CN104145795A - Dendrobe cultivation method for improving facility utilization rate - Google Patents

Dendrobe cultivation method for improving facility utilization rate Download PDF

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CN104145795A
CN104145795A CN201410403417.2A CN201410403417A CN104145795A CN 104145795 A CN104145795 A CN 104145795A CN 201410403417 A CN201410403417 A CN 201410403417A CN 104145795 A CN104145795 A CN 104145795A
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cultivation
seedling
dendrobe
planting
matrix
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CN201410403417.2A
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CN104145795B (en
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李卫东
肖光辉
丁桂花
张广平
贺艺
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湖南省农业信息与工程研究所
肖光辉
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Abstract

The invention discloses a dendrobe cultivation method for improving the facility utilization rate, and relates to the technical field of dendrobe cultivation. The method comprises the following steps that (1), an overhead cultivation bed is built in a facility and used for production cultivation of dendrobe, and the ground under the bed is used as a temporary seedbed for carrying out temporary seedling hardening of tissue culture seedlings of the dendrobe; (2), fermentation treatment is carried out on main raw materials of a cultivation medium; (3), the cultivation medium is manufactured, the cultivation bed is filled, and seedling growing hole trays are filled; (4), dendrobe hole tray seedlings obtained after temporary seedling hardening are planted into the overhead cultivation bed for carrying out management after planting; (5), the dendrobe tissue culture seedlings of the right age are selected for indoor seedling hardening adapting, and then the tissue culture seedlings are temporarily planted in the seedling growing hole trays to be placed on the temporary seedbed for management after temporary planting. According to the method, the facility utilization rate can be improved, the planting survival rate is high, and growth and development are fast; production cultivation is carried out, and meanwhile seedlings which grow strongly, are high in planting survival rate and are used for dendrobe production can be provided for facility cultivation and imitative-ecological cultivation.

Description

A kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate
Technical field
The invention belongs to dendrobe cultivation technical field, be specifically related to a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate.
Background technology
The stem of noble dendrobium (Dendrobium) has another name called dendrobium, for the perennial herbaceous plant that grows nonparasitically upon another plant of the orchid family (Orchidaceace) Dendrobium (Dendrobium), it is important medicinal and ornamental plants, the species that belong to < < CITS > > appendix II, original producton location is mainly distributed in Tropical Asian and subtropics, Australia and Pacific Islands, approximately there is kind more than 1500 in the whole world, China approximately has 76 kinds, major part is distributed in southwest, south China, the ground such as Taiwan, nearly wherein there are 40 kinds to there is medical value.The kind of China's stem of noble dendrobium only accounts for global 5% left and right, but its medicinal development and utilization is taken its place in the front ranks of the world, the stem of noble dendrobium is China's tradition rare traditional Chinese medicine, applicating history is long, have nourishing Yin and clearing heat, beneficial stomach promotes the production of body fluid, moisten the lung and relieve the cough, anti-ageing, improve immunity, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, improve cardio and vascular function, the effect of promoting longevity, more famous have a dendrobium candidum (D.officinale), Dendrobidium huoshanness (D.huosanness), HERBA DENDROBII (D.nobile), Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook (D.fimbiratum), Dendrobium Chrysotoxum Lindl (D.chrysotourn) etc., they are all used as medicine with fresh or dry stem.Some medicinal dendrobium kind exports for a long time, enjoys great prestige Southeast Asia and some American-European areas.The stem of noble dendrobium has the title of " soft gold ", " the celestial grass in the human world " in China, be called as in history first of China's " nine immortal grass ", pharyngolaryngitis, gastrointestinal disease, cataract, angiocardiopathy, diabetes and inhibition tumor growth are had to significant curative effect, particularly lung carcinoma cell is had to good inhibitory action, for eliminating the side effect after cancer radiation, chemotherapy and recovering physical efficiency, effect is fairly obvious.So people are growing to the demand of Dendrobium Plants, market demand constantly expands.
Wild Dendrodium is mainly grown in the torrid zone, subtropics virgin forest and similarly warm and moist environment, happiness is shady and cool moistening, foggy microclimate ventilates, avoid high temperature, dry, high light, grow in 900~1500 meters of height above sea level more, 12 ℃~18 ℃ of average temperatures of the whole year, relative moisture 60%~75%, light transmittance 60% left and right, 20 ℃~28 ℃ of season of growth temperature, 9 ℃~12 ℃ of winter temperatures, frostless foggy, in the evergreen broad-leaved forest that annual rainfall is 500~1000 millimeters, often grow nonparasitically upon another plant on half dark and damp thick forest trunk or rock, and normal and liver moss, the association of the unicellular lower eukaryote such as Shi Wei and lichens, in be mainly grown in that lofty mountains and steep hills overhanging cliff and rock crevice, growth conditions requires warm, moistening, ventilate, ventilative, leak.
Although the stem of noble dendrobium can result and fruit and seed amount large, 1 mellow fruit pod contains the seed of up to ten thousand, Natural seed setting rate is very low, for example the Natural seed setting rate of dendrobium candidum only 0.31%.The seed of the stem of noble dendrobium is very tiny, and embryonic development is incomplete, lacks endosperm tissue, needs could sprout with some fungi (blue bacterium) symbiosis under natural conditions, and germination rate is extremely low, for example the seed germination rate less than 5% of dendrobium candidum.Traditional artificial propagation mode is as plant division, cuttage etc., and reproduction speed is slow, and the rate of increase is very low, can not meet the requirement that commercialization is produced far away.
Due to the limitation of the stem of noble dendrobium to the specific (special) requirements of growing environment and distribution, under natural environmental condition, self-reproduction rate is very low, and the growing slowly of the stem of noble dendrobium, so wild Dendrodium quantity is rare, wild resource is very limited.China relies on for a long time excavates wild resource and meets the need of market, owing to excessively excavating and developing, cause Dendrobium Plants heavy damage, cause natural resources day by day rare, the famous and precious stem of noble dendrobium wild resource that the tradition such as dendrobium candidum, Dendrobidium huoshanness, HERBA DENDROBII are used as medicine has been on the verge of exhaustion in China, natural production can not be met the need of market far away, and this has not only seriously restricted the supply of a large amount of relevant medicines, and ecological and bio-safety have been caused to great harm.The < < Chinese Plants Red Data Book > > promulgating in August, 1998 lists 70 kinds of above Dendrobium Sws in protective plant, protected by the conservation of wild plant regulations > > of the < < People's Republic of China (PRC).The protection of reinforcement to Dendrobium Plants, the sustainable use that realizes Dendrobium Plants is extremely urgent, and the method for quickly breeding of the research stem of noble dendrobium and artificial cultivation technique are protection stem of noble dendrobium species and the important channel of meeting the need of market.
