CN104155188B - A kind of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device - Google Patents

A kind of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device Download PDF

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CN104155188B
CN104155188B CN201410357319.XA CN201410357319A CN104155188B CN 104155188 B CN104155188 B CN 104155188B CN 201410357319 A CN201410357319 A CN 201410357319A CN 104155188 B CN104155188 B CN 104155188B
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pressure
gas hydrates
triaxial
sample
displacement pump
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CN104155188A (en
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宋永臣
李洋辉
刘卫国
徐晓虎
赵佳飞
杨明军
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Dalian University of Technology
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Dalian University of Technology
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Abstract

A kind of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visualization device, belongs to gas hydrates Basic Physical Properties fields of measurement. This device mainly comprises self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame, axial loading system, confined pressure control system, back pressure control system, temperature control system, data collecting system and an X ray CT imaging system. Realize the combination of cryogenic high pressure hydrate triaxial apparatus and X ray CT imaging system, can carry out the synchronism detection of gas hydrates deposit both macro and micro mechanical characteristic. This device can be simulated the stress state of actual reservoir, obtain the sedimental macroscopic view of gas hydrates, Micromechanics performance data, the trigger mechanism of the geological disasters such as the submarine landslide to announcement gas hydrates reservoir deformation mechanism and gas hydrate dissociation inducement is significant, and the safety to gas hydrates, high-efficiency mining have important directive function.

Description

A kind of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device, belong to natural gasHydrate Basic Physical Properties fields of measurement.
Background technology
Gas hydrates have the features such as distribution is wide, stock number is large, it is shallow to bury, energy density is high, clean,The unknown energy depot of undeveloped maximum still on the earth, be considered to 21 century the most desirable, there is business developmentThe new forms of energy of prospect. The safe working of gas hydrates is subject to the extensive attention of various countries scientist and government,Become the study hotspot that industrial gas oil is new, and the likely development to environmental science and energy industryProduce far-reaching influence. In natural gas hydrate exploration and recovery process, decomposition of hydrate can affect reservoirStructural stability, and along with the expansion of decomposition region in recovery process, may bring out stratum deformation, seaThe geological disasters such as landslide, the end, and then cause damage and the life wealth of the infrastructure such as drilling equipment, submarine pipelineProduce loss. As how efficient, safe mode taps natural gas from sea bed gas hydrate sedimentary deposit,Both meet environmental requirement, and can not cause again the geological disasters such as submarine landslide, need to further investigate natural gas hydrationThe mechanical characteristic of thing sedimentary deposit, in conjunction with both macro and micro research technique, specifies gas hydrate dissociation inducementThe formation mechanism of the geological disaster such as submarine landslide.
Triaxial tester is the comparatively desirable equipment of research soil sample mechanical characteristic, and because of its test principle and operationMethod is relatively simply used widely. Mountain pass university of Japan, Dalian University of Technology etc. are in traditional three axle examinationsTest on the basis of instrument, generate and decomposing system by increasing low-temperature control system and hydrate original position, realizedTo the measurement of gas hydrates deposit macromechanics characteristic. But, not yet have and can enter in the world at presentThe experimental rig of row gas hydrates deposit Micromechanics characteristic research, cannot obtain deposit internal holesThe micro-datas such as gap structure differentiation, particle migration, to the microcosmic of sedimentary deposit in gas hydrate dissociation processDeformation mechanism is known little about it. Existing gas hydrates triaxial tester because penetration performance is poor, volume is large,The problems such as weight is large, can not realize combination (for example inspeXio with visualization devices such as X ray CTsSMX-255CT objective table load-bearing≤9kg, can hold height of specimen≤30cm, and in scanning process, sample needsRotation), need a set of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device of exploitation badly.
