CN104167226A - Liquid metal cooling reactor experimental system capable of realizing critical and subcritical running test - Google Patents

Liquid metal cooling reactor experimental system capable of realizing critical and subcritical running test Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104167226A
CN104167226A CN201410453769.9A CN201410453769A CN104167226A CN 104167226 A CN104167226 A CN 104167226A CN 201410453769 A CN201410453769 A CN 201410453769A CN 104167226 A CN104167226 A CN 104167226A
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reactor
neutron source
subcritical
critical
experimental system
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CN104167226B (en
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柏云清
吴宜灿
宋勇
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Hefei Institutes of Physical Science of CAS
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Hefei Institutes of Physical Science of CAS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E30/00Energy generation of nuclear origin
    • Y02E30/30Nuclear fission reactors

Abstract

The invention discloses a liquid metal cooling reactor experimental system capable of realizing critical and subcritical running test. The liquid metal cooling reactor experimental system consists of a safety vessel (1), a main vessel (2), a reactor inner supporting structure (3), a reactor core (4), a central measuring column (5), a main heat exchanger (6), a reloading mechanism (7), a reactor top cover (8), a control bar drive mechanism (9) and a neutron source (10); when the critical running test is performed, the neutron source (10) adopts a californium-252 neutron source or a Be-Am neutron source; when the subcritical running test is performed, the neutron source (10) adopts a spallation neutron source or a deuterium tritium neutron source, an isotopic neutron source and a fuel component in the middle part of the reactor core are replaced by an accelerator neutron source according to the real requirement of the spallation neutron source, and the reactor can have the subcritical running test. The reactor experimental system is naturally and circularly cooled by adopting liquid lead-bismuth or lead, so that the usability of the reactor can be improved, the experimental cost can be reduced, and the multifunctional reactor experimental system characteristics can be achieved.

Description

A kind of liquid-metal cooled reactor experimental system that realizes critical and subcritical running experiment
Technical field
The invention belongs to reactor experimental system design technical field, a kind of liquid heavy metal natural circulation cooling reactor experimental system that realizes critical and subcritical running experiment of specific design.
Background technology
Liquid-metal cooled reactor is simple in structure, and all cooling mediums all, in a container, are avoided occurring a circuit cools agent and lost (LOCA) accident, and the security that can effectively improve reactor, is important candidate's heap type of advanced reactor.In six kinds of the 4th generation of technology such as nuclear energy system issuing in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), sodium-cooled fast reactor and Lead cooled fast breeder reactor all belong to liquid-metal cooled reactor.In Accelerator Driven Subcritical reactor (ADS) design, also adopt liquid-metal cooled reactor.
Liquid-metal cooled reactor experimental system is the necessary system equipment of liquid-metal cooled reactor technical development.Especially more great for meaning the research of the Lead cooled fast breeder reactor in the conceptual approach stage still and Accelerator Driven Subcritical heap.By reactor experimental system, can verify neutronics, thermohydraulics and the security feature of novel reaction heap, novel reaction be can test and required fuel and material property piled, can accumulate design, construction and the operating experience of reactor.
Liquid-metal cooled reactor can be divided into critical pile and subcritical reactor according to operational mode, according to conventional design scheme, for the reactor of different operational modes, need to build respectively critical pile experimental system and subcritical reactor experimental system and subcritical reactor experimental system.Reactor experimental system, according to power level, can be divided into the hot Power operation test unit of cold conditions zero power assembly.
China Atomic Energy Science Research Institute is the zero energy critical assembly (east wind 6) that developmental threshold fast reactor technology is built, and a zero energy subcritical assembly (Venus) of building for development Accelerator Driven Subcritical heap technology and Belgian SCKCEN research institution are that a zero energy subcritical assembly (GUINEVERE) of development Accelerator Driven Subcritical device construction all belongs to cold conditions zero power assembly.SCKCEN research institution of Belgium is that the 100MW reactor MYRRHA of development ADS technical design and Italian ENEA research institution are that the 80MW-XADS of development ADS technical design belongs to liquid Power operation test unit, and reactor can only carry out subcritical running test.
