CN104134711A - Perovskite solar cell and preparation method of perovskite solar cell by solution method - Google Patents

Perovskite solar cell and preparation method of perovskite solar cell by solution method Download PDF

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CN104134711A
CN104134711A CN201410342998.3A CN201410342998A CN104134711A CN 104134711 A CN104134711 A CN 104134711A CN 201410342998 A CN201410342998 A CN 201410342998A CN 104134711 A CN104134711 A CN 104134711A
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solar cell
perovskite
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CN104134711B (en
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陆运章
刘文峰
杨晓生
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CETC 48 Research Institute
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/42Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for sensing infra-red radiation, light, electro-magnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other material as the active part; Multistep processes for their manufacture
    • H01L51/4213Comprising organic semiconductor-inorganic semiconductor hetero-junctions
    • H01L51/422Majority carrier devices using sensitisation of widebandgap semiconductors, e.g. TiO2
    • H01L51/4226Majority carrier devices using sensitisation of widebandgap semiconductors, e.g. TiO2 the wideband gap semiconductor comprising titanium oxide, e.g. TiO2
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0001Processes specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0002Deposition of organic semiconductor materials on a substrate
    • H01L51/0003Deposition of organic semiconductor materials on a substrate using liquid deposition, e.g. spin coating
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/0077Coordination compounds, e.g. porphyrin
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/42Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for sensing infra-red radiation, light, electro-magnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other material as the active part; Multistep processes for their manufacture
    • H01L51/4213Comprising organic semiconductor-inorganic semiconductor hetero-junctions
    • H01L51/422Majority carrier devices using sensitisation of widebandgap semiconductors, e.g. TiO2
    • H01L51/4233Majority carrier devices using sensitisation of widebandgap semiconductors, e.g. TiO2 the wideband gap semiconductor comprising zinc oxide, e.g. ZnO
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2251/00Indexing scheme relating to organic semiconductor devices covered by group H01L51/00
    • H01L2251/30Materials
    • H01L2251/301Inorganic materials
    • H01L2251/303Oxides, e.g. metal oxides
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/549Organic PV cells
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product

Abstract

The invention discloses a perovskite solar cell and a preparation method of the perovskite solar cell by a solution method. The perovskite solar cell comprises a substrate, a transparent electrode, an electron transfer layer, a light absorption layer, a hole transfer layer and a top electrode which are sequentially laminated, wherein the light absorption layer is a photovoltaic material light absorption layer in a perovskite structure. The electron transfer layer, the perovskite material light absorption layer and the hole transfer layer can be prepared by the solution method in a low-temperature (below 200 DEG C) air environment, and particularly, the electron transfer layer does not require nano particles treated or synthetized at a high temperature (above 450 DEG C), so that a technological process can be simplified, the cost is lowered, the preparation efficiency of the cell is improved, and mass production is achieved.

Description

A kind of perovskite solar cell and solwution method preparation method thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of solar batteries, particularly relate to a kind of perovskite solar cell and solwution method preparation method thereof.
Background technology
Solar cell is the device that directly light energy conversion is become to electric energy by photoelectric effect or Photochemical effects, is called again photovoltaic cell.Along with solar power generation obtains more and more extensive use as a kind of clean energy resource, the preparation technology of solar cell is waited to more simple and fast of index request.The preparation technology of conventional solar cells is the crystal silicon solar energy battery as sunlight absorbing material mainly with monocrystalline silicon or polysilicon greatly.Because the type battery exists preparation technology's long flow path,, easily there is the problem of long, the low output of high investment of cell piece production cycle in the shortcomings such as the high and Preparation equipment costliness of preparation process energy consumption.
Perovskite solar cell is the emerging solar cell of a class, is mainly to utilize similar ABX 3(A=CH 3nH 3 +deng; B=Pb 2+, Sn 2+deng; X=Cl -, Br -, I -deng) photovoltaic material with perovskite structure realizes opto-electronic conversion, has raw material wide material sources, manufacture craft is simple, price is low, can be prepared into the advantages such as flexible battery.The basic structure of perovskite solar cell comprises substrate, transparency electrode, electron transport material, perovskite material light-absorption layer, hole mobile material and metal electrode.Perovskite solar cell becomes electric energy can be divided into three main process transform light energy: the photon of (1) certain energy is absorbed by light-absorption layer and produces electron hole pair; (2) when electron hole pair diffuses to the interface of light absorbent, there is separation of charge; (3) electronics enters external circuit along electron transport material through electrode, and hole enters external circuit along hole mobile material through electrode, completes the conversion of luminous energy to electric energy by load.