Summary of the invention
The deficiency existing in order to overcome above-mentioned existing gas hydrates triaxial tester, the present invention is based onInspeXioSMX-255CT system, provides a kind of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic VisualizationDevice. This device can not only meet the macromechanics attribute testing requirement of gas hydrates deposit sample,The situation such as differentiation and particle migration that can also real-time monitored sample internal void structure, obtains Micromechanics characteristicTest data, analyzes sedimentary deposit deformation mechanism, to the exploration of China marine site and frozen soil region gas hydratesThere is important directive function with safe working.
The present invention solves the technical scheme that above-mentioned deficiency adopts:
A kind of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device, comprises cryogenic high pressure hydrateTriaxial apparatus pilot system, X ray CT imaging system and computer data acquisition system;
Described cryogenic high pressure hydrate triaxial apparatus pilot system comprises self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame, axially loadsSystem, confined pressure control system, back pressure control system and temperature control system; Described axial loading system, enclosePressure control system, back pressure control system are all connected with described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame, and Control Assay holds respectivelyThe load, confined pressure and the pore pressure that are subject to; Described temperature control system is connected with described confined pressure control system, usesThe temperature of hydraulic oil in controlling plunger displacement pump D, and then the temperature of Control Assay.
Described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame is placed on the objective table of X ray CT imaging system, comprises overhead oneBody axial loading device and high pressure triaxial cell; The integrated axial loading device of described overhead adopts aviationThe material that high-strength aluminum alloy isodensity is lower, intensity is larger, with the intensity of assurance device with reduce main frameOverall weight, comprises small-sized hydraulic oil cylinder and piston; Drive by the hydraulic oil in described small-sized hydraulic oil cylinderPiston moves downward and produces axial loading force; Between small-sized hydraulic oil cylinder and described high pressure triaxial cell, adoptScrew connects, and top is provided with pressurization mouth and exhaust outlet A, facilitates oil cylinder in loading procedure to carry out exhaust; InstituteState small-sized hydraulic oil cylinder below two exhaust outlet B are set, for by the gas of the below of piston described in loading procedureDischarge; Described high pressure triaxial cell adopts the material of the low-density such as rafifinal, high X ray penetration performance,To reduce the X ray penetration performance of host machine integral weight and guarantee main frame, comprise balancing gate pit's cavity and chassis,Between piston and balancing gate pit's cavity, seal by sealing ring, and corresponding with sample end cap, for transmitter shaft toLoading force; The wall thickness of described balancing gate pit cavity is the requirement to pressure and imaging resolution according to experiment, by meterCalculate also and determine through experiment test, outer wall is by large material reinforced of the tensile strength such as glass fibre; Pressure chamberThe top of body is provided with exhaust outlet C, the residual air when loading confined pressure in discharge pressure chamber body; PressureBetween chamber body and chassis, adopt screw to be connected, and use sealing ring to seal; Establish at the center on described chassisPut protruding column, as the base of placing sample; The surrounding on chassis is symmetrically distributed with four passages: passage A,Channel B, channel C and passage D, wherein passage A, channel B and channel C and described high pressure triaxial pressureChamber is communicated with, and passage D passes through described center chassis, and via described specimen mount, seepage flow pad and described sampleLower end be communicated with; Described sample end cap center is provided with passage, one end of passage by flexible duct with described inThe passage A on chassis is connected, and the other end is communicated with the upper end of described seepage flow pad and sample; Described sample adopts rubberEpithelium sealed envelope;
Described axial loading system comprises oil groove, circulating pump A and plunger displacement pump A; Described oil groove is through circulating pump AThe required hydraulic oil of plunger displacement pump A is provided; Plunger displacement pump A is by the pressurization mouth of flexible duct and small-sized hydraulic oil cylinderBe connected, provide axial loading needed hydraulic pressure; The xial feed that sample bears is by hydraulic fluid pressure and workCross-sectional area acquisitions of multiplying each other of plug, axial displacement is by the displacement acquisition of described piston;
Described confined pressure control system comprises plunger displacement pump D, is connected with the channel C on chassis by flexible duct, carriesFor required hydraulic oil in process of the test, and maintain pressure;
Described back pressure control system comprises plunger displacement pump B and plunger displacement pump C, methane gas cylinder, tank and circulating pump B;Described methane gas cylinder is connected with plunger displacement pump C with described plunger displacement pump B through pressure-reducing valve; Described tank is through circulating pump BBe connected with plunger displacement pump C with described plunger displacement pump B; Described plunger displacement pump B is through the passage A on needle-valve C and described chassisConnect by flexible duct, described plunger displacement pump C passes through flexible duct through the passage D on needle-valve H and described chassisConnect;
Described back pressure control system is mainly used in the pore pressure of sample in Control experiment process, and provides naturalThe needed natural G&W of gas hydrate deposit reaction;
Described temperature control system comprises thermostat and circulating pump C, circulating pump C by needle-valve J with described in enclosePressure control system is connected, and the hydraulic oil that is cooled in advance test temperature is injected into institute via described plunger displacement pump DState balancing gate pit's cavity, and maintain the required pressure of test;
Described X ray CT imaging system, for the online CT image scanning of process of the test sample, is obtained skySo gas hydrate deposit sample image of internal structure, analyzes its development law.
