CN104138918B - Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die and method of operating thereof - Google Patents

Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die and method of operating thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104138918B
CN104138918B CN201410299685.4A CN201410299685A CN104138918B CN 104138918 B CN104138918 B CN 104138918B CN 201410299685 A CN201410299685 A CN 201410299685A CN 104138918 B CN104138918 B CN 104138918B
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die
hole
diameter
sample
prod cast
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CN201410299685.4A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104138918A (en
Inventor
刘莹莹
刘长瑞
杜忠泽
王快社
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西安建筑科技大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die and method of operating thereof, comprise patrix, combined down molds and workbench; Combined down molds is made up of the prod cast be split into two halves and die sleeve with matching; Prod cast is arranged in the reverse frustoconic taper hole of die sleeve, and with die sleeve cone match; Prod cast is provided with die cavity along axis, and die cavity upper design becomes the first cylindrical hole, and middle part is inverted round stage hole, and bottom is the second cylindrical hole; The diameter of the first cylindrical hole equals the diameter of the large end in inverted round stage hole, and the diameter of the second cylindrical hole equals the diameter of inverted round stage hole small end; Patrix center is provided with pilot hole, and pressure ram stretches in described first cylindrical hole through described pilot hole.Mould of the present invention material when extruding along the gap flowing between upper die and lower die, can not produce burr, improves stock utilization; Be easy to mould material be separated, easy and simple to handle; Only need heat prod cast during hot extrusion, improve mould strength and reduce die cost.

Description

Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die and method of operating thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to Metal Forming field, particularly a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die and method of operating thereof.
Background technology
Severe Plastic Deformation Methods has strong grain refining capability, material inside organization can be refine to sub-micron and even nanoscale, and being known as by material supply section educational circles is the most promising method preparing block nanometer and super fine crystal material.
The large plastometric set method being subject to material supply section educational circles extensive concern at present mainly contains Equal-channel Angular Pressing (ECAP), high pressure torsion (HPT), reciprocating extrusion (CEC), high ratio extrusion (extrusion ratio is more than 100) etc., prepares extensive use in grained material in laboratory research.Adopt the method for forging in the industrial production, make material repeatedly jumping-up-pulling also can play the effect of crystal grain thinning.And recent years Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion method (continuousvariablecross-sectionrecycledextrusion, CVCE) propose, it is characterized in that: (1) can prepare large gauge block grained material; (2) die cost is low, simple to operate; (3) cydariform, the unstability that occur when overcoming traditional jumping-up during jumping-up; (4) efficiency is high, quality is good.Therefore in preparation pure Al alloys andMg alloys, titanium alloy etc., some researchs have been carried out.After employing CVCE carries out extruding 8 circulation to as cast condition fine aluminium 1A85, average grain size reaches 750nm.When employing CVCE carries out cycle extrusion to AZ31 magnesium alloy, discovery is after 16 circulations, and average grain size effectively refine to 5.5 μm by being out of shape first 25.3 μm.Find that when adopting CVCE to extrude TC4 titanium alloy crystal grain is refined to 2 ~ 3 μm from 15 μm when after extruding 6 circulation.
Find when in employing patent of invention ZL200610041960.8, the Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion device shown in Fig. 1 is out of shape material:
(1) because the tapering of the extrusion die conical surface extends to lower surface from the upper surface of counterdie 2 always, when cylinder sample being put into the die cavity of extrusion die, cylinder sample is all arranged in patrix 1.When cylinder sample enters counterdie 2 under the effect of pressure ram 4, owing to there is no locking device between upper and lower mould, pressure ram 4 and test portion 3 may be made can not to enter counterdie nib, affect carrying out smoothly of extrusion process; In addition, when cylinder sample enters counterdie die cavity 2 from patrix die cavity 1, metal is in strong three-dimensional compressive stress state, and the Rotary-table with certain cone angle to be configured as by cylinder at the die cavity intersection of patrix 1 and counterdie 2, be the maximum position of deformation extent, therefore the resistance of metal flow is maximum; Comparatively speaking, between upper and lower mould, the metal flow resistance at (1 and 2) gap place is less.According to law of minimum resistance, during extruding, metal not only longitudinally can flow along the direction that principal stress is maximum, and Radial Flow can be carried out along the gap of (1 and 2) between upper and lower mould, make it be configured as a deckle-edged Continuous Variable Cross-section sample of band.When follow-up jumping-up, in order to sample being put into smoothly the die cavity of jumping-up counterdie (12), also needing that polishing is carried out to its burr and being removed, this adds increased the non-cutting time of distortion and increase the loss of material; In addition, the material of hot extrusion can cause temperature to reduce after carrying out polishing burr, carry out being out of shape the heating must carrying out the long period in the temperature of setting, the crystal grain after refinement can be caused to grow up to some extent, reduce refining efficiency and the thinning effect of material.
