CN104094804A - Tide type irrigation production method of lettuce in greenhouse - Google Patents

Tide type irrigation production method of lettuce in greenhouse Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104094804A
CN104094804A CN201410320756.4A CN201410320756A CN104094804A CN 104094804 A CN104094804 A CN 104094804A CN 201410320756 A CN201410320756 A CN 201410320756A CN 104094804 A CN104094804 A CN 104094804A
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greenhouse
production
matrix
controlled
irrigation
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CN104094804B (en
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甘小虎
阎庆九
黄忠阳
胡静
韩勇
黄文�
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NANJING INSTITUTE OF VEGETABLE SCIENCE
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NANJING INSTITUTE OF VEGETABLE SCIENCE
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology, e.g. cooling systems therefor

Abstract

The invention discloses a tide type irrigation production method of lettuce in a greenhouse. The method includes the following steps of (1) establishment of a tide type irrigation system, (2) substrate preparation, (3) sowing, (4) germination acceleration, and (5) production management. Five core technologies of standardization management of tide type irrigation production in the lettuce greenhouse are created. Lettuce production efficiency and utilization rate of the greenhouse are increased, quality of the lettuce is improved, and cost is lowered; the method has the advantages of benefit of unified management and new equipment and new technology popularization and the like.

Description

Tidal irrigation production method in a kind of romaine lettuce greenhouse
Technical field:
The invention belongs to Installation Vegetable Cultivation field, be specifically related to tidal irrigation production method in a kind of romaine lettuce greenhouse.
Technical background:
Soilless culture refers to without soil with being added with the material of nutrient solution as the cultivation method of plant growth medium.There is good product quality, meeting the market requirement, can carry out annually cultivating and ensure the advantages such as slack season supply at Same Site, and develop into the developing direction of modern agriculture.The method of soilless culture is produced upper conventional have water planting, mist (gas) training and substrate culture at present.Utilizing tide type irrigation system to carry out vegetable growing is the new mode of soilless culture of rising in recent years, originates from the Holland of establishment planting technology prosperity, and this state is used widely aborning, and also there are like product in Japan, Britain.The a small amount of city of south China in recent years introduction of use tide type irrigation system has been carried out factorial seedling growth test and has been explored, and there is not yet and utilizes this system to carry out soilless culture research.Tidal irrigation is a kind of advanced irrigation method for the designed bottom cycle feedwater of the nutrient fluid cultivation of pot plant, which is utilized drop principle, realize feedwater at regular time and quantity and fertilising, ratio of nutrient solution is many to be completed by calculator, irrigation water strictly mixes by index and fertilizer, the liquid the being mixed into cultivation bed surface of can gushing out as high tide at one time, make to be placed on matrix in cultivating container above at one time, suck fertilizer by netted container bottom, and fertilising is quite accurate.Which, compared with traditional soilless culture method, has more the features such as economize on water, save fertilizer, laborsaving, production efficiency is high and plant growing way is good, in the forward position of current cultivation technique without soil.
Current domestic tide type irrigation system has approved product, but the application of this cover system on leaf vegetables produces is still under test, and tidal irrigation production method in a kind of romaine lettuce greenhouse need to be provided.
Summary of the invention:
The object of the present invention is to provide tidal irrigation production method in a kind of romaine lettuce greenhouse.