Described computer data acquisition system comprise temperature sensor, four pressure transmitters, with CT scan systemThe hydrate triaxial apparatus system of unifying adopts the data acquisition module of electrical connection, and the temperature, pressure that gather,The data such as axial stress, axial strain and sample scan image are passed to industrial computer processing, and then analyze naturalThe sedimental both macro and micro mechanical characteristic of gas hydrate.
Described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame and described axial loading system, confined pressure control system, back pressure controlBetween system, adopt flexible duct to be connected.
Described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame adopts self-pressing type structure, and the load that sample is born converts main frame toInterior load.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: this gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test deviceMainly comprise a set of cryogenic high pressure hydrate triaxial apparatus pilot system, X ray CT imaging system and computer numberAccording to acquisition system. Cryogenic high pressure hydrate triaxial apparatus system generates for the sedimental original position of gas hydratesWith decompose and carry out mechanical characteristic experiment; X ray CT imaging system is for gas hydrates depositThe measurement of the micro-datas such as deformation process mesopore structural evolution; Computer data acquisition system collecting temperature,The data such as pressure, load and CT scan image, and then analyze gas hydrates deposit microdeformation machineReason. Its advantage is:
1) realized the combination of gas hydrates triaxial apparatus and X ray CT system, can obtain simultaneouslyGet the sedimental macroscopic view of gas hydrates, Micromechanics performance data, to disclosing gas hydrates reservoirThe trigger mechanism of the geological disasters such as the submarine landslide of deformation mechanism and gas hydrate dissociation inducement hasSignificance;
2) adopt the material of the low-density such as fine aluminium, aluminium alloy, high strength, high X ray penetration performance, make skySo gas hydrate triaxial apparatus host machine integral lighter weight, volume is little, X ray penetration performance is good; Adopt simultaneouslyThe high-tensile material such as glass fibre is reinforced balancing gate pit's cavity, when ensureing penetration performance, carriesHigh intensity;
3) xial feed that adopts the integrated axial loading device of overhead that sample is born is converted into triaxial apparatus main frameInterior load, xial feed is no longer acted on CT objective table, met the load-bearing of CT objective tableRestriction;
4) utilize thermostat control hydraulic fluid temperature, then pass through confined pressure control system by prior cooling hydraulic pressureOil is injected into balancing gate pit's cavity and then Control Assay temperature, and this temperature control mode has been saved triaxial apparatus main frameSpace;
5) triaxial apparatus main frame all adopts flexible duct to be connected with peripheral system, meets loading in CT imaging processThe requirement that platform need to rotate, convenient test is carried out;
6) the multiply each other acquisition, axial displacement of the pressure of xial feed by axial loading system and piston area passed throughThe displacement of piston obtains, and this computational methods have been avoided the installation of axial load sensor and displacement transducer,When having saved space, reduce the total quality of main frame;
7) triaxial apparatus main frame adopts dismountable mode, facilitates test operation and cleans instrument.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is a kind of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device fundamental diagram.