(2) counterdie 2 in extrusion die is overall structures, need heat when hot extrusion to whole counterdie.Therefore, monoblock counterdie all needs to adopt resistance to heat resisting material, and die cost is high.
(3) when being Continuous Variable Cross-section sample by cylindrical specimens extruding, when the thin bar adopting to be less than cone top diameter is ejected and mould material is separated, difficulty is comparatively large, and the material lower to some intensity even easily occurs knock-pin press-in material and form the phenomenon of load mould.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die and method of operating thereof, to overcome the defect that existing Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion deformation device exists.
To achieve these goals, the technical solution used in the present invention is as follows:
A kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die, comprises patrix, combined down molds and workbench; Combined down molds is made up of the prod cast be split into two halves and die sleeve with matching; Prod cast is arranged in the reverse frustoconic taper hole of die sleeve, and with die sleeve cone match; Prod cast is provided with die cavity along axis, and die cavity upper design becomes the first cylindrical hole, and middle part is inverted round stage hole, and bottom is the second cylindrical hole; The diameter of the first cylindrical hole equals the diameter of the large end in inverted round stage hole, and the diameter of the second cylindrical hole equals the diameter of inverted round stage hole small end; Combined down molds is arranged on the table, and patrix is arranged at combined down molds upper end; Patrix center is provided with pilot hole, and pressure ram stretches in described first cylindrical hole through described pilot hole.
Preferably, counterdie is composite structure, is made up of prod cast and die sleeve two parts; Only need when hot extrusion to heat prod cast, and die sleeve does not need heating.Therefore, during hot extrusion, only prod cast needs to select exotic material, and die sleeve only need select common material, thus not only ensures mould strength but also reduce die cost.
Preferably, prod cast, along axis dimidiation, is easy to mould material and is separated, easy and simple to handle.
Preferably, workbench is provided with through hole, is provided with knock-pin in this through hole, the upper surface of knock-pin and the either flush of workbench; Knock-pin and prod cast are coaxially arranged, and the diameter of knock-pin is less than the diameter of prod cast lower end, are greater than the diameter of the second cylindrical hole.
Preferably, be provided with the boss and groove that cooperatively interact for a pair between patrix and combined down molds, this when extruding, be convenient to patrix and combined down molds centering, and patrix has guide effect to cylinder sample and pressure ram to boss and groove, ensures that extrusion process is carried out smoothly.
Preferably, during extruding, cylinder sample is positioned at the first cylindrical hole completely, and be at airtight die cavity internal shaping, and axial principal stress is maximum principal stress, therefore material only flows vertically, can not produce burr.
Preferably, the diameter of pressure ram 0.5mm less of the internal diameter of the pilot hole of patrix.
Preferably, knock-pin diameter 4mm less of prod cast bottom surface diameter.