From 20 century 70s, the tissue rapid propagation technology of the stem of noble dendrobium and the research of artificial cultivation technique have just been started both at home and abroad.The stem of noble dendrobium is stricter to the requirement of environmental condition, require half warm, moistening, to have sufficient scattered light cloudy half light environment, its growth thermophilic is 15 ℃~30 ℃, 20 ℃ of left and right of optimum growth temperature, at 5 ℃, stop growing below, and seedling is easily endured cold below at 10 ℃.Relative air humidity requires maintenance more than 70%~80%, avoids dry and ponding, particularly when sprouting starts to sprout with new root formation, needs sufficient moisture.Illumination requires shading summer and autumn 70%, shading in winter 30%~50%.Therefore, adopting the facility cultivations such as booth is that stem of noble dendrobium large-scale production is preferably selected.Meanwhile, the stem of noble dendrobium is epiphyte, mainly grows under field conditions (factors) on some high megaphanerophytes dark and damp trunk or limestone, thereby also can simulating natural environment condition carry out Emulational culture under the condition of artificial propagation seedling.Emulational culture refers in the wild original producton location of the stem of noble dendrobium and selects under nearly natural forests, in simulating natural environment condition, the ecosystem environment of stem of noble dendrobium growth carries out tame method, attached master's difference during according to Emulational culture, can be divided into tree cultivation, stone cultivation and 3 kinds of forms of humus soil cultivation.
The root of the stem of noble dendrobium is aerial root, has obvious aerobic property and shallow root.The stem of noble dendrobium is in long-term growing evolution process, plant specialization for not having Gen Mao can only form with certain fungi the plant of trophism symbiosis, rely on mycelia to absorb moisture and inorganic substances, and by bacterial strain, decompose organic base-materials such as bark that root adheres to or liver moss and obtain the organic nutrients such as glucose, protein, in the special dietary mode of mesotrophy half heterotrophism, carry out g and D.So the cultivation matrix of the stem of noble dendrobium should be take the good raw material of permeability as main, require loose ventilatively, draining is good, and fertilizer is appropriate, and water conservation, fertilizer-preserving ability are strong, are all the time the state that partly becomes thoroughly decomposed within whole vegetative period, could obtain best upgrowth situation like this.The gas permeability of dendrobe cultivation matrix and moisture capacity are the keys that obtains high transplanting survival rate, and the nutrition of matrix is the limiting factor of sprouting Germination and growth after transplant survival, too low or the too high Germination and growth (Lin Jiangbo that is all unfavorable for surviving rear sprouting, Dai Yimin, Zou Hui, Deng. the research of Fujian dendrobium candidum artificial breeding technology. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciench, 2010,25 (5): 606~609.).Matrix for dendrobe cultivation mainly contains: peat, wood sawdust, wood shavings, bagasse, bacterium chaff, peanut shell, shredded coconut meat, liver moss, rubble, bark etc., conventional matrix is mostly wherein several of selection and forms for primary raw material is mixed, and more suitable dendrobe cultivation matrix generally to take peat and/or liver moss be primary raw material, and peat is non-renewable resources, reserves are limited, the destruction that a large amount of exploitations can cause ecotope.At present stem of noble dendrobium artificial cultivation in Yunnan, the ground such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Hunan wins initial success, Main Cultivation form is for carrying out the cultivation of matrix bed at the built-in overhead built on stilts cultivation bed of high 50~80 centimetres of the facilities such as booth, and the lower ground of bed and Spatial General 6 R are idle useless.
Along with development and the application of tissue culture technique, the tissue culture technology of the stem of noble dendrobium is mature on the whole at present.Utilize tissue culture technique to breed seedling and become the tame main source of seedling of the current stem of noble dendrobium, by tissue, cultivating the laggard pedestrian's work of amount reproduction group training seedling facility cultivation is the Main Means of meeting the need of market, tissue cultured test-tube seedling successfully carries out field-transplanting and growth, is to realize the key that stem of noble dendrobium industrialization is produced.But because the stem of noble dendrobium requires harsh to growing environment; the industrialization that has many factors still to restrict the stem of noble dendrobium is produced; wherein; owing to organizing culture environment and artificial cultivation environment to exist larger difference; group training seedling need to be adapted to extraneous natural environment comprehensively, by heterotrophism, is transitioned into autotrophy by gnotobasis, and a little less than the resistance because of group training seedling, survival ability is poor; group training transplantation of seedlings survival rate is low is a bottleneck of puzzlement stem of noble dendrobium large-scale production always, is restricting the artificial cultivation scale of dendrobe tissue culture seedling.When particularly the stem of noble dendrobium carries out Emulational culture, survival rate is lower; the survival rate of for example directly cultivating Emulational culture base after Dendrobidium huoshanness group training seedling bottle outlet is about 30% left and right; the transplanting survival rate of group training seedling be lowly always restriction Dendrobidium huoshanness large-scale development principal element (Xu Guangtao. improve the research of Dendrobidium huoshanness Emulational culture survival rate method. Anhui forestry science and technology; 2011,37 (6): 62-64.).Group training transplantation of seedlings survival rate is low not only has very large relation with cultivation matrix, and has very large relation with illumination, temperature, humidity in planting environment.For example, at artificially controlling temperature, control wet beam-connected greenhouse in officinal dendrobium stem plantation survival rate can reach more than 95%, if cultivated in comparatively modern booth, can be without centre heel in hardening link, directly field planting after group training seedling takes out from bottle, also can obtain higher survival rate and higher output.But in the wild during Emulational culture or while cultivating in simple plastic greenhouse, the direct transplanting survival rate of candidum tissue culturing seedling is very low, generally lower than 50%, and poor growth (Zheng Kuanyu, Deng Jun wave, Zhao Hui. the research of dendrobium officinale test-tube plantlet culture technique. Crop Diseases in Yunnan science and technology, 2010 (3): 21-22.; Song Shun, Xu Yi, Li Jingyang. the tissue of dendrobium candidum is cultivated and Fast-propagation progress. Chinese agronomy circular, 2013,29 (33): 286-290.).The research of money galaxy of literary talent etc. is thought, utilize the cultivation matrix that water retention property is good and gas permeability is strong can make the transplanting survival rate of Dendrobidium huoshanness group training seedling improve, and the planting effect of layering matrix is better, the suitable matrix of transplanting is layering matrix: 3/10 bark+top, bottom, 7/10 wood chip, higher (the money galaxy of literary talent of its transplanting survival rate and rudiment number, Zhang Jianxia, Wu Kunlin, Deng. Dendrobidium huoshanness sapling multiplication and cultivation research. tropical and subtropical plant journal, 2013, 21 (3): 240-246.), but this research is used the operation of layering substrate culture more complicated, and transplant the survival rate only 78% of latter 70 days statistics.So, from test-tube plantlet bottle outlet to field production, preferably there is a transition stage of heeling in hardening centre to the stem of noble dendrobium, make group training seedling after having adapted to natural environment again field planting just can obtain good cultivation effect, otherwise can have a strong impact on transplanting survival rate, growth rate and stem of noble dendrobium output.