To realize critical operation experiment and subcritical running experiment at same reactor system, need resolve the transformation problem of system, to meet different service condition requirements.At the reactor system of existing operation, as presurized water reactor and sodium-cooled fast reactor, due to the restriction of special service condition, very large to the transformation difficulty of reactor core and reactor system.When water pressuring stacking operation, be hyperbaric environment, sealing for pressure vessels and integrality require very high, are not suitable for being transformed into the subcritical system of introducing neutron source from the external world.When sodium-cooled fast reactor operation, there is seal request, prevent that Liquid Sodium from contacting generation sodium fire with air, be not suitable for being transformed into the subcritical system of introducing neutron source from the external world equally.
The density of the general fuel assembly of density ratio of liquid heavy metal is high, and fuel assembly needs the mode that adopts machinery fixing in heap, to avoid the fuel assembly problem of bringing that floats.And the fixing mode of machinery may be because the problem such as irradiation and corrosion lost efficacy under high-temperature liquid state heavy metal environment.Utilizing increase high density weight material to make macroscopical density of assembly be greater than coolant density can realize inherently safe.
The reactor of different operational modes is arranged differently due to reactor core, and core power density difference is large, is difficult to realize suitable assignment of traffic, and core exit temperature inhomogeneous broadening effect is obvious, may cause the overheated and safety problem brought of some assembly.Utilize the assignment of traffic self-regulation effect that the density difference of liquid heavy metal brings can realize different inter-modules by actual conditions dispense flow rate.
Within 2011, institute of Chinese section has started the strategic guide's science and technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences special " following advanced nuclear fission energy-ADS transmuting system ", plan is by the enforcement of three phases, complete respectively the experimental study that is built in of ADS research device, ADS experimental provision and ADS demonstration plant, after the year two thousand thirty, build up ADS transmuting Industrial demonstration system, the gordian technique of grasping nuke rubbish transmuting processing, makes China enter ranks advanced in the world in the capability of independent innovation in advanced nuclear energy field.A kind of liquid-metal cooled reactor experimental system that realizes critical and subcritical running experiment involved in the present invention can be carried out ADS system and Lead cooled fast breeder reactor technology experiment, for ADS technical research and the research of China liquid metal cooled fast heap provide Important Platform.
Summary of the invention
The technical matters that the present invention overcomes: overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of liquid-metal cooled reactor experimental system that realizes critical and subcritical running experiment is provided, can in same set of experimental system, carry out critical operation experiment and subcritical running experiment, in the time carrying out critical operation experiment, neutron source adopts californium-252 or Be-Am isotope neutron source, and reactor can carry out critical operation experiment; In the time carrying out subcritical running experiment, neutron source adopts spallation neutron source, according to the actual needs of spallation neutron source, isotope neutron source and the fuel assembly at reactor core middle part is replaced to accelerator neutron generator, and reactor can carry out subcritical running experiment.This reactor experimental system can realize critical operation and subcritical operation by changing different neutron source, has improved the availability of reactor, has reduced experimental cost, possesses polyfunctional reactant heap and realizes system performance.
Technical solution of the present invention: a kind of liquid-metal cooled reactor experimental system that realizes critical and subcritical running experiment, is made up of safety container, primary tank, heap inner supporting structure, reactor core, center measurement column, main heat exchanger, refueling agency, heap top cover, control rod drive mechanisms (CRD) and neutron source.Described safety container and primary tank are the double-decker of similar water bottle liner type, described heap top cover is flat cover form, be arranged on the upper edge of primary tank, described refueling agency is arranged on the center of heap top cover, four described main heat exchangers are installed in the annular region of heap top cover, described heap inner supporting structure is welded in position more than primary tank bottom (head), for reactor core provides support and locates, described neutron source is positioned at reactor core center position, adopt the fuel assembly form identical with reactor core, described center measurement column is welded in the bottom of refueling agency main body, be positioned at the top of reactor core, in the time carrying out critical operation experiment, neutron source adopts isotope neutron source, is positioned at reactor core center, and reactor is in critical operation pattern, in the time carrying out subcritical running experiment, neutron source adopts accelerator bombardment spallation target that neutron source is provided, and is positioned at reactor core center, and extracting part is divided peripheral fuel assembly, makes reactor in subcritical operational mode.