Since 2009, document " Kojima; A.; Teshima; K.; Shirai; Y. & Miyasaka, T. Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131,6050 – 6051 (2009). " first report the light absorbent of perovskite material as solar cell; and along with going deep into of research, the efficiency of perovskite solar cell promotes rapidly.2013, document " Burschka, J. et al. Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells. Nature 499, 316 – 319 (2013). " and document " Liu, D., Kelly, T. L. Perovskite solar cells with a planar heterojunction structure prepared using room-temperature solution processing techniques. Nature photonics 342, (2013). " report respectively efficient perovskite solar cell, improve greatly the photoelectric conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cell.These perovskite solar cells are all the preparation technologies based on solwution method.This preparation technology is simple to operate, with low cost.But in above-mentioned preparation technology, exist and need the mesoporous shape titanium oxide layer (TiO of preparation 2as electron transfer layer) or the problem such as synthesis of nano grain-like zinc-oxide (ZnO), mesoporous shape TiO 2layer need carry out high temperature (more than 450 DEG C) sintering processes link, and synthetic Nanoparticulate ZnO solution can not long-term storage.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is intended to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, and a kind of perovskite solar cell and solwution method preparation method thereof are provided.
In order to achieve the above object, technical scheme provided by the invention is:
Described perovskite solar cell is followed successively by substrate, transparent electrode layer, electron transfer layer, light-absorption layer, hole transmission layer and top electrode layer from top to bottom.
Wherein, described backing material is glass or flexiplast; Described transparency electrode layer material is indium tin oxide (ITO, Indium Tin Oxide) or fluorine tin-oxide (FTO, Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide); Described electric transmission layer material is electron transport material; Described light-absorption layer material is perovskite structure photovoltaic material; Described hole transport layer material is hole mobile material; Described top electrode layer is metal electrode.
Preferably, described electron transport material is metal oxide; Described perovskite structure photovoltaic material is ABX 3the organic inorganic hybridization perovskite of type crystal structure; Described hole mobile material is organic material or inorganic material.
Described metal oxide is TiO 2or ZnO.
In described hole mobile material, organic material is Spiro-MeOTAD, and inorganic material is NiO x(x is 1~1.5), MoO x(x is 2~3) or V 2o 5in one or more.
Described electric transmission layer thickness is 30~60nm; Described light-absorption layer thickness is 300~400nm; Described thickness of hole transport layer is 100~200nm; Described top electrode layer thickness is 60~150nm.
The preparation method of above-mentioned solar cell comprises the following steps:
(1) on transparent electrode layer, be coated with electron transfer layer precursor solution, electron transfer layer presoma is dissolved in 200 DEG C of following hydrolysis and forms dense film, makes the electron transfer layer that thickness is 30~60nm;
(2) adopt and be dissolved with PbI 2dimethyl formamide solution and be dissolved with CH 3nH 3the aqueous isopropanol of I deposits perovskite structure photovoltaic material on electron transfer layer, makes the light-absorption layer that thickness is 300~400nm;
(3) at light-absorption layer surface-coated hole mobile material, the hole transmission layer that formation thickness is 100~200nm;
(4) on hole transmission layer, adopt the top electrode layer that vacuum thermal evaporation metal electrode method deposit thickness is 60~150nm.
Below in conjunction with principle and beneficial effect, the invention will be further described:
The present invention is beneficial to industrialization in the future in order to improve the problems such as above-mentioned high-temperature process, and a kind of solwution method preparation method of perovskite solar cell is provided.The perovskite solar cell that adopts the inventive method to prepare; its electron transfer layer, perovskite material light-absorption layer and hole transmission layer all can be realized solwution method preparation under air ambient; and do not need high temperature (more than 450 DEG C) to process or synthetic Nanoparticulate zinc oxide; be conducive to simplification of flowsheet; reduce costs; improve the preparation efficiency of battery, accomplish scale production.
