solid fungicide of preparation is mixed by certain weight ratio, thus preparing straw decomposing inoculant.
Wherein: cellulase preparation 1-2 part, whiterot fungi powder 4-6 part, bacillus subtilis bacteria powder 2-3 part, thermophilic split spore bacteria powder 1-2 part, Bacillus pumilus powder 1-2 part, saccharomyces cerevisiae powder 0-3 part;
Most preferably, straw decomposing inoculant proportioning is: cellulase preparation 1 part, 4 parts of whiterot fungi powder, bacillus subtilis bacteria powder 2 parts, thermophilic split spore bacteria powder 1 part, 1 part of Bacillus pumilus powder, 1 part of saccharomyces cerevisiae powder.
In microbial straw composing agent provided by the invention antibacterial, fungus viable bacteria and enzyme preparation is composite, digest process multicomponent is collaborative plays usefulness, ratio single culture effect stability, quickly.Microbial straw composing agent the key technical indexes of the present invention is superior to Standard, produce according to GB20287-2006 " agricultural microbial agent ", enzyme lives isoparametric assay method according to NY2321-2013 " microbial manure examination and test of products code ", and testing result is table 1 below such as.
Product of the present invention and preparation method have the advantage that
(1) efficient quick composting, improves the soil organism
After using product of the present invention, Straw decomposing speed is accelerated, organic matter contained in straw and the element such as phosphorus, potassium become the nutrition needed for plant growing, and produce a large amount of beneficial microbe, microorganism is when decomposing straw, multiple organic acid can be produced, soil mineral composition is had certain solvability by organic acid, can nutrient in activating soil, promote the validation of nutrient, reduce the generation of crop nutritional deficiency disease, additionally it is possible to the physicochemical property of improvement soil, improve the soil organism, effectively fostering and apply fertilizer cultivated-land, reduce fertilizer application amount, environmental protection is pollution-free;
(2) composite flora is effective, multi-functional mutual supplement with each other's advantages
Product of the present invention selects senior middle school's low temperature strain with decomposition function, the flora group being one group brand-new is joined, adopt modern advanced biotechnology make each flora of its microorganism can harmonious coexistence, mutually promote, reach that enzymatic productivity is strong, antagonism is little, the effect of multi-functional mutual supplement with each other's advantages, wherein, lignin component in whiterot fungi energy rapid damage straw, makes the cellulose in straw, hemicellulose come out, considerably reduces the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed;Cellulase preparation is prepared by Mixed culture such as healthy and free from worry Trichoderma spp., trichoderma reesei and aspergillus nigers, and the cellulase wide variety produced, and the suitability is good;
(3) preventing and treating soil-borne disease, recruitment easy to use is few
Product of the present invention has Biological control function, can suppress the growth of the pathogen such as crop banded sclerotial blight, rice blast, root rotof flax, grey mould fruit rot of strawberry;After using product of the present invention, straw decomposing process can breed a large amount of beneficial microbe and produce macrometabolic element, plant growth can not only be stimulated, strengthening stress resistance of plant, and soil surface characters antagonistic Bacillus quantity dramatically increases, pathogenic microbes quantity significantly reduces;In addition, product of the present invention can also improve crop disease-resistant, drought resisting, cold tolerance, and meanwhile, product of the present invention only after crop harvesting, need to be spread on crop material surface before soaked field of pouring water, it is not necessary to individually increases cargo handling operation, easy to use, saving of work and time;
(4) fabrication cycle is relatively short, reduces cost
The present invention selects and mutually still can not produce again the strain of antagonism by synergism: cellulase preparation, whiterot fungi, bacillus subtilis, thermophilic spore bacterium, Bacillus pumilus, the saccharomyces cerevisiae of splitting are as producing strain, the above-mentioned solid fungicide of preparation is mixed by certain weight ratio, thus preparing straw decomposing inoculant, fabrication cycle is relatively short, production efficiency is high, cost is low, uses conveniently, safely.
Detailed description of the invention
The invention provides a kind of microbial straw composing agent, the present invention selects and mutually still can not produce again the strain of antagonism by synergism: cellulase preparation, whiterot fungi, bacillus subtilis, thermophilic spore bacterium, Bacillus pumilus, the saccharomyces cerevisiae of splitting are as producing strain.