The method of operating of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die, comprises the following steps:
1st step, first the prod cast of extrusion die and cylinder sample are heated respectively, then prod cast and die sleeve are combined, subsequently cylinder sample is taken out in heating furnace the first cylindrical hole putting into combined down molds die cavity, place it on workbench afterwards, and alignd with the knock-pin on workbench in the lower end of prod cast; Then patrix is coordinated with combined down molds, then put into pressure ram; The descending pressurization of pressure ram extrudes the cylindrical specimens be positioned in advance in combined down molds die cavity, under the effect of the pressure, the inverted round stage hole that material enters prod cast is configured as the Continuous Variable Cross-section sample (Rotary-table) with tapering, and crimp terminates; Then first take down pressure ram, then remove patrix, make knock-pin up subsequently, prod cast and sample are ejected under the effect of the pressure, along with the increase of ejection stroke, prod cast is split into two halves, and takes out Continuous Variable Cross-section sample; Then sample is put into heating furnace to heat, again two halves prod cast is put into another heating furnace subsequently and heat;
2nd step, head-up carries out jumping-up by little for the sample after extruding, obtains cylinder sample; Record cylinder sample distortion size direction, put into heating furnace heating afterwards;
3rd step, takes out sample from heating furnace, and first inserts in the combined down molds die cavity of extrusion die by one end little for deflection in the 1st step, and the action repeating the 1st step extrudes;
4th step, repeats the action of the 2nd step, and the sample after extruding is upset as cylinder, and this achieves 1 deformation cycle after having walked;
Repeat step 1 ~ 4 and carry out several deformation cycle.
Relative to prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1, during extruding, material along the gap flowing between upper die and lower die, can not produce burr, improves stock utilization.
2, be easy to mould material after extruding be separated, easy and simple to handle;
3, only need during hot extrusion to heat prod cast, improve the intensity of mould, reduce the cost of mould.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is schematic diagram material being become Continuous Variable Cross-section sample from cylinder crimp;
Fig. 2 is for be upset as cylindrical schematic diagram by Continuous Variable Cross-section sample;
Fig. 3 is the enlarged diagram of prod cast in Fig. 1.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the invention will be further described.
Refer to shown in Fig. 1 to Fig. 3, when a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion of the present invention composite die is extrusion die, comprise patrix 1 and combined down molds; Combined down molds is made up of the prod cast 2 be split into two halves and die sleeve with matching 3.Prod cast 2 is arranged in the reverse frustoconic taper hole 30 of die sleeve 3, and with die sleeve 3 cone match.Only heat prod cast 2 when heating, die sleeve 3 does not heat, and improves intensity and the life-span of mould, reduces die cost.
Prod cast 2 is provided with die cavity along axis, and die cavity upper design becomes the first cylindrical hole 21, and middle part is inverted round stage hole 22, and bottom is the second cylindrical hole 23; The diameter of the first cylindrical hole 21 equals the diameter held greatly in inverted round stage hole 22, and the diameter of the second cylindrical hole 23 equals the diameter of inverted round stage hole 22 small end; After making that cylindrical specimens 4 is whole and putting into mould, be all positioned at the first cylindrical hole 21, during extruding, sample 4 can not gap flowing vertically between mould, does not produce burr, improves stock utilization.
Prod cast 2, along axis dimidiation, after being Continuous Variable Cross-section sample by cylinder sample 4 extrusion molding, separately takes out cylinder sample 4 after adopting knock-pin 6 to be ejected by prod cast 2, is easy to mould material and is separated.Bottom second cylindrical hole 23 of prod cast 2 is for solving when adopting push rod 6 to be ejected by prod cast 2 but failing to make mould material be separated, and adopting little push rod to head into, bottom second cylindrical hole 23 is interior is taken out by material.
Combined down molds is arranged on workbench 7, and workbench is provided with through hole, is provided with knock-pin 6 in this through hole, the upper surface of knock-pin 6 and the either flush of workbench 7; Knock-pin 6 and prod cast 2 are coaxially arranged, and the diameter of knock-pin 6 is less than the diameter of prod cast 2 lower end, is greater than the diameter of the second cylindrical hole 23, can be ejected by prod cast 2 when the demoulding from die sleeve 3.
Be provided with the boss and groove that cooperatively interact for a pair between patrix 1 and combined down molds, during extruding, be convenient to patrix and combined down molds centering, and patrix have guide effect to test portion and pressure ram, ensure carrying out smoothly of extrusion process.
A kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion of the present invention composite die, saves the heat time of mould material disengaging time and blank, improves material refining efficiency and thinning effect.
Heading die comprises patrix 11 and counterdie 12, pressure ram 14.The die cavity of extrusion die patrix 1 is the consistent through hole of diameter with the die cavity of the patrix 11 of heading die, and the cylindrical section of the prod cast die cavity of extrusion die counterdie 12 to be two ends be straight line, centre is inverted round stage hole section.
The method of operating of a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion of the present invention composite die, comprises the following steps:
1st step (see Fig. 1), first the prod cast 2 of extrusion die and sample 4 are heated respectively, after meeting required temperature and time, prod cast 2 and die sleeve 3 are combined, subsequently cylinder sample 4 is taken out in heating furnace the Upper cylindrical section putting into combined down molds die cavity, place it in afterwards on workbench 7, and alignd with the knock-pin 6 on workbench 7 in the lower end of prod cast 2; Then extruding patrix 1 is coordinated with combined down molds, then put into pressure ram 5.The descending pressurization of pressure ram extrudes the cylinder sample 4 be positioned in advance in combined down molds die cavity, and under the effect of the pressure, the inverted round stage hole 22 that material enters prod cast 2 is configured as the Continuous Variable Cross-section sample with tapering, and crimp terminates.Then first take down pressure ram 4, then remove patrix 1, make knock-pin 6 up subsequently, prod cast 2 and sample 4 are ejected under the effect of the pressure, along with the increase of ejection stroke, prod cast is split into two halves, and takes out sample 4, obtains Continuous Variable Cross-section sample 13.Then Continuous Variable Cross-section sample is heated, and two halves prod cast 2 is put into another heating furnace heat.
2nd step (see Fig. 2), jumping-up patrix 11 and jumping-up counterdie 12 are assembled, be positioned on jumping-up workbench 15, then by Continuous Variable Cross-section sample head-up little after the 1st step heating, put into the heading die die cavity of assembling, put into jumping-up pressure ram 14 afterwards, the descending pressurization of jumping-up pressure ram 14 extrudes the Continuous Variable Cross-section sample 13 be positioned in advance in heading die die cavity, under the effect of the pressure, Continuous Variable Cross-section sample is deformed into cylinder sample.Then with pressure ram 14, cylinder sample is ejected from counterdie 12, recorded cylinder sample distortion size direction, put into heating furnace heating afterwards, finally remove heading die.
3rd step, takes out sample from heating furnace, and first inserts in the combined down molds die cavity of extrusion die by one end little for deflection in the 1st step, and the action repeating the 1st step extrudes;
4th step, repeats the action of the 2nd step, and the sample after extruding is upset as cylinder, and this achieves 1 deformation cycle after having walked;
Repeat step 1 ~ 4 and carry out several deformation cycle, material just can be made to obtain large plastic deformation, prepare the blank of block grained material, then carry out deep processing, make the parts of required shape and size.
The design principle of die size and material shape size
First Continuous Variable Cross-section specimen size is determined as required, the plasticity of this Main Basis material and determining.Material is when thermal deformation, and the height of Continuous Variable Cross-section sample obtains larger relatively, to improve refining efficiency and the thinning effect of material.
Extrusion die combined down molds die cavity is consistent with Continuous Variable Cross-section specimen size down from straightway lower surface, and tapering still will to downward-extension, and namely the tapered portion height of prod cast is higher than the height of Continuous Variable Cross-section sample.The large nib internal diameter of extrusion die patrix and Continuous Variable Cross-section sample diameter of going to the bottom is consistent.Equal according to volume, just can calculate cylindrical height by the stereometer of Continuous Variable Cross-section sample.The straightway height of the prod cast 2 of the combined down molds of such extrusion die just can be determined (than cylinder sample height about 5mm, to play guide effect and protective effect to pressure ram 5).The size of patrix nib is identical with cylinder sample diameter, is highly designed to about 30mm (extruding patrix just plays guide effect, not a holding capacity to pressure ram).In order to avoid friction, the diameter 0.5mm less of the nib internal diameter of patrix of pressure ram, knock-pin diameter 4mm less of prod cast bottom surface (one end that diameter is less) diameter.