Fig. 2 is a kind of system diagram of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device.
Fig. 3 a is the structure chart of self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame.
Fig. 3 b is the chassis top view of self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame.
In figure: 1 industrial computer; 2 data acquisition modules; 3 oil grooves; 4a circulating pump A; 4b circulating pump B;
4c circulating pump C; 5a needle-valve A; 5b needle-valve B; 5c needle-valve C; 5d needle-valve D; 5e needle-valve E;
5f needle-valve F; 5g needle-valve G; 5h needle-valve H; 5i needle-valve I; 5j needle-valve J; 6a plunger displacement pump A;
6b plunger displacement pump B; 6c plunger displacement pump C; 6d plunger displacement pump D; 7a pressure transmitter A; 7b pressure invertingDevice B; 7c pressure transmitter C; 7d pressure transmitter D; 8 tanks; 9 methane gas cylinders; 10 decompressionsValve; 11 temperature sensors; 12 thermostats; 13a exhaust outlet A; 13b exhaust outlet B; 13c exhaust outletC; 14 small-sized hydraulic oil cylinders; 15 pressurizations mouthful; 16 pistons; 17 end caps; 18 seepage flow pads; 19 samples;20 rubber membranes; 21 chassis; 22 balancing gate pit's cavitys.
Detailed description of the invention
Figure 1 shows that a kind of operation principle of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test deviceFigure, its course of work is: it is required that back pressure control system provides gas hydrates deposit specimen reaction to generateNatural G&W, and pore pressure in generation and decomposable process and three axial compression compression process; Temperature controlSystem is by reducing the temperature of hydraulic oil in confined pressure control system, and then it is raw to control gas hydrates depositTemperature in one-tenth and decomposable process and three axial compression compression process; Confined pressure control system is mainly used in maintaining gas waterConfined pressure in the generation of compound deposit and decomposable process and three axial compression compression process; Axial loading system passes through plungerInfusion enters hydraulic oil and promotes piston Control Shaft to loading; CT machine is taken hydrate sediment in whole process of the testMicropore structure development law image; Parameter in process of the test, if temperature, pressure signal etc. are by meterCalculating machine data acquisition system gathers and analyzes.
Figure 2 shows that a kind of system diagram of gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual experimental apparatus,By each systemic-function, gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visualized experiment process is said belowBright:
1) the back pressure control system course of work: the deposit sample 19 freezing is positioned on chassis 21 to firstAlkane gas cylinder 9, through pressure-reducing valve 10, needle-valve 5f, is then noted in plunger displacement pump 6b, 6c through needle-valve 5d, 5g respectivelyEnter certain pressure methane gas, plunger displacement pump 6b, 6c become through pressure transmitter 7b, needle-valve 5c and pressure respectivelySend device 7c, needle-valve 5h to inject methane gas to 19 li, the deposit sample freezing, pressure the most gradually raisesKeep eventually stable; Meanwhile, oil groove 12 injects uniform temperature through circulating pump 4c, needle-valve 5j in plunger displacement pump 6dHydraulic oil, plunger displacement pump 6d is injected into balancing gate pit through pressure transmitter 7d, needle-valve 5i by hydraulic oil, and control is enclosedPressure is advanced the speed and is advanced the speed identically with pore pressure, and remains that confined pressure is than the high 0.2MPa of pore pressure.The deposit sample freezing melts at a certain temperature, and the methane gas of injection fully reacts raw with the water of thawingBecome gas hydrates, in the time that the gas volume in upper and lower plunger displacement pump does not have significant change, show in spaceWater with methane gas complete reaction. Now, close needle-valve 5c, 5d, 5f, 5g, 5h, discharge plungerMethane gas in pump 7b, 7c, then tank 8 is through circulating pump 4b, needle-valve 5e, more respectively through needle-valve 5d,5g is injected into water in plunger displacement pump 6b, 6c. Plunger displacement pump 6b, the 6c pressure that raises gradually, and keep certainPressure reduction, now opens needle-valve 5c, 5h, make remaining methane gas in sample under the effect of pressure reduction by displacementCompletely.