Comprise the following steps:
(1) cellulase preparation is prepared
Two or more hybrid solids in Trichoderma spp. and aspergillosis are fermented, after fermented product drying and crushing, prepares cellulase preparation.Preferably, described cellulase preparation is that fermented product drying and crushing prepares by two or more hybrid solid fermentation in trichoderma reesei, healthy and free from worry Trichoderma spp. and aspergillus niger;Most preferably, described cellulase preparation is that trichoderma reesei and aspergillus niger are carried out 1:1 hybrid solid fermentation, and fermented product drying and crushing prepares;
The solid fermentation culture medium that solid fermentation uses comprises wheat bran 59wt%, rice straw powder 30wt%, ammonium sulfate 4wt%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3wt%, calcium carbonate 2wt%, magnesium sulfate 0.5wt%, calcium chloride 1wt%, sodium chloride 0.5wt%.
(2) whiterot fungi is prepared
By whiterot fungi through twice solid-substrate fermentation, first time fermentation condition is 30-35 DEG C, cultivates 2-3 days, and every day stirs 2-3 time;Second time fermentation condition is 30-35 DEG C, cultivates 8-10 days, and every day stirs 5-10 time;First time fermented product joins in second time fermentation medium according to weight ratio 1:5-10, cultivates and adds adsorbent after terminating, and the weight of adsorbent is 10-15 times of culture substrate, prepares whiterot fungi powder after drying and crushing;
Wherein, whiterot fungi fermentation broth is glucose 20g/L, sucrose 15g/L, yeast powder 2g/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1.5g/L, Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate 0.5g/L and VB14 mg/L;
Whiterot fungi fermentation solid medium comprises Testa Tritici 25wt%, rice straw powder 25wt%, Pericarppium arachidis hypogaeae 40wt%, soybean cake powder 5wt%, carbamide 2wt%, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 0.5wt%, magnesium sulfate 0.5wt% and a small amount of water;
Adsorbent is selected from one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, zeolite powder, bentonite and precipitated calcium carbonate;
(3) bacillus subtilis is prepared
By the original bacteria of bacillus subtilis after shaking table cultivation, seed culture, fermentor cultivation, by fermentation liquid centrifugal treating, being subsequently adding adsorbent, drying and crushing prepares bacillus subtilis powder;
Bacillus subtilis shaking table culture medium is meat soup, and seed culture medium comprises Semen Maydis powder 10wt%, peptone 2wt%, soybean cake powder 3wt%, carbamide 1wt%, and fermentation tank culture medium comprises Semen Maydis powder 8%, peptone 2%, soybean cake powder 4%, carbamide 1%, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 0.5%;
Adsorbent is selected from one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, zeolite powder, bentonite and precipitated calcium carbonate;
(4) prepare and thermophilic split spore bacterium
By the thermophilic original bacteria splitting spore bacterium after shaking table cultivation, seed culture, fermentor cultivation, by fermentation liquid centrifugal treating, being subsequently adding adsorbent, drying and crushing is prepared and thermophilic is split spore mycopowder end;
Wherein, seed culture medium and fermentation medium are peptone 10g, yeast extract 5g, Carnis Bovis seu Bubali cream 5g, CMC-Na10g, distilled water 1000mL, pH7.2,121 DEG C;
(5) Bacillus pumilus is prepared
Liquid seed culture medium and fermentation medium be: Carnis Bovis seu Bubali cream 3g, peptone 10g, sodium chloride 10g, distilled water 1000mL.Bacillus pumilus is inoculated into liquid seed culture medium cultivate, after 2 days, is inoculated into fermentation tank and carries out liquid fermentation production, after fermentation liquid concentration retrogradation, according to 40%(v:w) add Testa Tritici, vacuum drying, being ground into strain powder, solid absorption microbial inoculum, cryopreservation is standby;
(6) saccharomyces cerevisiae is prepared
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inoculated into bean sprout juice seed culture medium, cultivation temperature 30 DEG C, is inoculated into fermentation tank in 8% ratio after cultivating 2 days and carries out liquid fermentation production, cultivates and adds adsorbent after terminating, the weight of adsorbent is 10-15 times of culture substrate, prepares after drying and crushing;
(7) straw decomposing inoculant is prepared
The above-mentioned solid fungicide of preparation is mixed by certain weight ratio, thus preparing straw decomposing inoculant;
Wherein: cellulase preparation 1-2 part, whiterot fungi powder 4-6 part, bacillus subtilis bacteria powder 2-3 part, thermophilic split spore bacteria powder 1-2 part, Bacillus pumilus powder 1-2 part, saccharomyces cerevisiae powder 0-3 part.
Embodiment 1
1 part of cellulase preparation, 4 parts of whiterot fungi powder, 2 parts of bacillus subtilis bacteria powders, 1 part of thermophilic spore bacteria powder, 1 part of Bacillus pumilus powder and 1 part of saccharomyces cerevisiae powder of splitting are carried out Homogeneous phase mixing, a kind of microbial straw composing agent of preparation.