In order to improve the dendrobe tissue culture seedling adaptability of environment to external world, the bottleneck problem of low this restriction industrialized development of solution group training transplantation of seedlings survival rate, Kong Dedong etc. filter out the matrix formulations of peat+perlite+vermiculite (volume ratio 3 ︰ 1 ︰ 1), application point disk seedling growing technology, make the survival rate of candidum tissue culturing seedling surpass 95%, and seedling growth is healthy and strong, there is promotional value (Kong Dedong, Huang Chongping, Zhou Jianhua, Deng. the optimization screening of dendrobium candidum plug seedling substrate. agricultural science and technology communication, 2010 (8): 70-72.).Xiao Ying etc. select tongue moss ︰ mud charcoal soil ︰ perlite 3 ︰ 1 ︰ 1 to heel in for matrix, make candidum tissue culturing seedling heel in survival rate and reach 95% (transplanting after 60 days), and the growth of stem is (Xiao Ying very significantly, Zhang Yaozhou. the impact that matrix hardening is heeled in dendrobium officinale test-tube plantlet season. Xinyang agricultural higher junior college journal, 2013,23 (2): 93-94.).The key technology that Xu Guangtao improves Dendrobidium huoshanness cultivation survival rate is before Emulational culture, to heel in the hardening of carrying out a period of time in hardening matrix after dendrobe tissue culture seedling bottle outlet.Hardening matrix is with the preparations by a certain percentage such as broken bark bits, meter Xin Shi and aobvious acid northeast peat soil in original producton location, the matrix of this material can not only meet the needs of hardening, but also be conducive to the stem of noble dendrobium seedling hardening phase, is transplanted on the stone matter base of Emulational culture after finishing.Through the hardening phase of 45~60 days, make the cultivation survival rate of Dendrobidium huoshanness from 30% original left and right, bring up to more than 90% (Xu Guangtao. improve the research of Dendrobidium huoshanness Emulational culture survival rate method. Anhui forestry science and technology, 2011,37 (6): 62-64.).The pine bark of 5~10 millimeters of pulverizing, 2~4 millimeters of perlites for Liu Shihui etc., the cultivation matrix mixing according to 4 ︰ 1 ratios, with 50 hole dishes, heel in hardening, candidum tissue culturing seedling stem stalk after domestication is sturdy, leaf look dark green, root system is slightly white, and adaptive capacity and resistance enhancing, transplanting survival rate can reach more than 97% (Liu Shihui, yellow lead maple, Yao Yongkang, Deng. the research of candidum tissue culturing seedling greenhouse acclimatization technology. Agriculture of Anhui science, 2013,41 (17): 7477-7478,7495.).The main contributions of these 4 researchs is, being generally used in the point disk seedling growing technology of grow seedlings of vegetable or cultivation that heeling in technology is applied to the stem of noble dendrobium, the transplanting survival rate of dendrobe tissue culture seedling is significantly improved.Its defect is, all using the primary raw material of peat as matrix for first 3, and the peat resource of China is fewer, and be non-renewable natural resources, although the research of Liu Shihui etc. does not use peat as the primary raw material of matrix, but because of the nutrition of this matrix seldom, heel in and rear fertilizing management is had relatively high expectations, require " thin fertile duty is executed ", not only need repeatedly to spray Liquid Fertilizer, but also to apply particle slow release fertilizer, could help dendrobium candidum to grow up strong and sturdy; Simultaneously, these 4 researchs all need to have special facility to heel in hardening, because the adaptability of group training seedling is poor, to having relatively high expectations of environmental condition, so also higher to the level of the requirement of facility and cultivation management, if heel in the simpler and cruder or extensive management of the facility of hardening, group training seedling to heel in survival rate still lower.Yet the mode of the current stem of noble dendrobium facility cultivation of China is all generally to adopt built on stilts cultivation bed to cultivate, the ground under cultivation bed and Spatial General 6 R are all idle useless, and this is to one of cultivating facility waste greatly.During the substrate culture of stem of noble dendrobium facility, the stem of noble dendrobium seedling General Requirements intensity of illumination of producing cultivation is 8000~15000 luxs, and the stem of noble dendrobium seedling (group training seedling) of heeling in the hardening phase is more suitable when intensity of illumination is 3000~10000 lux, first 2 months intensities of illumination after particularly heeling in can not be too high, and suitable intensity of illumination is generally 3000~7000 luxs.We are 60~80 centimetres utilizing overhead height, width is 1.2~1.5 meters, between bed and bed, leave and while carrying out dendrobe cultivation in the facility in wide 0.5~1 meter of passageway, observe discovery, when meeting intensity of illumination being 8000~15000 lux on built on stilts cultivation bed, the intensity of illumination on the lower ground of bed of built on stilts cultivation bed is in the scope of 3000~10000 luxs, and under relative air humidity bed, space is general higher by 3%~5% than built on stilts cultivation bed superjacent air space, the lower space of the temperature changing amplitude of every day (maximum temperature and minimum temperature poor) bed than built on stilts cultivation bed superjacent air space general low 1 ℃~3 ℃.Because the stem of noble dendrobium seedling during carrying out hardening vacation requires stricter than seedlings to planting environment, require intensity of illumination lower, Du Genggao shades, relative air humidity is larger, the variation of temperature, humidity is relatively little, and the built on stilts cultivation bed of stem of noble dendrobium space and ground below just in time can meet these conditions, be to carry out dendrobe tissue culture seedling to heel in the more satisfactory place of hardening.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate.The method according to the stem of noble dendrobium to the requirement of environmental condition and growth and development characteristics, utilize stem of noble dendrobium seedling (group training seedling) than seedlings to the requirement of the planting environment Du Genggao that shades, the feature that relative air humidity is larger, production cultivation at the built-in built on stilts cultivation bed of the facilities such as booth as the stem of noble dendrobium, utilize under bed and be suitable for carrying out the microclimate conditions that the stem of noble dendrobium is heeled in hardening, usining ground under bed carries out the hardening of heeling in of dendrobe tissue culture seedling as temporary seedbed, effectively to utilize facility space, improve facility utilization rate, and can meet the requirement of the different growth and development stages of the stem of noble dendrobium to environmental condition, simultaneously by the suitable cultivation matrix of preparation, strengthen cultivation management, to improve the survival rate of heeling in of planting survival rates and assurance dendrobe tissue culture seedling, carrying out can be again stem of noble dendrobium facility cultivation when the stem of noble dendrobium is produced cultivation and Emulational culture provides the production seedling that planting survival rates is high, reach the bottleneck problem of low this puzzlement stem of noble dendrobium large-scale production of solution group training transplantation of seedlings survival rate, shorten the stem of noble dendrobium from cultivating to the required time of gathering, realize the tame large-scale production of dendrobe tissue culture seedling, increase considerably the supply of the artificial cultivation stem of noble dendrobium, realize this precious species of the protection stem of noble dendrobium and the object that meets the growing market demand.
A dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate, comprises the following steps:
(1) the empty cultivation bed of building is done the production cultivation of the stem of noble dendrobium, utilizes the lower ground of built on stilts cultivation bed as temporary seedbed, to carry out the hardening of heeling in of dendrobe tissue culture seedling;
(2) fermentation process of cultivation matrix primary raw material:
By pine bark, maple wood sawdust, dry cow dung, be that fermentation process is carried out in 4~5 ︰ 4~5 ︰ 0.5~1 mixing by volume;
(3) preparation of cultivation matrix, filling cultivation bed and seedling culture hole plate sabot:
First the cultivation matrix primary raw material after step (2) fermentation process is processed with carbendazim or thiophanate methyl medicine liquid spray, perlite drains open fire after soaking with clear water, again by cultivation matrix primary raw material and perlite by volume 3~4 ︰ 1 evenly mix, be then loaded in built on stilts cultivation bed and pack in the hole of seedling culture hole plate;
(4) stem of noble dendrobium cave dish seedling of field planting after heeling in hardening carries out the management after field planting in built on stilts cultivation bed;
(5) select of the right age dendrobe tissue culture seedling to carry out indoor hardening adaptation, then heel in the management of putting in seedling culture hole plate after heeling on temporary seedbed.
The described stem of noble dendrobium of step (1) comprises: dendrobium candidum (D.officinale), Dendrobidium huoshanness (D.huosanness), HERBA DENDROBII (D.nobile), Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook (D.fimbiratum), Dendrobium Chrysotoxum Lindl (D.chrysotourn).
The described built on stilts cultivation bed of step (1) is that overhead height is 60~80 centimetres, and width is 1.2~1.5 meters, can load the cultivation bed of 8~10 cm thick matrix in bed.
The particle size of pine bark is 0.5~1.2 centimetre.
The fermentation process of step (2) is specially: pine bark first soaks 1 day with clear water, then mix with maple wood sawdust and dry cow dung in proportion, regulate water content to 65%~70%, pile and in heapsly with plastic film, cover and to ferment, yeast phase 2~3 months, between yeast phase, need turning 5~6 times, every 10~15 days, open film turning 1 time, after having fermented, matrix is spread out dry standby.
Step (3) is that first with 800~1000 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl medicine liquid spray, to mix the cultivation matrix primary raw material after fermentation process thoroughly water content be 60%~65%, bank out with plastic film and cover 3~5 days, perlite drains open fire with clear water immersion after 1~2 day, again by cultivation matrix primary raw material and perlite by volume 3~4 ︰ 1 evenly mix, then be loaded in built on stilts cultivation bed, matrix filling thickness is 8~10 centimetres, or matrix is packed in the hole of 50 holes or 32 hole seedling culture hole plates.
The standard of the of the right age dendrobe tissue culture seedling that step (5) is described is: every clump has 3~5 strains, and every strain has 3~5 of roots, long 2~3 centimetres of root, every strain have 4~6, leaf, stem thick 0.3 centimetre above, high 4~7 centimetres.
The described indoor hardening of step (5) adapts to: of the right age group of training seedling moved to from group training chamber and in booth or greenhouse, carry out the adaptation of normal temperature hardening, temperature is controlled at 15 ℃~28 ℃, relative moisture 50%~80%, shading 70% in 1 week, it is the sunshade net that ceiling all standing degree of shading is 70%, after 1 week, by reducing the size of ceiling covered with sunshade net, be adjusted to shading 50%~60% in canopy, keep ventilated in canopy, allow group training seedling from the environment of closed stablity to opening the environment transition changing, the hardening time is 2~4 weeks, with the leaf color jade green of dendrobe tissue culture seedling or dark green, when slightly hardening, the plump sturdy and stem of stem section is advisable, group training seedling bottle outlet opens wide bottleneck for first 2~3 days gradually, first only unscrews bottle cap, and unlimited degree strengthens gradually, bottle cap is all opened in last 1 day, during bottle outlet, group training seedling is taken out from bottle, with clear water, clean and stick to the medium on root, after draining the water, with 1000 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl, soak whole strain seedling 10 minutes, the root that then dries in the air at shady and cool ventilation place is waited to heel in half a day after root turns white.
The suitable time of heeling in described in the described field planting of step (4) and step (5) be mid-March~by the end of May or mid-September~mid-October.
The described field planting of step (4) is to select through heeling in dish seedling (production seedling) field planting of the hardening cave of 5~12 months in ready built on stilts cultivation bed, and plantation density is 100~120 clumps/meter 2, Reference Strains line-spacing is 10~12 centimetres of 8~10 cm x, waters immediately 1000 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl liquid as normal root water after field planting.
Described in step (5), heel in is the group after indoor hardening adaptation, bottle outlet processing to be trained to seedling heel in ready seedling culture hole plate, take 3~5 individual plants as 1 clump, every cave is heeled in 1 clump, after heeling in, seedling culture hole plate is neatly put on temporary seedbed, with sprayer, on seedling culture hole plate, spray 3000 times of agricultural streptomycins immediately and 1000 times of carbendazim carry out disinfection, make seedling and matrix combine closely simultaneously.