Object of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
Tidal irrigation production method in a kind of romaine lettuce greenhouse, comprises following key step:
(1) set up tide type irrigation system;
(2) matrix composition and sterilization: matrix comprises the Chinese medicine slag that becomes thoroughly decomposed, turfy soil, perlite and vermiculite, wherein by volume, Chinese medicine slag becomes thoroughly decomposed: turfy soil: perlite: vermiculite=2~6:2~4:1~3:1, in every cube of matrix, add 0.5~2kg phosphate fertilizer, then matrix is carried out to sterilization;
(3) sowing; Generally adopt automatic precision seeder sowing;
(4) vernalization: cave dish is after planting moved into germinating cabinet's vernalization, half-light in germinating cabinet, Temperature Setting is 6~8 DEG C, and the moisture content of matrix is saturation state, and vernalization indoor air humidity is 95%~100%, vernalization to the seed base-root Shi Chu germinating cabinet that starts to show money or valuables one carries unintentionally; Generally, 48 hours seed base-roots of vernalization start to show money or valuables one carries unintentionally;
(5) production management: the seed cave dish that vernalization is completed moves in the greenhouse that tide type irrigation system is housed and carries out production management;
A, romaine lettuce are produced greenhouse control
Before emerging, 20~24 DEG C of day temperatures in greenhouse, evening 18~20 DEG C of temperature, daytime air humidity 50%~60%, evening air humidity 80%~90%; The microenvironment of plug media: 16~24 DEG C of substrate temperature, humidity 70%~80%;
In the time that emergence rate is not less than 80%, the diurnal temperature in greenhouse is controlled at 18~30 DEG C, and humidity is controlled at 60~80% round the clock, and illumination is controlled at 15000~20000Lux;
From the open and flat 12 leaves results that grow into of cotyledon, the diurnal temperature in this stage greenhouse is controlled at 18~35 DEG C; Humidity is controlled at 50%~70% round the clock; More than illumination is controlled at 20000Lux, be preferably 15000~25000Lux, and supply with by tidal irrigation rich water essence amount the growth that promotes romaine lettuce plant;
B, romaine lettuce are produced tidal irrigation rich water essence amount and are supplied with
From emerging (80% emerges) to two leaves wholeheartedly, approximately 15 days, in matrix, carry nutrient and met the demand of romaine lettuce seedling growth to fertilizer, do not need extra fertilising, be mainly water management.By tide type irrigation system respectively on placing same day (when the seed cave dish that vernalization is completed moves into greenhouse), emerge that day (80% emerges, generally for after placing the 5th day), within the 10th day, carry out three times tidal irrigation, every strain water yield 10~15ml after placing;
Wholeheartedly gather in the crops to 12 leaves from two leaves, approximately 30~35 days, make full use of tidal irrigation and carry out the supply of rich water one essence amount, divide 3 times, after emerging, within the 15th day, use for the 1st time 2000 times of liquid of seed manure of N-P-K content 15-0-15 to irrigate, used the balanced fertile 2000 times of irrigations of 20-20-20 nitrogen phosphorus potassium at interval of 7 days 2 times below, every strain rich water amount 15~20ml, the EC value of three rich water is 0.5~0.8; PH value is 6.0~6.5;
C, romaine lettuce are produced the prevention and control of damage by disease and insect green composite.
As a kind of preferred version, in step (2), by volume, Chinese medicine slag becomes thoroughly decomposed: turfy soil: perlite: vermiculite=4:3:2:1.
The above-mentioned Chinese medicine slag that becomes thoroughly decomposed is: adopt the Chinese medicine slag (for the residue after the root of bidentate achyranthes, honeysuckle, the stem of noble dendrobium, radix scrophulariae mixing lixiviating effective components) of producing Chinese medicine preparation " Mailuoning ", the processing technology of becoming thoroughly decomposed through pulverizing, aerobic fermentation, appropriateness is processed and is formed, and this processing technology is this area common process.
The pH value of matrix described in step (2) is that 6.5~7.0, EC value is 1.0~1.5ms/cm, and humidity is 60~65%.
The method of sterilization described in step (2) is in every cube of matrix, to add the carbendazim of 400 gram 50% to carry out sterilization.
As a kind of preferred version, in step (2), in every cube of matrix, add 1kg phosphate fertilizer.
The measure of damage by disease and insect green composite prevention and control described in step (5) comprises disinfectant measure and materialization prevention and control; Disinfectant measure is that matrix sterilization, seed temperature scald environment disinfected in seed soaking, germinating cabinet and greenhouse, utilize the ozone generator that tide type irrigation system is equipped with to use rich water sterilizing to irrigating; Materialization prevention and control, for creating Growth of Lettuce adapt circumstance condition, utilize yellow plate, light trap insect-killing trapping, use high-efficiency low-toxicity less-persistent pesticide to prevent the disease including damping off, downy mildew and soft rot.