Embodiment 2
By 2 parts of cellulase preparations, 4 parts of whiterot fungi powder, 2 parts of bacillus subtilis bacteria powders, 1 part thermophilic split spore bacteria powder and 1 part of Bacillus pumilus powder carries out Homogeneous phase mixing, a kind of microbial straw composing agent of preparation.
Rice straw is become thoroughly decomposed the test report of effect by field experiment (one) decomposing agent
Test period: in July, 2012
Test site: Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province Xuwen County
For examination straw: rice straw.
This test arranges 2 testing sites at Xuwen County, and each testing site sets 5 process, and each treatment region area is not less than 30 square metres, and test sets 3 repetitions, processes random alignment, and also field pattern adopts rice straw direct returning to farmland.Concrete processing mode such as table 2 below:
Each field agronomic measures (implantation time, crop varieties, mu dose, irrigation quantity, pesticide dosage) processed is consistent.
Become thoroughly decomposed method: the field or be scattered in field after pulverizing of tiling after rice straw is weighed, be uniformly sprinkled into high-efficiency multi-function straw decomposing inoculant of the present invention by every mu of 2 kilograms of consumptions, then straw and decomposing agent are soaked in water and become thoroughly decomposed.
Rice straw uses after decomposing agent the 5th day, the 10th day, the 20th day, the 40th day to be observed rice straw and becomes thoroughly decomposed degree, as whether loose in cosmetic variation, color of becoming thoroughly decomposed, material structure, whether foul smelling etc.;Each process crop yield situation behind investigation rice straw also field;After testing front and off-test, each treatment region is both needed to gather soil sample, detects the soil organism, full nitrogen, available potassium equal size, the Nutrient change situation behind analysis rice straw also field with row assay method commonly used in the trade.
Result of the test shows, after rice straw uses high-efficiency multi-function straw decomposing inoculant of the present invention, the outward appearance of rice straw, color, structure, abnormal smells from the patient all there occurs notable change.In order to unify to observe, the rotten level of rice straw is about decided to be: the Huang of rice straw color, micro-Huang, brown Huang, black Huang are decided to be 1,2,3,4 grades respectively;The musty of rice straw abnormal smells from the patient, ammonia taste, vinosity, putrid taste are decided to be 1,2,3,4 grades respectively;Hard, the Microsoft of feel softening degree, soft, rot to be decided to be 1,2,3,4 grades respectively.Decomposition degree numerical value in respectively processing during statistics is three norms rating value sum, and numerical value this process rice straw of more big expression becomes thoroughly decomposed more fast, and effect is more obvious.
As can be seen from Table 3, after using straw decomposing inoculant, ratio does not use shifting to an earlier date all to some extent of straw decomposing inoculant, but after using high-efficiency multi-function straw decomposing inoculant of the present invention, rice straw time of becoming thoroughly decomposed shifts to an earlier date to some extent than conventional straw decomposing inoculant, and it is the fastest to process the time of becoming thoroughly decomposed of the embodiment 1 in four.
Table 3 rice straw decomposition degree application form
As can be seen from Table 4, the rice yield adopting rice straw also field is above the blank without rice straw also field, use straw decomposing inoculant and (process three, process four, process five) all increase than the rice yield not using straw decomposing inoculant (processing two) afterwards, but after using high-efficiency multi-function straw decomposing inoculant of the present invention, process four, process five and increase production 21.6 kilograms than the rice yield mu using conventional straw decomposing inoculant (processing three) respectively, 10.5 kilogram, process embodiment 1 in four due to become thoroughly decomposed effect preferably and yield is the highest, per mu yield is 615.4 kilograms, 11.1 kilograms are increased production than the embodiment 2 rice yield mu processed in five.
Become thoroughly decomposed test output statistics table in table 4 rice straw also field
Unit: kg/acre
By field test, rice straw can be accelerated rot it is shown that use microbial straw composing agent of the present invention, within first 10 days, not use the rotten effect of decomposing agent after using obvious.In rice straw also field process, use microbial straw composing agent of the present invention, rear stubble rice yield is had certain production-increasing function, process embodiment 1 effect in four best, be worth promoting.
The effect test report of becoming thoroughly decomposed to corn straw of field experiment (two) decomposing agent
Test period: in June ,-2013 in October, 2012.
Test site: Luquan City, Hebei province bureau of agriculture farm.
For studying thing: Semen Tritici aestivi, Ji wheat No. 26.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: test sets 4 process, repeats 3 times, random district group arranges, the concrete processing mode such as table 5 below of plot area each 150.