Management after the field planting of step (4) is: after the built on stilts cultivation bed of cave dish seedling field planting, in 2 weeks, fine day regulates degree of shading to reach more than 70%, adopt the mode of spraying to keep air humidity, be sure not to water, after field planting, the 1st week air humidity remains on 75%~85%, after field planting, the 2nd week air humidity remains on 70%~75%, the flower of using respectively 0.2%~0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 1500~2000 times of liquid for after field planting the 1st week and the 2nd week is No. 1 each foliage-spray 1 time the more, each amount of application is 30~45 kilograms of every mu of areas, field planting after 2 weeks routinely management method carry out cultivation management, after the field planting 2 years commodity stems of noble dendrobium that start to gather.
Management after the heeling in of step (5) is: in 1 week after heeling in every day regularly spray clear water 1~2 time, make air humidity keep 80%~90%, do not water; After heeling in 1 week, reduce spraying number of times, make air humidity keep 70%~80%; If matrix is dry after heeling in 2 weeks, with watering can, waters and execute matrix to water content 60%~70%; Heel in after 20 days, within every 1~2 week, spray 1 time foliage fertilizer, the flower of the potassium dihydrogen phosphate with 0.2%~0.3% and 1500~2000 times of liquid the more alternately sprays for No. 1, only executes a kind of foliage fertilizer at every turn, and each amount of application is 30~45 kilograms of every mu of areas; After heeling in 2 months, management method is carried out cultivation management routinely, generally heels in hardening and after 5~12 months, goes out garden field planting.
The root of dendrobe tissue culture seedling to be heeled in is soaked in the ABT3 root-inducing powder of 100 mg/litre to 15 minutes, and then heels in, to improve, heel in survival rate.
The inventive method need to be implemented in plastic tunnel or attached-greenhouse.Culturing and planting of the present invention and to heel in the cultivation matrix that hardening used just the same.
The present invention has following good effect: because stem of noble dendrobium seedling (group training seedling) requires stricter than seedlings to planting environment, the requirement Du Genggao that shades, relative air humidity is larger, the variation of environmental condition is relatively little, difference according to the different growth and development stages of dendrobe tissue culture seedling to diverse location microclimate conditions in the difference of requirement for environmental conditions and facility, rationally utilize facility space, build built on stilts cultivation bed and make the production cultivation bed of the stem of noble dendrobium, the hardening of heeling in of training seedling is organized on built on stilts cultivation bed ground below as temporary seedbed, this not only can improve the availability of facility, but also utilized the interior discrepant microclimate conditions of facility to meet the differentiation requirement of the different growth and development stages of dendrobe tissue culture seedling to environmental condition, for growing of the stem of noble dendrobium created relatively adapt circumstance condition.The gas permeability of dendrobe cultivation matrix and moisture capacity are the keys that obtains high transplanting survival rate, and the nutrition of matrix is the limiting factor that after transplant survival, impact is grown, too low or too high growing after being all unfavorable for surviving, the cultivation matrix of this method preparation is loose ventilative, drainage is good, contained fertilizer nutrient is appropriate, water conservation, fertilizer-preserving ability is strong, both the production cultivation that had been applicable to the stem of noble dendrobium is also applicable to the hardening of heeling in of group training seedling, after transplanting, survival rate is high, after surviving, grow very fast, and base starting material easily obtains, cheap, do not use the non-renewable natural resourcess such as peat.After stem of noble dendrobium cave dish seedling field planting cultivation bed after heeling in hardening, survival rate is high, generally reaches more than 98%, grows fast, after the field planting 2 years commodity stems of noble dendrobium of just can gathering, compare with direct contrast (CK) with the field planting of group training seedling, survival rate improves more than 15%, does sth. in advance approximately 1 year picking time.Dendrobe tissue culture seedling generally reaches more than 96% in the survival rate of heeling in of temporary seedbed, cave dish seedling robust growth, the neat and consistent of cultivating, after field planting, slow seedling is fast, adopt the planting survival rates of Emulational culture also can reach more than 92%, than after the Dendrobidium huoshanness group training seedling bottle outlet of report, directly carry out Emulational culture survival rate 30% left and right (Xu Guangtao. improve the research of Dendrobidium huoshanness Emulational culture survival rate method. Anhui forestry science and technology, 2011,37 (6): 62-64.) raising is very obvious.This method is easy and simple to handle; practical; carrying out can be again stem of noble dendrobium facility cultivation when the stem of noble dendrobium is produced cultivation and Emulational culture provides the production seedling that planting survival rates is high; can solve the bottleneck of low this puzzlement stem of noble dendrobium large-scale production of dendrobe tissue culture transplantation of seedlings survival rate, realize the tame large-scale production of dendrobe tissue culture seedling.
Embodiment
There is following embodiment to be described in detail essence of the present invention, and can not limit the present invention.
Embodiment 1
(1) preparation of dendrobe cultivation bed and temporary seedbed: the stem of noble dendrobium facility cultivations such as dendrobium candidum (D.officinale), Dendrobidium huoshanness (D.huosanness), HERBA DENDROBII (D.nobile), Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook (D.fimbiratum), Dendrobium Chrysotoxum Lindl (D.chrysotourn) generally adopt plastic tunnel or attached-greenhouse to cultivate.Facility requires to be equipped with sunshade net, preferably has spraying and irrigation installation, ventilation equipment and cooling system etc.In order to improve the availability of facility, be convenient to the environmental factors such as regulating and controlling temperature, humidity, gas permeability, so that for growing of the stem of noble dendrobium provides more favourable environmental condition, in facility, to build the production cultivation that built on stilts cultivation bed carries out the stem of noble dendrobium.Can select the materials such as angle steel, batten to build cultivation bed frame, then lay the firm plastic board in approximately 5 millimeters, aperture or with asbestos shingle the supporting surface as cultivation matrix, or do a bed end with steel wire, pad is with the sunshade net layer that leaks.The width of built on stilts cultivation bed is generally 1.2~1.5 meters, high 10 centimetres of left and right all around, and the matrix that can load 8~10 cm thicks in bed, length is not limit, and is generally 30 meters of left and right.1~1.5 meter of left and right height in cultivation bed top is preferably equipped with micro-spraying irrigation installation, will reserve the passageway of wide 0.5~1 meter of left and right, to facilitate cultivation management between seedbed.The overhead height of built on stilts cultivation bed is 60~80 centimetres, and the hardening of heeling in of dendrobe tissue culture seedling is carried out on the lower ground of built on stilts cultivation bed as temporary seedbed.