The backing material that is applicable to perovskite solar cell of the present invention has the transparent material such as glass, flexiplast (PEN, PET).The material of transparency electrode can be the conventional transparent electrode material such as indium tin oxide (ITO, Indium Tin Oxide), fluorine tin-oxide (FTO, Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide).Normal ITO electro-conductive glass, FTO electro-conductive glass or the PEN plastic film with ITO of adopting is as substrate and transparency electrode, and its square resistance is 10~50 Ω, and transmitance is 80~90%.
What in electron transfer layer, electron transport material used was common is metal oxide, as TiO 2, ZnO etc.Electron transfer layer is that metal oxide is gathered in the film forming in transparency electrode, is generally the compacted zone of thickness between 10nm~100nm, plays the effect of transmission electronic, prevents that electrode from directly contacting with light-absorption layer simultaneously.
Light-absorption layer adopts perovskite crystal preparation, and its effect is to absorb incident light.The simple light-absorption layer of device of the present invention is made up of the crystal grain of perovskite material, and thickness is conventionally at 100~500nm.Common perovskite material mainly contains similar ABX 3(A=CH 3nH 3 +deng; B=Pb 2+, Sn 2+deng; X=Cl -, Br -, I -deng) the organic inorganic hybridization perovskite of type crystal structure.
Hole transmission layer be mainly by hole transport to top electrode, thickness is generally 40~300nm.Hole mobile material is generally the material with higher hole mobility, can be organic material and/or inorganic material, and organic material is as Spiro-MeOTAD etc., and inorganic material is as NiO x, MoO x, V 2o 5deng.
Top electrode is general adopts the metal material such as gold, silver, copper, aluminium with higher work-functions, and thickness is generally 20~100nm.Can adopt the manufacture methods such as vacuum coating, plasma spray coating, sputter, inkjet printing and solution film forming.
The preparation method of solar cell of the present invention is included in clean ITO electro-conductive glass and first deposits the step of electron transfer layer, and then on electron transfer layer, prepares one deck hydridization perovskite structure CH 3nH 3pbI 3step, then at hydridization perovskite structure CH 3nH 3pbI 3the step of deposition hole transmission layer on layer, the finally step of deposit metal electrodes layer on hole transmission layer; Prepare electron transfer layer, light-absorption layer and hole transmission layer by solwution method deposition process.
In substrate and transparency electrode, adopt ZnO or TiO 2precursor solution carries out surperficial spin coating and prepares electron transfer layer, and then under the low temperature of 150 DEG C~200 DEG C, hydrolysis forms fine and close ZnO or TiO 2film.It is characterized in that: in air ambient, ZnO or TiO 2precursor solution can form dense film by the low temperature hydrolysis below 200 DEG C, without high temperature sintering.
On electron transfer layer, adopt and be dissolved with PbI 2dimethyl formamide (N, N-dimethylformamide) solution on above-mentioned substrate, carry out surperficial spin coating, then substrate is soaked in and is dissolved with CH 3nH 3in isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol) solution of I, prepare light-absorption layer.It is characterized in that: in air ambient, light-absorption layer is prepared by solwution method deposition process.
On light-absorption layer, adopt chlorobenzene (chlorobenzene) solution that is dissolved with Spiro-OMeTAD, or NiO xor MoO xprecursor solution on above-mentioned substrate, carry out surperficial spin coating, prepare hole transmission layer.It is characterized in that: in air ambient, hole transmission layer is prepared by solwution method deposition process.
Finally, on above-mentioned substrate, deposit silver or the gold electrode of 100nm thickness by the mode of thermal evaporation or plasma spraying.