Test method:
(1) ploughed depth 20-30 centimetre, after turning over, ensure that soil has certain water content (>=20%);
(2) ensureing that straw has certain water content, in order to the growth of microorganism in organic matter decomposing inoculant and straw decomposing, each process straw water content is basically identical;
(3) base manure and straw decomposing inoculant are used simultaneously, are pulverized by crop material and spray after being laid in field, and every mu of straw decomposing inoculant 2kg is watered 20kg;
(4) each to process field agronomic measures consistent, community four prestige protection row and irrigation and drainage ditch, it is ensured that single fills, single;
(5) succession crop is Semen Tritici aestivi, it is ensured that between each process, agronomic measures (implantation time, crop varieties, dose, irrigation quantity, pesticide dosage) is consistent.
Detection project: adopt weight-loss ratio method record at different time, measure straw decomposing situation, the upgrowth situation of record Semen Tritici aestivi, compares yield.
1, corn straw is become thoroughly decomposed effect situation by organic matter decomposing inoculant
The straw decomposing situation (outward appearance, abnormal smells from the patient change) of table 6 different disposal
The straw decomposing situation (weightless change, meansigma methods) of table 7 different disposal
N0 is initial sky, and sample weighs 50g sample after putting 85 DEG C of drying 6h.
2, the straw-returning impact on Agronomic Characters in Wheat
The impact (meansigma methods) on Agronomic Characters in Wheat of table 8 straw-returning
3, the different disposal impact on winter wheat yields
Table 9 result of the test (amounting to per mu yield)
Table 10 variance analysis
Table 11 multiple comparisons
Be can be seen that by table 6, table 7, process 3, process 4 decomposition speed relatively to process 2 fast, two straw decomposition situations of change processed are compared from water colour, culm colour, feel decomposition degree, pulling force and abnormal smells from the patient aspect, after two weeks through straw decomposing inoculant process straw decomposition effect notable, check and odor identification finds through on-the-spot naked eyes, process 3, process 4 become thoroughly decomposed all that ratio is more thoroughly.
As can be seen from Table 9, corn straw direct returning to farmland is difficult to become thoroughly decomposed, and affects second stubble crop farming and yield.The wheat yield adopting straw-returning is above the blank without straw-returning, and after using high-efficiency multi-function straw decomposing inoculant of the present invention, process 3, process 4 increase production 7.58%, 6.67% respectively than processing 2, increase production 10.3%, 9.3% respectively than processing 1.
Test shows, uses high-efficiency multi-function straw decomposing inoculant of the present invention and can speed up the decomposition of corn straw, increases the yield of lower stubble Semen Tritici aestivi, and wherein the effect of embodiment 1 is best, it is possible to large scale application.

Claims (8)

1. a microbial straw composing agent, it is characterised in that: it produces the weight ratio of strain: for cellulase preparation 1-2 part, whiterot fungi powder 4-6 part, bacillus subtilis bacteria powder 2-3 part, thermophilic split spore bacteria powder 1-2 part, Bacillus pumilus powder 1-2 part, saccharomyces cerevisiae powder 0.1-3 part;
Wherein said whiterot fungi >=0.4 hundred million CFU/g, bacillus subtilis >=0.2 hundred million CFU/g, thermophilic spore bacterium >=0.2 hundred million CFU/g that split, described saccharomyces cerevisiae >=0.2 hundred million CFU/g.
2. microbial straw composing agent as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: described straw decomposing inoculant is powder dose-type.
3. microbial straw composing agent as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: described cellulase preparation is two or more hybrid solids fermentation in Trichoderma spp. and aspergillosis, prepares after fermented product drying and crushing.
4. microbial straw composing agent as claimed in claim 3, it is characterised in that: described Trichoderma spp. includes Trichoderma viride, trichoderma reesei, healthy and free from worry Trichoderma spp., Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma harzianum, long shoot Trichoderma spp..
5. microbial straw composing agent as claimed in claim 3, it is characterised in that: described aspergillosis includes aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, solution equisetic acid aspergillosis, Aspergillus flavus.