(2) cultivation matrix primary raw material and fermentation process thereof: the cultivation matrix of the stem of noble dendrobium should be take the good raw material of permeability as main, require loose ventilative, draining is good, fertilizer is appropriate, water conservation, fertilizer-preserving ability are strong, within whole vegetative period, be all the time the state that partly becomes thoroughly decomposed, could obtain best upgrowth situation like this.The gas permeability of dendrobe cultivation matrix and moisture capacity are to improve the key of transplanting survival rate, and the nutrition of matrix is the limiting factor of sprouting Germination and growth after transplant survival, the too low or too high Germination and growth that is all unfavorable for surviving rear sprouting.Existing result of study shows, it is primary raw material that more suitable dendrobe cultivation matrix generally be take peat and/or liver moss, and peat is non-renewable resources, and reserves are limited, the destruction that a large amount of exploitations can cause ecotope.Good and cheap in order to obtain, be applicable to local optimum dendrobe cultivation matrix formulations, select local pine bark cheap and easy to get, weed tree sawdust, maple wood sawdust, mushroom bacterium slag, flat mushroom bacterium slag and dry cow dung etc. are primary raw material, be equipped with the perlite being easy to get on market, 15 different matrix formulations have been prepared altogether, through updating of the formulation screening tests of 3 years and matrix formulations, summing up relatively more applicable applicable dendrobe cultivation with the matrix formulations of heeling in hardening is: (pine bark, maple wood sawdust, volume ratio=4~5 ︰ 4~5 ︰ 0.5~1 of dry cow dung), perlitic volume ratio=3~4 ︰ 1.Meanwhile, the spontaneous fermentation processing and the retort sterilization that have contrasted cultivation matrix primary raw material are processed 2 kinds of processing methods, and filtering out fermentation process is practical matrix treatments method.The concrete operations of cultivation matrix primary raw material and fermentation process thereof are: select particle size be pine bark, maple wood sawdust and the dry cow dung of 0.5~1.2 centimetre as the primary raw material of cultivation matrix, the constituent of cultivation matrix primary raw material is that the volume ratio of pine bark, maple wood sawdust, dry cow dung is 4~5 ︰ 4~5 ︰ 0.5~1.Pine bark first soaks 1 day with clear water, then mix with maple wood sawdust and dry cow dung in proportion, regulate water content to 65%~70%, pile heaps high 1.2~1.5 meters, wide 2.5~3.0 meters, with plastic film, cover and ferment, yeast phase is generally 2~3 months, needs turning 5~6 times between yeast phase, generally every 10~15 days, open film turning 1 time, during turning, as found that matrix becomes dry, should suitably add water.When summer high temperature ferments season, yeast phase is shorter, and yeast phase is answered proper extension when low temperature season ferments.After having fermented, matrix is spread out to dry rear pack standby.
(3) preparation of cultivation matrix: with the above-mentioned cultivation matrix primary raw material through fermentation process and perlite by volume 3~4 ︰ 1 be mixed with dendrobe cultivation or heel in the cultivation matrix of hardening.First with 800~1000 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl medicine liquid spray, mixing the cultivation matrix primary raw material after fermentation process thoroughly water content is 60%~65%, bank out with plastic film and cover vexed 3~5 days, perlite drains open fire with clear water immersion after 1~2 day, again by cultivation matrix primary raw material and perlite by volume 3~4 ︰ 1 evenly mix, then just can load cultivation bed and seedling culture hole plate sabot.
(4) matrix filling cultivation bed: the matrix preparing is loaded in built on stilts cultivation bed, and matrix filling thickness is 8~10 centimetres, waters the water of revealing the exact details in first 1 day in field planting, treats that field planting is through heeling in the stem of noble dendrobium cave dish seedling of hardening.
(5) medium in tray: seedling culture hole plate can be selected commercially available common plastics seedling culture hole plate, generally selecting specification is long 54 centimetres, wide 25 centimetres, 50 holes of high 5 centimetres or the seedling culture hole plate in 32 holes.During sabot, first the matrix preparing is evenly poured in seedling culture hole plate into shake seedling culture hole plate, allow matrix be filled in the hole of seedling culture hole plate, then with the little plank of 1 cm thick, 50 centimeter length, the matrix compacting on seedling culture hole plate surface is struck off, heel in first 1 day and water the water of revealing the exact details, dendrobe tissue culture seedling to be heeled in.
(6) in good time field planting with heel in: when temperature is not less than 15 ℃, start to carry out field planting and heel in, suitable field planting with heel in be generally period mid-March~by the end of May or mid-September~mid-October.During field planting, select through heeling in dish seedling (production seedling) field planting of the anosis cave of the hardening stalwartness of 5~12 months in built on stilts cultivation bed.During operation, first in the matrix of cultivation bed, dig a duck eye, seedling is coiled in cave and together with matrix, from the dish of cave, take out and put into hole, by matrix, hole around, hole is filled up.Note trying not to do loose matrix, the root system of the anti-damage stem of noble dendrobium, field planting is excessively not dark, can allow a small amount of root of collar portion be exposed in air.After field planting, water immediately 1000 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl liquid as normal root water, and can disinfection.Plantation density is 100~120 clumps/meter 2, every mu with seedling 4~50,000 clump, and Reference Strains line-spacing is 10~12 centimetres of 8~10 cm x.While heeling in, first to select of the right age dendrobe tissue culture seedling to carry out indoor hardening adaptation.When every clump of dendrobe tissue culture seedling has 3~5 strains, every strain has 3~5 of roots, long 2~3 centimetres of root, 4~6, leaf, stem thick 0.3 centimetre above, high 4~7 centimetres time, by group training seedling from group training chamber move to the booth of planting environment term harmonization or greenhouse in carry out the adaptation of normal temperature hardening.Temperature is controlled at 15 ℃~28 ℃, relative moisture 50%~80%, intensity of illumination 3000~7000 luxs, it is shading 50%~70%, and increase gradually intensity of illumination, and keep ventilated in canopy, allow group training seedling from the environment of closed stablity to opening the environment transition changing, make its environment of reform of nature light scattering and alternating temperature gradually, the hardening time is 2~4 weeks.70%, 1 week backsight weather condition of shading shading 50%~60% in 1 week during concrete operations, is advisable while slightly hardening with the leaf color jade green of dendrobe tissue culture seedling or the plump sturdy and stem of dark green, stem section.Group training seedling bottle outlet opens wide bottleneck for front 2~3 days gradually, and bottle cap is only unscrewed by elder generation, and unlimited degree strengthens gradually, bottle cap is all opened in last 1 day, allows temperature, the damp condition of its reform of nature.During group training seedling bottle outlet, by hand side, clap bottle, make between medium and root loosening, then with finger or tweezers, from bottle limit by group training seedling, press from both sides out, with clear water, wash away gently the medium sticking on root, will wash agar off especially, in order to avoid agar is mouldy, cause rotten, then change clear water and clean 1 time.After draining the water, with 1000 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl, soak whole strain seedling 10 minutes, prevent the stem of noble dendrobium seedling butt rot after heeling in.Then the root that dries in the air at shady and cool ventilation place is waited to heel in half a day after root turns white.While heeling in, conventionally take 3~5 individual plants as 1 clump, every cave is heeled in 1 clump, after heeling in, seedling culture hole plate is neatly put on temporary seedbed, with sprayer, on seedling culture hole plate, sprayed 3000 times of agricultural streptomycins immediately and 1000 times of carbendazim carry out disinfection, make seedling and matrix combine closely simultaneously.In order improving, to heel in survival rate, the root of dendrobe tissue culture seedling to be heeled in can be soaked in the ABT3 root-inducing powder (production of Ai Bidi bio tech ltd, Beijing) of 100 mg/litre to 15 minutes with root induction, then to heel in.