Wherein, reactor has from critical to subcritical, dual mode operated ability; By the distant operation refueling agency of double whirl-plug rocker-arm, interior reactor core one deck fuel assembly and isotope neutron source are extracted out, by out-pile mechanically actuated apparatus, the accelerator neutron generator in heap top cover is inserted to reactor core reserving hole channel, until subcritical neutron source bottom is positioned at reactor core center, realize operational mode conversion.
Wherein, can realize assembly flow quantity self-adjusting joint effect by the mode of natural circulation cooling, heap in-core coolant flux distribution relies on the different density variations that produce of the power of assembly to realize, can realize core exit temperature homogenising, the instability impact of simultaneously having avoided forced convection to drive reactor core assembly is brought.
Described reactor experimental system adopts modular design, by refueling agency, interior reactor core one deck fuel assembly and critical neutron source are extracted out, by out-pile mechanically actuated apparatus, subcritical neutron source is inserted to reactor by the reserving hole channel in cock, until subcritical neutron source bottom is positioned at reactor core center, realize operational mode conversion.
Described reactor experimental system heap top cover is ring-like with one heart, is made up of large rotating plug and pet cock, and parts adopt modular design, and duct is left at large rotating plug center, for subcritical neutron source is installed.
Described reactor experimental system reactor core is made up of replaceable fuel assembly, and fuel assembly can adopt hexagonal fuel assembly.
Described reactor experimental system neutron source is designed with critical neutron source and subcritical neutron source two is overlapped parts, and critical neutron source can adopt 252Cf neutron source, and subcritical neutron source can adopt Accelerator driven spallation target neutron source.
Innovative point of the present invention is:
(1) reactor experimental system of the present invention adopts modular design, can in same block response heap experimental system, carry out critical operation experiment and subcritical running experiment by changing different neutron source realizations, improve the availability of reactor experimental system, reduce experimental cost, possessed polyfunctional reactant heap experimental system characteristic.
(2) coolant system of the present invention adopts lead bismuth alloy or plumbous natural circulation cooling, can realize the flow quantity self-adjusting joint under different reactor core arrangement condition, obtains uniform outlet temperature, can avoid forced convection to drive the assembly instability problem causing simultaneously.
(3) the present invention, by isotope neutron source and reactor core middle part fuel assembly are replaced with to accelerator neutron generator scheme, realizes the conversion from critical operation experimental system to subcritical running experiment system.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is longitudinal figure of critical operation experiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the transverse view of critical operation experiment of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is longitudinal figure of the subcritical running experiment of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the transverse view of the subcritical running experiment of the present invention.
Embodiment
Further illustrate the present invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and specific embodiment.
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of liquid-metal cooled reactor experimental system that realizes critical and subcritical running experiment provided by the invention, is made up of safety container 1, primary tank 2, heap inner supporting structure 3, reactor core 4, center measurement column 5, main heat exchanger 6, refueling agency 7, heap top cover 8, control rod drive mechanisms (CRD) 9 and neutron source 10.
Safety container 1 is made up of cylindrical housings and bottom bulkhead, similar to primary containment structure, its function is that safety container will contain a circuit cools agent in the time that primary tank occurs to leak, and ensure in primary tank that plumbous bismuth liquid level is higher than afterheat heat exchanger inlet window, guarantee that residual heat removal system normally works.Space between safety container and primary tank, is filled with argon shield, and plumbous bismuth leak detector, pressure detection and overpressure protection system are installed, and carries out safety detection by distant behaviour's equipment.