As a kind of preferred version, in step (5), in the time that emergence rate is not less than 80%, the diurnal temperature in greenhouse is controlled at 18~25 DEG C.
As a kind of preferred version, in step (5), from the open and flat 12 leaves results that grow into of cotyledon, the diurnal temperature in this stage greenhouse is controlled at 18~25 DEG C.
When growth, the temperature of three phases, humidity, illumination management segmentation preferably quantize before environment is controlled at and emerges, while emerging, in growth.
The prevention and control of damage by disease and insect green composite, comprise sterilizing and the damage by disease and insect materialization prevention and control such as matrix, seed, environment, rich water.
Following five invention main points in technical solution of the present invention, are provided: the preparation technique of (1) romaine lettuce production matrix; (2) the vernalization technology of romaine lettuce (temperature, humidity, illumination etc.); (3) romaine lettuce production Status quo of Greenhouse Environment Control Technology; (4) romaine lettuce is produced tidal irrigation rich water essence amount supply technology; (5) romaine lettuce is produced the anti-control techniques of damage by disease and insect green composite.
The term and definition of use in the present invention, the following terms and definitions are applicable to the present invention:
Vegetable soilless culture: refer to use certain facilities and equipment condition, use soilless substrate, control vegetables and produce the environmental conditions such as each phase temperature, produce within a short period of time in enormous quantities, a kind of cultivation methods of high-quality vegetables.
EC value: the abbreviation of Electrical Conductivity, refers to the detection index of soil soluble salinity.
Tidal irrigation production method in a kind of romaine lettuce of the present invention greenhouse, arrange advantage flexibly to combine tidal irrigation water-saving saving of labor and soilless culture high-yield and high-efficiency and crops for rotation, in improving greenhouse and utilization rate of equipment and installations, expand soilless culture of leaf vegetables kind production range.Meanwhile, carry out the research and development of tidal irrigation dedicated substrate, the research and development of different leaf vegetables kind nutrient solution prescription, liquid manure application times, amount of application and supporting nutrient solution cycling and reutilization equipment and the exploitation of nutrient solution monitoring system, to reduce agricultural water resources waste, further reduce the management cost that facility is produced, for the lifting that realizes the horticultural crop level of production provides technical guarantee.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
The present invention has founded 5 core technologies of tidal irrigation production method standardized management in romaine lettuce greenhouse.There is the romaine lettuce production efficiency of raising and greenhouse availability, promote romaine lettuce product quality, reduce costs; Be conducive to unified management, promote the advantages such as new equipment new technology, thereby allow numerous manufacturers directly be benefited.
Embodiment:
Embodiment 1
One, tide type irrigation system is set up
Tide type irrigation system is mainly made up of parts such as tidal irrigation cultivation bed, the nutrient solution circulatory system (nutrient tank, water circulating pump, pipeline etc.), control system and cultivating containers, its application in romaine lettuce is produced, common bed frame to be reached to the requirement of sealing bedstead by overlay, cultivation bed is divided into water supply, circulation and backwater section, for supplying nutrition liquid and water.
Nutrient solution cycling and reutilization equipment is made up of clean water tank, nutrient tank, water treatment facilities, liquid feeding pipeline, return line, detection system, water pump, filter, ultraviolet sterilizer, cultivation bed etc.Water pump is transported to cultivation bed for crop demand by the clear water of fluid reservoir or nutrient solution through filter and ultraviolet ray disinfector, return line is back to fluid reservoir by clear water, nutrient solution in cultivation bed, thereby form a circulatory system, automatic checkout equipment is made up of pH sensor, EC sensor, temperature sensor etc., can realize the real-time detection of nutrient solution acid-base value, ion concentration and temperature.
Two, the preparation before sowing vernalization:
1, selecting of base starting material:
Select the Chinese medicine slag that becomes thoroughly decomposed, the peat composed of rotten mosses, perlite, the vermiculite raw material as romaine lettuce soilless culture substrate, their physicochemical property sees the following form.