(7) field planting with heel in after management: stem of noble dendrobium vegetative period, suitable degree of shading was advisable with 60% left and right, to utilize according to different cultivation seasons the sunshade net that facility is equipped with rationally to regulate degree of shading, summer High Temperature adjusting in season degree of shading is 70%~80%, weather can suitably increase illumination nice and cool season, it is 50%~70% that spring and fall regulates degree of shading, should guarantee that illumination is sufficient winter, only at fine day, shade 30%~40%.The optimum temperature of stem of noble dendrobium growth is 18 ℃~28 ℃, and in cultivating facility, temperature should keep 25 ℃~30 ℃ daytime, and at 15 ℃~20 ℃ of nights, low temperature is not lower than 8 ℃, and high temperature is not higher than 35 ℃.During summer high temperature, will strengthen the ventilation and heat of shading noon, and spraying, cooling, moisturizing, will add forced ventilation simultaneously, prevents high temperature, high humidity, grows disease.When temperature is low in the winter time, should, by facility plastic greenhouse good seal, should take if desired the measure of heating to prevent freeze injury.After stem of noble dendrobium cave dish seedling field planting cultivation bed, within 2 weeks, interior fine day will regulate degree of shading to reach more than 70%, with anti glare anti static coatings, tans by the sun and causes seedling wilting, affects survival rate.After field planting, 2 weeks planted agents adopt the mode of spraying to keep air humidity, be sure not to water, and the 1st week seedling Fa Xingen not yet after field planting, air humidity should remain on 75%~85%, and after field planting, the 2nd week plant starts Fa Xingen, and air humidity can remain on 70%~75%.The more No. 1 (a kind of plant from imported from America is general balanced fertile within after field planting the 1st week and the 2nd week, to use respectively the flower of 0.2%~0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 1500~2000 times of liquid, basic recipe: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium content are 20-20-20, adds the M-77 trace element combination of world patent) each foliage-spray 1 time.Field planting 2 Zhou Houke routinely management method carry out cultivation management, after general field planting, within 2 years, can start the commodity stem of noble dendrobium of gathering.Because the dendrobe tissue culture seedling of just having heeled in is very tender and lovely, the clear water 1~2 time of will regularly spraying initial several days every days, after heeling in, air humidity maintenance 80%~90% in 1 week, does not water.After heeling in 1 week, plant starts Fa Xingen, can reduce spraying number of times, and air humidity keeps 70%~80%.Matrix keeps alternation of wetting and drying to be conducive to root of hair sprouting, and the water management of matrix should be grasped and parch drenched principle, if the dry available watering can of matrix waters and executes matrix to drench (water content 65% left and right) after heeling in 2 weeks.Heel in after 20 days, within every 1~2 week, spray 1 time foliage fertilizer, the flower of the potassium dihydrogen phosphate with 0.2%~0.3% and 1500~2000 times of liquid the more alternately sprays for No. 1.After entering autumn and winter along with the reduction of temperature, stem of noble dendrobium growth of seedling slows down even and stops, the requirement of moisture is also reduced gradually, so should reduce gradually the number of times of water spray and fertilising, in the not obvious lack of water of matrix (water content of substrate lower than 30% time) in the situation that, do not water, generally select fine day 9:00~10:00 in the morning to water for every 15~20 days 1 time winter, after water spray, suitably ventilates.Generally heel in hardening and can go out garden field planting in 5~12 months.
Adopt the dendrobe cultivation method of above-mentioned raising facility utilization rate, not only can improve the availability of facility, and easy and simple to handle, practical.This method is cultivated the survival rate average out to 98.6% of bed after 60 days with the cave dish seedling field planting of heeling in after hardening, than directly improving 15.2% (in Table 1) with the average survival 83.4% of group training seedling field planting, and grow soon after heeling in the stem of noble dendrobium cave dish seedling field planting after hardening, after the field planting 2 years commodity stems of noble dendrobium of just can gathering, than doing sth. in advance approximately 1 year the direct picking time with the field planting of group training seedling.Dendrobe tissue culture seedling is heeled in the survival rate average out to 96.7% after 60 days, cave dish seedling robust growth, the neat and consistent of cultivating, after field planting, slow seedling is fast, adopt the survival rate of Emulational culture field planting after 60 days on average also can reach 93.5% (in Table 1), than after the Dendrobidium huoshanness group training seedling bottle outlet of report, directly carry out Emulational culture survival rate 30% left and right (Xu Guangtao. improve the research of Dendrobidium huoshanness Emulational culture survival rate method. Anhui forestry science and technology, 2011,37 (6): 62-64.) improve more than 60%.This method provides robust growth, production seedling that planting survival rates is high carrying out can be again when the stem of noble dendrobium is produced cultivation stem of noble dendrobium facility cultivation and Emulational culture; can solve the bottleneck of low this puzzlement stem of noble dendrobium large-scale production of dendrobe tissue culture transplantation of seedlings survival rate, realize the tame large-scale production of dendrobe tissue culture seedling.