In the preparation technology of perovskite battery, conventionally adopt the mesoporous shape TiO that needs high temperature (450 DEG C) sintering processes at present 2layer or need synthesis of nano graininess ZnO etc. as electron transfer layer; or more complicated plasma activated chemical vapour deposition method; and proposing solwution method preparation technology, the present invention just can complete in the air ambient of low temperature; be conducive to simplification of flowsheet; reduce costs; improve the preparation efficiency of battery, accomplish scale production.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is perovskite solar battery structure figure of the present invention; Wherein: 1-glass; 2-ITO; 3-electron transfer layer; 4-light-absorption layer; 5-hole transmission layer; 6-metal electrode.1, substrate, 2, transparent electrode layer, 3, electron transfer layer, 4, light-absorption layer, 5, hole transmission layer, 6, top electrode layer;
Fig. 2 is under AM1.5G illumination, the volt-ampere characteristic of the perovskite material solar cell of embodiment 2 and embodiment 3.Wherein: circle point curve is TiO 2volt-ampere characteristic during as electron transfer layer, closed square curve is the volt-ampere characteristic of ZnO during as electron transfer layer.
embodiment:
embodiment 1
Referring to Fig. 1, described perovskite solar cell is followed successively by substrate 1, transparent electrode layer 2, electron transfer layer 3, light-absorption layer 4, hole transmission layer 5 and top electrode layer 6 from top to bottom.
Wherein, described substrate 1 material is glass or flexiplast; Described transparent electrode layer 2 materials are indium tin oxide or fluorine tin-oxide; Described electron transfer layer 3 materials are electron transport material; Described light-absorption layer 4 materials are perovskite structure photovoltaic material; Described hole transmission layer 5 materials are hole mobile material; Described top electrode layer 6 is metal electrode.Described electron transport material is metal oxide; Described perovskite structure photovoltaic material is ABX 3the organic inorganic hybridization perovskite of type crystal structure; Described hole mobile material is organic material or inorganic material.Described electric transmission layer thickness is 30~60nm; Described light-absorption layer thickness is 300~400nm; Described thickness of hole transport layer is 100~200nm; Described top electrode layer thickness is 60~150nm.
embodiment 2
The preparation method of solar cell described in embodiment 1, comprises the following steps:
Preparation PbI 2solution: PbI 2concentration be 1 mol/L, solvent is dimethyl formamide.Preparation CH 3nH 3i solution: concentration 10 mg/mL, are dissolved in isopropyl alcohol.Preparation TiO 2precursor solution: the mol ratio that butyl titanate (tetra-n-butyl titanate) is pressed 1:1 is dissolved in 2-methyl cellosolve solution after mixing with monoethanolamine.
(1) select sheet resistance 15 Ω/, thickness is 3mm, and the ITO glass that transmitance is 85% is backing material;
(2) adopt the method for solution spin coating on substrate, to be coated with TiO 2precursor solution, 150 DEG C~200 DEG C K cryogenic treatment 30min on heating station, obtain the TiO of the about 30-60nm of thickness 2film is as electron transfer layer;
(3) spin coating PbI on the substrate that deposits electron transfer layer 2solution, after the upper oven dry of 70 DEG C, puts into CH 3nH 3in I solution, soak approximately 40 seconds, substrate color becomes rapidly brownish black, is put in clean isopropyl alcohol after taking-up, washes away unnecessary CH 3nH 3i, is finally placed on the heating station of 70 DEG C and dries 10min, obtains the CH that thickness is 350nm 3nH 3pbI 3the light-absorption layer of perovskite material;
(4) be 0.17 mol/L in the surperficial spin coating hole mobile material Spiro-MeOTAD(concentration of light-absorption layer, solvent is chlorobenzene), the hole transmission layer of the about 100-200nm of formation thickness;
(5) adopt the mode of vacuum thermal evaporation metal electrode on hole transmission layer, to deposit the top electrode layer that 60-150nm is thick.
Implementation result: finally carry out the performance test of battery, at AM1.5,100 mW/cm 2under the irradiation of etalon optical power, the open circuit voltage 0.98V of solar cell sample, short-circuit current density 16.2 mA/cm 2, fill factor, curve factor 0.68, conversion efficiency is 10.79%.
embodiment 3
The preparation method of solar cell described in embodiment 1, comprises the following steps:
Preparation PbI 2solution: PbI 2concentration be 1 mol/L, solvent is dimethyl formamide.Preparation CH 3nH 3i solution: concentration 10 mg/mL, are dissolved in isopropyl alcohol.Preparation ZnO precursor solution: zinc acetate (Zn (Ac) 22H 2the mol ratio of O) pressing 1:1 is dissolved in 2-methyl cellosolve solution after mixing with monoethanolamine.