The physicochemical property of table 1 host material
2, the proportioning of base starting material:
By volume, Chinese medicine slag becomes thoroughly decomposed: turfy soil: perlite: vermiculite=4:3:2:1, and utilize machinery fully to mix, in every cube of matrix, add again 1kg phosphate fertilizer, the pH value of matrix is that 6.5~7.0, EC value is 1.0~1.5ms/cm.The humidity of matrix: 60%~65%, pinching with hand can be agglomerating, and after loosing one's grip, flicking can scatter.Every cube of matrix adds 400 gram of 50% carbendazim (commercially available) to carry out sterilization.
The Chinese medicine slag that becomes thoroughly decomposed is produced the Chinese medicine slag (for the residue after the root of bidentate achyranthes, honeysuckle, the stem of noble dendrobium, radix scrophulariae mixing lixiviating effective components) of Chinese medicine preparation " Mailuoning " for adopting, the processing technology of becoming thoroughly decomposed through conventional pulverizing, aerobic fermentation, appropriateness is processed and formed.
3, selecting and specification of cave dish: adopt V32 or V50.
Three, sowing adopts full-automatic precision sower
Full-automatic planter possesses independently banket (matrix), punching, and sowing, covers, and the device such as water.Irregular because of romaine lettuce seed, is used the seeding head of 0.02 millimeter when sowing, and appropriateness adds atmospheric pump pressure, and sowing depth, 0.5 centimetre of left and right, is used vermiculite to cover.The cave dish of having sowed is placed on and in metal frame, pushes germinating cabinet.
Four, the vernalization technology of romaine lettuce:
1. vernalization is carried out in airtight germinating cabinet, and separate room, germinating cabinet is 30 square metres of left and right.In germinating cabinet, must possess the adjusting device of humidification, light filling and temperature, regulate the requirement to temp. and humidity illumination in germination process of each kind.Put into germinating cabinet when the seed of broadcasting and just should pay close attention to, timing is observed, and in the time that seed base-root shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally in matrix, should go out in time germinating cabinet.
2. cave dish is after planting moved into germinating cabinet's vernalization, half-light in germinating cabinet when romaine lettuce vernalization, Temperature Setting is 6~8 DEG C, the moisture content of matrix is saturation state, air humidity is 95%~100%, and germination time is 48 hours, has just completed whole vernalization process when seed base-root starts to show money or valuables one carries unintentionally.
Five, the production management of romaine lettuce:
The seed cave dish that vernalization is completed moves in the greenhouse that tide type irrigation system is housed and carries out production management;
1, romaine lettuce is produced greenhouse (temperature, illumination, humidity) control
Before emerging, 20~24 DEG C of day temperatures in greenhouse, evening 18~20 DEG C of temperature, daytime air humidity 50%~60%, evening air humidity 80%~90%; The microenvironment of plug media: 16~24 DEG C of substrate temperature, humidity 70%~80%;
In the time that emergence rate is not less than 80%, the diurnal temperature in greenhouse is controlled at 18~25 DEG C, and humidity is controlled at 60~80% round the clock, and illumination is controlled at 15000~20000Lux;
From the open and flat 12 leaves results that grow into of cotyledon, the diurnal temperature in this stage greenhouse is controlled at 18~25 DEG C; Humidity is controlled at 60% left and right round the clock; Illumination is controlled at 15000~25000Lux, and supplies with by tidal irrigation rich water essence amount the growth that promotes romaine lettuce plant.
2, romaine lettuce is produced the supply of tidal irrigation rich water essence amount
From emerging (80% emerges) to two leaves wholeheartedly, approximately 15 days, in matrix, carry nutrient and met the demand of romaine lettuce seedling growth to fertilizer, do not need extra fertilising.It is mainly water management, by tide type irrigation system respectively on placing same day (when the seed cave dish that vernalization is completed moves into greenhouse), within the 10th day, carry out three times tidal irrigation, every strain water yield 10~15ml after emerge day (80% emerge, about placing after the 5th day), placing.