Table 1 the inventive method adopts the survival rate comparison of the cave dish seedling field planting heel in after hardening and the group training direct field planting of seedling (CK), and group training seedling heeling in survival rate and the planting survival rates of heeling in cave dish seedling Emulational culture after hardening

Claims (10)

1. a dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
(1) the empty cultivation bed of building is done the production cultivation of the stem of noble dendrobium, utilizes the lower ground of built on stilts cultivation bed as temporary seedbed, to carry out the hardening of heeling in of dendrobe tissue culture seedling;
(2) fermentation process of cultivation matrix primary raw material:
By pine bark, maple wood sawdust, dry cow dung, be that fermentation process is carried out in 4~5 ︰ 4~5 ︰ 0.5~1 mixing by volume;
(3) preparation of cultivation matrix, filling cultivation bed and seedling culture hole plate sabot:
First the cultivation matrix primary raw material after step (2) fermentation process is processed with carbendazim or thiophanate methyl medicine liquid spray, perlite drains open fire after soaking with clear water, again by cultivation matrix primary raw material and perlite by volume 3~4 ︰ 1 evenly mix, be then loaded in built on stilts cultivation bed and pack in the hole of seedling culture hole plate;
(4) stem of noble dendrobium cave dish seedling of field planting after heeling in hardening carries out the management after field planting in built on stilts cultivation bed;
(5) select of the right age dendrobe tissue culture seedling to carry out indoor hardening adaptation, then heel in the management of putting in seedling culture hole plate after heeling on temporary seedbed.
2. a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the described built on stilts cultivation bed of step (1) is that overhead height is 60~80 centimetres, and width is 1.2~1.5 meters, can load the cultivation bed of 8~10 cm thick matrix in bed.
3. a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the particle size of pine bark is 0.5~1.2 centimetre.
4. according to a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate described in claim 1 or 3, it is characterized in that, the fermentation process of step (2) is specially: pine bark first soaks 1 day with clear water, then mix with maple wood sawdust and dry cow dung in proportion, regulate water content to 65%~70%, pile and in heapsly with plastic film, cover and to ferment, yeast phase 2~3 months, between yeast phase, need turning 5~6 times, every 10~15 days, open film turning 1 time, after having fermented, matrix is spread out dry standby.
5. a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, step (3) is that first with 800~1000 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl medicine liquid spray, to mix the cultivation matrix primary raw material after fermentation process thoroughly water content be 60%~65%, bank out with plastic film and cover 3~5 days, perlite drains open fire with clear water immersion after 1~2 day, again by cultivation matrix primary raw material and perlite by volume 3~4 ︰ 1 evenly mix, then be loaded in built on stilts cultivation bed, matrix filling thickness is 8~10 centimetres, or matrix is packed in the hole of 50 holes or 32 hole seedling culture hole plates.
6. a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the standard of the of the right age dendrobe tissue culture seedling that step (5) is described is: every clump has 3~5 strains, every strain has long 2~3 centimetres of 3~5 of roots, root, every strain have 4~6, leaf, stem thick 0.3 centimetre above, high 4~7 centimetres.
7. according to a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate described in claim 1 or 6, it is characterized in that, the described indoor hardening of step (5) adapts to: of the right age group of training seedling moved to from group training chamber and in booth or greenhouse, carry out the adaptation of normal temperature hardening, temperature is controlled at 15 ℃~28 ℃, relative moisture 50%~80%, shading 70% in 1 week, it is the sunshade net that ceiling all standing degree of shading is 70%, after 1 week, by reducing the size of ceiling covered with sunshade net, be adjusted to shading 50%~60% in canopy, keep ventilated in canopy, allow group training seedling from the environment of closed stablity to opening the environment transition changing, the hardening time is 2~4 weeks, with the leaf color jade green of dendrobe tissue culture seedling or dark green, when slightly hardening, the plump sturdy and stem of stem section is advisable, group training seedling bottle outlet opens wide bottleneck for first 2~3 days gradually, first only unscrews bottle cap, and unlimited degree strengthens gradually, bottle cap is all opened in last 1 day, during bottle outlet, group training seedling is taken out from bottle, with clear water, clean and stick to the medium on root, after draining the water, with 1000 times of carbendazim or thiophanate methyl, soak whole strain seedling 10 minutes, the root that then dries in the air at shady and cool ventilation place is waited to heel in half a day after root turns white.
8. a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the suitable time of heeling in described in the described field planting of step (4) and step (5) be mid-March~by the end of May or mid-September~mid-October.
9. a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, management after the field planting of step (4) is: after the built on stilts cultivation bed of cave dish seedling field planting, in 2 weeks, fine day regulates degree of shading to reach more than 70%, adopt the mode of spraying to keep air humidity, be sure not to water, after field planting, the 1st week air humidity remains on 75%~85%, after field planting, the 2nd week air humidity remains on 70%~75%, the flower of using respectively 0.2%~0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 1500~2000 times of liquid for after field planting the 1st week and the 2nd week is No. 1 each foliage-spray 1 time the more, each amount of application is 30~45 kilograms of every mu of areas, field planting after 2 weeks routinely management method carry out cultivation management, after the field planting 2 years commodity stems of noble dendrobium that start to gather,
Management after the heeling in of step (5) is: in 1 week after heeling in every day regularly spray clear water 1~2 time, make air humidity keep 80%~90%, do not water; After heeling in 1 week, reduce spraying number of times, make air humidity keep 70%~80%; If matrix is dry after heeling in 2 weeks, with watering can, waters and execute matrix to water content 60%~70%; Heel in after 20 days, within every 1~2 week, spray 1 time foliage fertilizer, the flower of the potassium dihydrogen phosphate with 0.2%~0.3% and 1500~2000 times of liquid the more alternately sprays for No. 1, only executes a kind of foliage fertilizer at every turn, and each amount of application is 30~45 kilograms of every mu of areas; After heeling in 2 months, management method is carried out cultivation management routinely, heels in hardening and after 5~12 months, goes out garden field planting.
10. a kind of dendrobe cultivation method that improves facility utilization rate according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the root of dendrobe tissue culture seedling to be heeled in is soaked in the ABT3 root-inducing powder of 100 mg/litre to 15 minutes, and then heels in, to improve, heel in survival rate.
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