2) confined pressure control system, the temperature control system course of work: thermostat 12 is through circulating pump 4c, needle-valveThe temperature required hydraulic oil of 5j is injected in plunger displacement pump 6d, and plunger displacement pump 6d is through pressure transmitter 7d, needle-valve 5iTo balancing gate pit's injection liquid force feed, to control required confined pressure and temperature.
3) the axial loading system course of work: oil groove 3 is injected into hydraulic oil through circulating pump 4a, needle-valve 5aPlunger displacement pump 6a, plunger displacement pump 6a is injected into small-sized hydraulic oil cylinder through pressure transmitter 7a, needle-valve 5b by hydraulic oil14 promote piston 16 axially loads.
4) the computer data acquisition system course of work: temperature sensor 11, pressure transmitter 4a, 4b, 4c,4d collects thermostat temperature and each line pressure signal, and CT machine is taken and obtained hydrate sediment image letterNumber, these signals are transferred to and in data collecting system, carry out data processing and obtain data signal, data signalBeing transferred to 1 li of industrial computer shows and stores.
Fig. 3 a is depicted as the structure chart of self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame. The sample freezing 19 is put to rubber membrane 20Be placed on chassis 21, place seepage flow pad 18 at sample top to prevent that sand grains from entering pipeline and causing stifledPlug, is positioned over end cap 17 above seepage flow pad 18, then balancing gate pit's cavity 22 is bolted on the end of toOn dish 21, after fixing, piston 16 is installed, and small-sized hydraulic oil cylinder 14 is passed through to spiral shell according to shown in Fig. 3Silk is fixed on balancing gate pit's cavity 22 tops. Finally by snap joint A, C, D and pressurization mouthfuls 15 according to figureShown in 2, accessing pipe-line system prepares to test.

Claims (10)

1. a gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device, is characterized in that, comprises cryogenic high pressure hydrate triaxial apparatus pilot system, X ray CT imaging system and computer data acquisition system;
Described cryogenic high pressure hydrate triaxial apparatus pilot system comprises self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame, axial loading system, confined pressure control system, back pressure control system and temperature control system; Described axial loading system, confined pressure control system, back pressure control system are all connected with described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame, Control Assay bears respectively load, confined pressure and pore pressure; Described temperature control system is connected with described confined pressure control system, for controlling the temperature of hydraulic oil in plunger displacement pump D, and then the temperature of Control Assay;
Described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame is placed on the objective table of X ray CT imaging system, comprises the integrated axial loading device of overhead and high pressure triaxial cell; The integrated axial loading device of described overhead comprises small-sized hydraulic oil cylinder and piston; Move downward and produce axial loading force by the hydraulic oil driven plunger in small-sized hydraulic oil cylinder; Between small-sized hydraulic oil cylinder and described high pressure triaxial cell, adopt screw to be connected, top is provided with pressurization mouth and exhaust outlet A, facilitates oil cylinder in loading procedure to carry out exhaust; Described small-sized hydraulic oil cylinder below arranges two exhaust outlet B, for the gas of loading procedure piston below is discharged; Described high pressure triaxial cell comprises balancing gate pit's cavity and chassis, between piston and balancing gate pit's cavity, seal by sealing ring, and corresponding with sample end cap, for transmitter shaft to loading force; The wall thickness of described balancing gate pit cavity is according to the requirement of experiment to pressure and imaging resolution, and by calculating and determining through experiment test, the outer wall of balancing gate pit's cavity is by large material reinforced of tensile strength; The top of balancing gate pit's cavity is provided with exhaust outlet C, the residual air when loading confined pressure in discharge pressure chamber body; Between balancing gate pit's cavity and chassis, adopt screw to be connected, and use sealing ring to seal; The center on described chassis arranges protruding column, as the base of placing sample; The surrounding on chassis is symmetrically distributed with four passages: passage A, channel B, channel C and passage D, wherein passage A, channel B and channel C are communicated with high pressure triaxial cell, passage D is by the center on chassis, and is communicated with the lower end of sample via base, the seepage flow pad of described sample; The end cap center of described sample is provided with passage, and one end of passage is connected with the passage A on described chassis by flexible duct, and the other end is communicated with the upper end of described seepage flow pad and sample; Described sample adopts rubber membrane sealed envelope;