Wholeheartedly gather in the crops to 12 leaves from two leaves, approximately 30~35 days, make full use of tidal irrigation and carry out the supply of rich water one essence amount, divide 3 times, after emerging, within the 15th day, use for the 1st time 2000 times of liquid of seed manure of N-P-K content 15-0-15 to irrigate, used the balanced fertile 2000 times of irrigations of 20-20-20 nitrogen phosphorus potassium at interval of 7 days 2 times below, every strain rich water amount 15~20ml, the EC value of three rich water is 0.5~0.8; PH value is 6.0~6.5.
3, romaine lettuce is produced the prevention and control of damage by disease and insect green composite
Green composite prevention and control measure comprises disinfectant measure and materialization prevention and control.
(1) disinfectant measure: matrix sterilization refers to add 400 gram of 50% carbendazim fully to mix sterilizing by every cube of matrix prior to seeding; Seed disinfection refers to use the emerge in worm water seed half an hour of 55 DEG C, constantly adds hot water to keep 55 DEG C of water temperatures, and constantly stir when immersion, realizes temperature and scalds seed soaking sterilization, and after seed disinfection, clear water rinses, dries, in order to sowing; The environment disinfected in germinating cabinet and greenhouse refers to use 1000 times of liquid 50% carbendazim+1000 times liquid dichlorvos evenly spray in two Room and seal 24 hours by 1:1 (V:V) confection, reaches environment disinfected; Utilize the ozone generator that tide type irrigation system is equipped with to use rich water sterilizing etc. to irrigating.
(2) materialization prevention and control: first create the suitable temp. and humidity of Growth of Lettuce and photoenvironment condition, be conducive to romaine lettuce normal growth; Physical control refers to utilize the insect such as yellow plate, light trap trapping aphid moth class; Disease is used high-efficiency low-toxicity less-persistent pesticide to prevent 2-3 time at romaine lettuce full vegetative period.The Major Diseases of romaine lettuce has the diseases such as damping off, downy mildew, soft rot.Damping off sprays 1000 times of liquid of thiophanate methyl at the initial stage of a disease, or 5000 times of liquid irrigating roots of hymexazol are processed 2~3 times.Downy mildew is at the initial stage of a disease with 800 times of liquid sprayings of tpn wetting powder, falls ill when heavier with 800 times of liquid sprayings of first frost mancozeb wettable powder, every spray in 7 days once, prevents and treats continuously 2~3 times.Soft rot is at the initial stage of a disease with 2000 times of liquid sprayings of agricultural streptomycin 2~3 times.
Romaine lettuce stops fertilising laxative for 7 days before gathering, and only utilizes tide type irrigation system pouring clear water.

Claims (9)

1. a tidal irrigation production method in romaine lettuce greenhouse, is characterized in that comprising following key step:
(1) set up tide type irrigation system;
(2) matrix composition and sterilization: matrix comprises the Chinese medicine slag that becomes thoroughly decomposed, turfy soil, perlite and vermiculite, wherein by volume, Chinese medicine slag becomes thoroughly decomposed: turfy soil: perlite: vermiculite=2~6:2~4:1~3:1, in every cube of matrix, add 0.5~2kg phosphate fertilizer, then matrix is carried out to sterilization;
(3) sowing;
(4) vernalization: cave dish is after planting moved into germinating cabinet's vernalization, half-light in germinating cabinet, Temperature Setting is 6~8 DEG C, and the moisture content of matrix is saturation state, and vernalization indoor air humidity is 95%~100%, vernalization to the seed base-root Shi Chu germinating cabinet that starts to show money or valuables one carries unintentionally;
(5) production management: the seed cave dish that vernalization is completed moves in the greenhouse that tide type irrigation system is housed and carries out production management;
A, romaine lettuce are produced greenhouse control
Before emerging, 20~24 DEG C of day temperatures in greenhouse, evening 18~20 DEG C of temperature, daytime air humidity 50%~60%, evening air humidity 80%~90%; The microenvironment of plug media: 16~24 DEG C of substrate temperature, humidity 70%~80%;
In the time that emergence rate is not less than 80%, the diurnal temperature in greenhouse is controlled at 18~30 DEG C, and humidity is controlled at 60~80% round the clock, and illumination is controlled at 15000~20000Lux;
From the open and flat 12 leaves results that grow into of cotyledon, the diurnal temperature in this stage greenhouse is controlled at 18~35 DEG C; Humidity is controlled at 50%~70% round the clock; More than illumination is controlled at 20000Lux, and supply with by tidal irrigation rich water essence amount the growth that promotes romaine lettuce plant;
B, romaine lettuce are produced tidal irrigation rich water essence amount and are supplied with
By tide type irrigation system respectively on placing same day, emerge day, within the 10th day, carry out three times tidal irrigation, every strain water yield 10~15ml after placing;
Wholeheartedly gather in the crops to 12 leaves from two leaves, make full use of tidal irrigation and carry out the supply of rich water one essence amount, divide 3 times, after emerging, within the 15th day, use for the 1st time 2000 times of liquid of seed manure of N-P-K content 15-0-15 to irrigate, 2 times at interval of within 7 days, using the balanced fertile 2000 times of irrigations of 20-20-20 nitrogen phosphorus potassium below, every strain rich water amount 15~20ml, the EC value of three rich water is 0.5~0.8; PH value is 6.0~6.5;
C, romaine lettuce are produced the prevention and control of damage by disease and insect green composite.