Primary tank 2 is cylindrical vessels that are welded by cylindrical housings and ellipse end socket, and sidewall does not have penetration piece.Primary tank contains circuit cools agent and a blanketing gas, and support stack inner member prevents that the radiomaterial that nuclear reaction produces from leaking.Between primary tank inner side and hot plumbous bismuth pond, thermoshield is housed, and carries out cooling by ad hoc passage to it.
Heap inner supporting structure 3 cylinders and conically shaped are formed by connecting horizontally disposed plate, are fixed by welding in primary tank bottom, in order to ensure the rigidity of structure, in heap inner supporting structure, install radial floor additional.Heap inner supporting structure, mainly in order to support reactor diagrid, forms the lateral boundaries of reactor core entrance chamber, by reactor core region and reactor core upper area and main heat exchanger region separation, and refuelling system in containing reactor core and piling.The inner ring of a heap inner supporting structure outwards recessed region is used for installing the hoister that reloads.
Reactor core 4 is made up of replaceable fuel assembly, and fuel assembly can adopt hexagonal fuel assembly or quadrilateral fuel assembly, in the time carrying out subcritical running test, and the replaceable one-tenth spallation target of parts in reactor core.
Center measurement column 5 is the cylindric welded case with dished (torispherical) head, and horizontal grid plate and conduit are installed in inside, is positioned at the center of cock below, is split-type design, and its main part is welded on large rotating plug, and part sector region is welded on pet cock.On the measurement column of center, be welded with control rod guiding mechanism and thermopair conduit, for positioning control rod conduit hoisting gear and measuring system.
The outside of main heat exchanger 6 is sleeve pipe, is mainly fixing and support main heat exchanger.On sleeve pipe, leave plumbous bismuth inlet window, and the inlet window correspondence of main heat exchanger
Reactor is the difference in height with main heat exchanger 6 by reactor core 4, and the density difference of plumbous bismuth cooling medium, provides pressure head to realize the type of cooling of Natural Circulation.Due to the density p=11367-1.1944*T of plumbous bismuth, obviously reduce with increase in temperature density, can carry out by the density difference of reactor core 4 different fuel component power the assignment of traffic of Natural Circulation.
The equipment that refueling agency 7 comprises has: refueling machine and the interior lifter of heap etc. in double whirl-plug (large rotating plug and pet cock), heap.Top cover is concentric installs with heap for large rotating plug, and pet cock is installed with large rotating plug is eccentric, and refueling machine is arranged on pet cock eccentric position, and large pet cock and refueling machine and mechanical arm thereof form three grades of toggles, carry out reloading in reactor.Refuelling system in heap, can realize in the complete totally enclosed situation of reaction vessel, realizes the charge and discharge operations of heap fuel assembly in the plumbous bismuth environment of high temperature.The passage that enters reactor for proton beam system is left at the center of large rotating plug simultaneously, uses shield to fill in the time of critical operation.
Heap top cover 8 adopts the form of flat cover, and it is ring-like with one heart that entirety is.The large rotating plug that reloads is positioned at heap top cover center, for reloading, and locates and supporting for control rod drive mechanisms (CRD), measuring system etc. provide.Large rotating plug is supported by thrust ball bearing by top cover.The supporting structure of 4 main heat exchangers is symmetrical between two on heap top cover top.A spare bits between main heat exchanger is set to the lifting hole that reloads.
Control rod drive mechanisms (CRD) 9 is made up of two cover control rod drives structure, and first set reactivity control system is made up of regulating rod assembly, shim rod assembly and control rod drive mechanisms (CRD) thereof.Regulating rod assembly and shim rod assembly all adopt the secondary formula control rod drive mechanisms (CRD) of ball-screw-screw.The second cover control rod system is utilized the buoyancy of control rod Qian bismuth solution, completes emergency shut-down task.