Claims (8)

1. a Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die, is characterized in that, comprises patrix (1), combined down molds and workbench; Combined down molds is made up of the prod cast be split into two halves (2) and die sleeve with matching (3); Prod cast (2) is arranged in the reverse frustoconic taper hole (30) of die sleeve (3), and with die sleeve (3) cone match;
Prod cast (2) is provided with die cavity along axis, and die cavity upper design becomes the first cylindrical hole (21), and middle part is inverted round stage hole (22), and bottom is the second cylindrical hole (23); The diameter of the first cylindrical hole (21) equals the diameter held greatly in inverted round stage hole (22), and the diameter of the second cylindrical hole (23) equals the diameter of inverted round stage hole (22) small end;
Combined down molds is arranged on the table, and patrix (1) is arranged at combined down molds upper end; Patrix (1) center is provided with pilot hole, and pressure ram (5) stretches in described first cylindrical hole (21) through described pilot hole.
2. a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, prod cast (2) is along axis dimidiation.
3. a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, workbench is provided with through hole, is provided with knock-pin (6) in this through hole, the upper surface of knock-pin (6) and the either flush of workbench; Knock-pin (6) and prod cast (2) are coaxially arranged, and the diameter of knock-pin (6) is less than the diameter of prod cast (2) lower end, is greater than the diameter of the second cylindrical hole (23).
4. a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the boss and groove that cooperatively interact for a pair is provided with between patrix (1) and combined down molds, this to boss and groove when extruding, be convenient to patrix (1) and combined down molds centering, and patrix (1) there is guide effect to cylinder sample (4) and pressure ram (5).
5. a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die according to claim 1, is characterized in that, during extruding, cylinder sample (4) is positioned at the first cylindrical hole (21) completely.
6. a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the diameter 0.5mm less of the internal diameter of the pilot hole of patrix of pressure ram.
7. a kind of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die according to claim 1, is characterized in that, knock-pin diameter 4mm less of prod cast bottom surface diameter.
8. the method for operating of Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die described in claim 1, is characterized in that, comprise the following steps:
1st step, first the prod cast (2) of extrusion die and cylinder sample (4) are heated respectively, then prod cast (2) and die sleeve (3) are combined, subsequently cylinder sample (4) is taken out in heating furnace the first cylindrical hole (21) putting into combined down molds die cavity, place it on workbench afterwards, and alignd with the knock-pin (6) on workbench in the lower end of prod cast (2); Then patrix (1) is coordinated with combined down molds, then put into pressure ram (5); The descending pressurization of pressure ram extrudes the cylinder sample be positioned in advance in combined down molds die cavity (4), under the effect of the pressure, the inverted round stage hole (22) that material enters prod cast (2) is configured as the Continuous Variable Cross-section sample with tapering, and crimp terminates; Then pressure ram (5) is first taken down, remove patrix (1) again, make knock-pin (6) up subsequently, under the effect of the pressure prod cast (2) and sample are ejected, along with the increase of ejection stroke, prod cast is split into two halves, and takes out sample, obtains Continuous Variable Cross-section sample; Then Continuous Variable Cross-section sample is heated, again two halves prod cast (2) is put into another heating furnace subsequently and heat;
2nd step, then head-up carries out jumping-up by little for the Continuous Variable Cross-section sample after extruding, obtains cylinder sample; Record the size direction of cylinder sample distortion, put into heating furnace heating afterwards;
3rd step, takes out sample from heating furnace, and first inserts in the combined down molds die cavity of extrusion die by one end little for deflection, and the action repeating the 1st step extrudes;
4th step, repeats the action of the 2nd step, and the sample after extruding is upset as cylinder, and this achieves 1 deformation cycle after having walked;
Repeat step 1 ~ 4 and carry out several deformation cycle.
CN201410299685.4A 2014-06-27 2014-06-27 Continuous Variable Cross-section cycle extrusion composite die and method of operating thereof CN104138918B (en)

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