2. production method according to claim 1, is characterized in that in step (2) that by volume, Chinese medicine slag becomes thoroughly decomposed: turfy soil: perlite: vermiculite=4:3:2:1.
3. production method according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that described Chinese medicine slag is the residue after the root of bidentate achyranthes, honeysuckle, the stem of noble dendrobium, radix scrophulariae mixing lixiviating effective components.
4. production method according to claim 1 and 2, the pH value that it is characterized in that matrix described in step (2) is that 6.5~7.0, EC value is 1.0~1.5ms/cm, humidity is 60~65%.
5. production method according to claim 1, the method that it is characterized in that sterilization described in step (2) is in every cube of matrix, to add the carbendazim of 400 gram 50% to carry out sterilization.
6. production method according to claim 1, is characterized in that in every cube of matrix, adding 1kg phosphate fertilizer in step (2).
7. production method according to claim 1, is characterized in that the measure of damage by disease and insect green composite prevention and control described in step (5) comprises disinfectant measure and materialization prevention and control; Disinfectant measure is that matrix sterilization, seed temperature scald environment disinfected in seed soaking, germinating cabinet and greenhouse, utilize the ozone generator that tide type irrigation system is equipped with to use rich water sterilizing to irrigating; Materialization prevention and control, for utilizing yellow plate, light trap insect-killing trapping, are used high-efficiency low-toxicity less-persistent pesticide to prevent the disease including damping off, downy mildew and soft rot.
8. production method according to claim 1, is characterized in that in step (5) that, in the time that emergence rate is not less than 80%, the diurnal temperature in greenhouse is controlled at 18~25 DEG C.
9. production method according to claim 1, is characterized in that in step (5) growing into 12 leaves results from cotyledon is open and flat, and the diurnal temperature in this stage greenhouse is controlled at 18~25 DEG C.
CN201410320756.4A 2014-07-07 2014-07-07 Tidal irrigation production method in a kind of romaine lettuce greenhouse Expired - Fee Related CN104094804B (en)

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CN106386092A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-02-15 马山盛世生态种养专业合作社 Method for planting strontium-enriched lettuce
CN108605832A (en) * 2016-12-13 2018-10-02 江门市农业科技创新中心 A kind of vegetables method for culturing seedlings of dual matrix
CN107094605A (en) * 2017-05-10 2017-08-29 上海市农业生物基因中心 A kind of method of romaine lettuce nursery
CN108935044A (en) * 2018-08-01 2018-12-07 贵州省园艺研究所 The method for carrying out tomato seedling using tide irrigation seedbed equipment
CN111699958A (en) * 2020-07-06 2020-09-25 天津爱民网络科技有限公司 Seedbed tide type soilless culture method for potted leaf vegetables
CN111955330A (en) * 2020-07-28 2020-11-20 上海绿立方农业发展有限公司 Short-period energy-saving water-culture vegetable seedling culture method

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