As shown in Figure 2, the transverse view of being tested from critical operation, in the time carrying out subcritical running experiment, neutron source 10 is positioned at reactor core centre position, adopts californium-252 or the Be-Am neutron source of hexagon assembly form.
Main heat exchanger 6 is long round section, can effectively utilize the space between reactor core and container.Four main heat exchangers 6 in reactor 90 ° be uniformly distributed, can effectively ensure that in reactor, temperature field and Flow Field Distribution are even.
As shown in Figure 3, from longitudinal figure of subcritical running experiment, in the time carrying out subcritical running experiment, neutron source 10 adopts spallation neutron source or deuterium tritium neutron source, through heap top cover 8, vertically inserts reactor core 4 centers from top.
As shown in Figure 4, from the transverse view of subcritical running experiment, in the time carrying out subcritical running experiment, interior reactor core 4 one deck fuel assembly and isotope neutron source are extracted out, accelerator neutron generator in heap top cover 8 is inserted to reactor core 4 reserving hole channels, until subcritical neutron source bottom is positioned at reactor core 4 centers, realize operational mode conversion.

Claims (4)

1. can realize the liquid-metal cooled reactor experimental system of critical and subcritical running experiment for one kind, it is characterized in that: this reactor experimental system is by safety container (1), primary tank (2), heap inner supporting structure (3), reactor core (4), center measurement column (5), main heat exchanger (6), refueling agency (7), heap top cover (8), control rod drive mechanisms (CRD) (9), and neutron source (10) composition, described safety container (1) and primary tank (2) are the double-decker of similar water bottle liner type, described heap top cover (8) is flat cover form, be arranged on the upper edge of primary tank (2), described refueling agency (7) is arranged on the center of heap top cover (8), described four main heat exchangers (6) are installed in the annular region of heap top cover (8), described heap inner supporting structure (3) is welded in primary tank (2) position more than bottom (head), for reactor core (4) provides support and locates, described neutron source (10) is positioned at reactor core center position, adopt the fuel assembly form identical with reactor core, described center measurement column (5) is welded in the bottom of refueling agency (7) main body, be positioned at the top of reactor core (4), in the time carrying out critical operation experiment, neutron source (10) adopts isotope neutron source, is positioned at reactor core (4) center, and reactor is in critical operation pattern, in the time carrying out subcritical running experiment, neutron source (10) adopts accelerator neutron generator, is positioned at reactor core (4) center, and extracting part is divided peripheral fuel assembly, makes reactor in subcritical operational mode.
2. a kind of liquid-metal cooled reactor experimental system that realizes critical and subcritical running experiment according to claim 1, is characterized in that: reactor has from critical to subcritical dual mode operated ability; By the distant operation refueling agency of double whirl-plug rocker-arm (7), the interior one deck fuel assembly of reactor core (4) and isotope neutron source are extracted out, the accelerator neutron generator that to pile in top cover (8) by out-pile mechanically actuated apparatus inserts reactor core (4) reserving hole channel, until subcritical neutron source bottom is positioned at reactor core (4) center, realize operational mode conversion.
3. a kind of liquid-metal cooled reactor experimental system that realizes critical and subcritical running experiment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described reactor experimental system adopts modular design, in the time of critical operation, duct that can be reserved from top cover large rotating plug, is used modularization shield that center pit is stopped up, in the time of subcritical operation, take out shield, be changed to subcritical neutron source as parts, insert reactor, until reactor core center.
4. a kind of liquid-metal cooled reactor experimental system that realizes critical and subcritical running experiment according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described reactor experimental system neutron source is designed with critical neutron source and subcritical neutron source two is overlapped parts, critical neutron source can adopt 252Cf neutron source or Be-Am neutron source, and subcritical neutron source can adopt Accelerator driven spallation target neutron source or deuterium tritium neutron source.
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CN104658620A (en) * 2015-02-05 2015-05-27 中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院 Main loop circulating device for pool type liquid heavy metal cooling reactor
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