4, the preparation of device function layer, referring to Fig. 1, mainly comprises the each functional layer being laminated on glass substrate 1 and transparent ITO electrode 2: electron transfer layer 3, light-absorption layer 4, hole transmission layer 5, and metal electrode 6, and preparation process is as follows:
(1) select sheet resistance 15 Ω/, thickness is 3mm, and the ITO glass that transmitance is 85% is backing material;
(2) adopt the method for solution spin coating on substrate, to be coated with TiO 2precursor solution, 150 DEG C~200 DEG C K cryogenic treatment 30min on heating station, obtain the TiO of the about 30-60nm of thickness 2film is as electron transfer layer;
(3) spin coating PbI on the substrate that deposits electron transfer layer 2solution, after the upper oven dry of 70 DEG C, puts into CH 3nH 3in I solution, soak approximately 40 seconds, substrate color becomes rapidly brownish black, is put in clean isopropyl alcohol after taking-up, washes away unnecessary CH 3nH 3i, is finally placed on the heating station of 70 DEG C and dries 10min, obtains the CH that thickness is 350nm 3nH 3pbI 3the light-absorption layer of perovskite material;
(4) be 0.17 mol/L in the surperficial spin coating hole mobile material Spiro-MeOTAD(concentration of light-absorption layer, solvent is chlorobenzene), the hole transmission layer of the about 100-200nm of formation thickness;
(5) adopt the mode of vacuum thermal evaporation metal electrode on hole transmission layer, to deposit the top electrode layer that 60-150nm is thick.
Implementation result: finally carry out the performance test of battery, at AM1.5,100 mW/cm 2under the irradiation of etalon optical power, the open circuit voltage 0.97V of solar cell sample, short-circuit current density 15.8 mA/cm 2, fill factor, curve factor 0.66, conversion efficiency is 10.11%.

Claims (7)

1. a perovskite solar cell, is characterized in that, described battery is followed successively by substrate (1), transparent electrode layer (2), electron transfer layer (3), light-absorption layer (4), hole transmission layer (5) and top electrode layer (6) from top to bottom.
2. solar cell as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, described substrate (1) material is glass or flexiplast; Described transparent electrode layer (2) material is ITO or FTO; Described electron transfer layer (3) material is electron transport material; Described light-absorption layer (4) material is perovskite structure photovoltaic material; Described hole transmission layer (5) material is hole mobile material; Described top electrode layer (6) is metal electrode.
3. solar cell as claimed in claim 2, is characterized in that, described electron transport material is metal oxide; Described perovskite structure photovoltaic material is ABX 3the organic inorganic hybridization perovskite of type crystal structure; Described hole mobile material is organic material or inorganic material.
4. solar cell as claimed in claim 3, is characterized in that, described metal oxide is TiO 2or ZnO.
5. solar cell as claimed in claim 3, is characterized in that, in described hole mobile material, organic material is Spiro-MeOTAD, and inorganic material is NiO x, MoO xor V 2o 5in one or more, described NiO xin x be 1~1.5, described MoO xin x be 2~3.
6. solar cell as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, described electric transmission layer thickness is 30~60nm; Described light-absorption layer thickness is 300~400nm; Described thickness of hole transport layer is 100~200nm; Described top electrode layer thickness is 60~150nm.
7. the preparation method of solar cell as described in claim 1 to 6 any one, is characterized in that, said method comprising the steps of:
(1) on transparent electrode layer, be coated with electron transfer layer precursor solution, electron transfer layer presoma is dissolved in 200 DEG C of following hydrolysis and forms dense film, makes the electron transfer layer that thickness is 30~60nm;
(2) adopt and be dissolved with PbI 2dimethyl formamide solution and be dissolved with CH 3nH 3the aqueous isopropanol of I deposits perovskite structure photovoltaic material on electron transfer layer, makes the light-absorption layer that thickness is 300~400nm;
(3) at light-absorption layer surface-coated hole mobile material, the hole transmission layer that formation thickness is 100~200nm;
(4) on hole transmission layer, adopt the top electrode layer that vacuum thermal evaporation metal electrode method deposit thickness is 60~150nm.
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