6. the preparation method of the microbial straw composing agent as described in as arbitrary in claim 1-5, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) cellulase preparation is prepared
Two or more hybrid solids in Trichoderma spp. and aspergillosis are fermented, after fermented product drying and crushing, prepares cellulase preparation;
Solid fermentation culture medium comprises wheat bran 50-80wt%, rice straw powder 25-40wt%, ammonium sulfate 1-5wt%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1-5wt%, calcium carbonate 1-5wt%, magnesium sulfate 0.1-1wt%, calcium chloride 0.1-1wt%, sodium chloride 0.1-1wt%;
(2) whiterot fungi is prepared
By whiterot fungi through fermenting twice, first time fermentation condition is 30-35 DEG C, cultivates 2-3 days, and every day stirs 2-3 time;Second time fermentation condition is 30-35 DEG C, cultivates 8-10 days, and every day stirs 5-10 time;First time fermented product joins in second time fermentation medium according to weight ratio 1:5-10, cultivates and adds adsorbent after terminating, and the weight of adsorbent is 10-15 times of culture substrate, prepares whiterot fungi powder after drying and crushing;
Wherein, whiterot fungi fermentation broth is glucose 20g/L, sucrose 15g/L, yeast powder 2g/L, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1.5g/L, Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate 0.5g/L and VB14 mg/L;
Solid medium is Testa Tritici 10-30wt%, rice straw powder 10-30wt%, Pericarppium arachidis hypogaeae 35-55wt%, soybean cake powder 1-5wt%, carbamide 0.1-2wt%, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 0.1-0.5wt%, magnesium sulfate 0.1-0.5wt% and a small amount of water;
Adsorbent is selected from one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, zeolite powder, bentonite and precipitated calcium carbonate;
(3) bacillus subtilis is prepared
By the original bacteria of bacillus subtilis after shaking table cultivation, seed culture, fermentor cultivation, by fermentation liquid centrifugal treating, being subsequently adding adsorbent, drying and crushing prepares bacillus subtilis powder;
Wherein bacillus subtilis shaking table culture medium is meat soup, seed culture medium comprises Semen Maydis powder 1-10wt%, peptone 0.5-3wt%, soybean cake powder 0.5-3wt%, carbamide 0.1-1wt%, and fermentation tank culture medium comprises Semen Maydis powder 2-8%, peptone 0.5-3%, soybean cake powder 0.5-5%, carbamide 0.1-1%, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate 0.1-1%;
Adsorbent is selected from one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, zeolite powder, bentonite and precipitated calcium carbonate;
(4) prepare and thermophilic split spore bacterium
By the thermophilic original bacteria splitting spore bacterium after shaking table cultivation, seed culture, fermentor cultivation, by fermentation liquid centrifugal treating, being subsequently adding adsorbent, drying and crushing is prepared and thermophilic is split spore mycopowder end;
Wherein, seed culture medium and fermentation medium are peptone 10g, yeast extract 5g, Carnis Bovis seu Bubali cream 5g, CMC-Na10g, distilled water 1000mL, pH7.2,121 DEG C;
Adsorbent is selected from one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, zeolite powder, bentonite and precipitated calcium carbonate;
(5) Bacillus pumilus is prepared
Liquid seed culture medium and fermentation medium be: Carnis Bovis seu Bubali cream 3g, peptone 10g, sodium chloride 10g, distilled water 1000mL;Bacillus pumilus is inoculated into liquid seed culture medium cultivate, after 2 days, is inoculated into fermentation tank and carries out liquid fermentation production, after fermentation liquid concentration retrogradation, add Testa Tritici, vacuum drying according to 40%v/w, being ground into strain powder, solid absorption microbial inoculum, cryopreservation is standby;
(6) saccharomyces cerevisiae is prepared
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is inoculated into bean sprout juice seed culture medium, cultivation temperature 30 DEG C, is inoculated into fermentation tank in 8% ratio after cultivating 2 days and carries out liquid fermentation production, cultivates and adds adsorbent after terminating, the weight of adsorbent is 10-15 times of culture substrate, prepares after drying and crushing;
Adsorbent is selected from one or more in the peat composed of rotten mosses, zeolite powder, bentonite, precipitated calcium carbonate;
(7) straw decomposing inoculant is prepared
The above-mentioned solid fungicide of preparation is mixed by certain weight ratio, thus preparing straw decomposing inoculant.
7. the preparation method of microbial straw composing agent as claimed in claim 6, it is characterised in that: the cellulase preparation described in step (1) is that trichoderma reesei and aspergillus niger are carried out 1:1 hybrid solid fermentation, and fermented product drying and crushing prepares.
8. the preparation method of microbial straw composing agent as claimed in claim 6, it is characterised in that: solid fungicide described in step (7) is prepared by following weight ratio: cellulase preparation 1 part, 4 parts of whiterot fungi powder, bacillus subtilis bacteria powder 2 parts, thermophilic split spore bacteria powder 1 part, 1 part of Bacillus pumilus powder, 1 part of saccharomyces cerevisiae powder.
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