Described axial loading system comprises oil groove, circulating pump A and plunger displacement pump A; Described oil groove provides the required hydraulic oil of plunger displacement pump A through circulating pump A; Plunger displacement pump A is connected with the pressurization mouth of small-sized hydraulic oil cylinder by flexible duct, provides axial loading needed hydraulic pressure; The xial feed that sample bears is by the acquisition of multiplying each other of the cross-sectional area of hydraulic fluid pressure and piston, and axial displacement obtains by the displacement of described piston;
Described confined pressure control system comprises plunger displacement pump D, is connected with the channel C on chassis by flexible duct, hydraulic oil required in process of the test is provided, and maintains pressure;
Described back pressure control system comprises plunger displacement pump B and plunger displacement pump C, methane gas cylinder, tank and circulating pump B; Described methane gas cylinder is connected with plunger displacement pump C with described plunger displacement pump B through pressure-reducing valve; Described tank is connected with plunger displacement pump C with described plunger displacement pump B through circulating pump B; Described plunger displacement pump B is connected by flexible duct with the passage A on described chassis through needle-valve C, and described plunger displacement pump C is connected by flexible duct with the passage D on described chassis through needle-valve H; Described back pressure control system is used for the pore pressure of Control experiment process sample, and provides the reaction of gas hydrates deposit needed natural G&W;
Described temperature control system comprises thermostat and circulating pump C, and circulating pump C is connected with described confined pressure control system by needle-valve J, and the hydraulic oil that is cooled to test temperature is injected into balancing gate pit's cavity via plunger displacement pump D, and maintains the required pressure of test;
Described X ray CT imaging system, for the online CT image scanning of process of the test sample, is obtained gas hydrates deposit sample image of internal structure, analyzes its development law;
Described computer data acquisition system comprises temperature sensor, four pressure transmitters, adopts the data acquisition module of electrical connection with CT scan system and hydrate triaxial apparatus system, and the temperature, pressure, axial stress, axial strain and the sample scan image data that gather are passed to industrial computer processing, and then analyze the sedimental both macro and micro mechanical characteristic of gas hydrates.
2. gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the integrated axial loading device of described overhead adopts the design of aviation high-strength aluminum alloy material.
3. gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that, described high pressure triaxial cell adopts rafifinal material.
4. gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that, the outer wall of described balancing gate pit's cavity passes through glass fiber reinforcement.
5. gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device according to claim 3, is characterized in that, the outer wall of described balancing gate pit's cavity passes through glass fiber reinforcement.
6. according to the gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device described in claim 1,2 or 5, it is characterized in that, between described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame and described axial loading system, confined pressure control system, back pressure control system, adopt flexible duct to be connected.
7. gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device according to claim 3, it is characterized in that, between described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame and described axial loading system, confined pressure control system, back pressure control system, adopt flexible duct to be connected.
8. gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device according to claim 4, it is characterized in that, between described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame and described axial loading system, confined pressure control system, back pressure control system, adopt flexible duct to be connected.
9. according to the gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device described in claim 1,2,5,7 or 8, it is characterized in that, described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame adopts self-pressing type structure, and the load that sample is born converts the interior load of main frame to.
10. gas hydrates deposit mechanical characteristic visual test device according to claim 6, is characterized in that, described self-pressing type triaxial apparatus main frame adopts self-pressing type structure, and the load that sample is born converts the interior load of main frame to.
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