CN104094761A - Hole sowing and seeding culture method of large-leaved gentian - Google Patents

Hole sowing and seeding culture method of large-leaved gentian Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104094761A
CN104094761A CN201410338271.8A CN201410338271A CN104094761A CN 104094761 A CN104094761 A CN 104094761A CN 201410338271 A CN201410338271 A CN 201410338271A CN 104094761 A CN104094761 A CN 104094761A
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Prior art keywords
bark
ash
seed
seedling
sowing
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Inventor
郭凤霞
杨育锋
齐浩
曹师
米永伟
王宏伟
苏奴旺杰
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ZHUONI COUNTY FOCI TIBETAN MEDICINE DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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ZHUONI COUNTY FOCI TIBETAN MEDICINE DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201410338271.8A priority Critical patent/CN104094761A/en
Publication of CN104094761A publication Critical patent/CN104094761A/en
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Abstract

The invention relates to a hole sowing method of large-leaved gentian. The method includes the steps of a, harvesting, storing and processing seeds; b, mulching and sowing, to be more specific, preparing soil, fertilizing and mulching; soil processing; ridging; weeding before sowing; mulching; punching mulches; determining sowing time; hole sowing; checking seedlings and thinning; c, field managing; d, harvesting. By the method, massive large-leaved gentian planting can be achieved, large-scale artificial cultivation of the large-leaved gentian which is precious Tibetan herb medicine can be achieved, wild resources can be protected effectively, destroying, caused by herb gathering, of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grassland is restrained effectively, and evident social and ecological benefits can be achieved.

Description

A kind of bark of ash bunch planting seedling-cultivating method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of culture technique of rare traditional Chinese medicine, particularly relate to a kind of mulch bunch planting seedling-cultivating method of bark of ash.
 
Background technology
Bark of ash has the medicinal history of more than 2000 year, extensively utilizes both at home and abroad, and bark of ash is the dry root of Gentianaceae bark of ash, gentiana straminea maxim, gentiana crassicaulis Duthie or radix gentiane dahuvicae.Bark of ash is flat, and taste is pungent, bitter.The function with wines used as antirheumatic, clearing away damp-heat, stopping numbness pain.For the tired pain of arthralgia due to wind-dampness, the contraction of muscle arteries and veins, joint, infantile malnutrition heating jaundice, have blood in stool, difficult urination, aphtha poison, vaporization heat of bone, the illnesss such as hectic fever polydipsia and married woman's tire heat.Its chemical composition is iridoids, is mainly gentiamarin.Also contain volatile oil and carbohydrate.Bark of ash is conventional decoction medicine materical crude slice, is again the primary raw material of the Chinese patent drugs such as scythian lamb rhizome ball, Duhuo jisheng ball, the SHUJIN WAN that dispels the wind, anti-arthritis pill, lumbar vertebrae arthralgia pain treating bolus, compound bark of ash sheet, neck recovery capsule, ankun zanyu pills, ankun zanyu wan, bone spur pain-eliminating sheet.
Bark of ash grows in alpine meadow, border, shrubbery and the cheuch within the scope of height above sea level 2000~3900m, bark of ash Distribution Area height above sea level, and very cold, frost-free season is short, ecological environment frailty.
Bark of ash has very high medical value, and the quick increase of clinical application amount and transition are for many years excavated, and has caused the serious scarcity of Wild Gentiana macrophylla resource.Under carded sliver part out of office, the natural propagation rate of bark of ash is very low, and poor growth is difficult to restorative source.The research and development of artificial cultivation technique become the main path in protection Wild Gentiana macrophylla medicine source, are also one of measures meeting clinical application.But bark of ash seed is little, and percentage of seedgermination is lower, the comparatively difficulty of growing seedlings, there is no a kind of desirable bark of ash seedling-cultivating method at present.
Summary of the invention
In view of above-mentioned ,the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of bark of ash bunch planting seedling-cultivating method.This method, by the artificial cultivation technique of bark of ash, is convenient to cultivate in a large number this Chinese herbal medicine, reduces cost, provides Chinese herbal medicine source, grassland ecological protection environment.
In order to realize described object, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
A bark of ash bunch planting method, the steps include:
1, seed collection, storage and processing
1. seed collection: the seed of gathering choosing growth is vigorous, life in 3 years of neat and consistent or transplant the plant of Second Year afterwards, during most of capsule flavescence, seed wherein becomes brown or brown, and results kind of a period of the day from 11 p.m. to 1 a.m is cut fruit ear with scissors, puts ventilating and cooling place, after-ripening 7-8 days, threshing;
2. seed storage: after bark of ash seed collection, when seed moisture content 10-13%, be contained in cotton bag and store, the bark of ash seed storage phase is no more than 12 months;
seed treatment: storage period alternating temperature is processed or broadcast front gibberellin and process:
A. the alternating temperature of seed is processed: gather in the crops to November 30: 20 to 10 ℃ of storage temperature; December: 5 to-3 ℃ of storage temperature; January: 0 to-6 ℃ of storage temperature; February: storage temperature-3 are to 5 ℃; March: 10 to 15 ℃ of storage temperature; April: 15 to 20 ℃ of storage temperature;
b.the gibberellin of seed is processed: broadcast front gibberellin and process, concentration is 10ug/g, soaks 20 hours, and emergence rate can reach 90%~95%;
2, mulch sowing
1. site preparation and fertilization overlay film: soil treatment formula: execute rotten fertilizer (farmyard manure) 1000~2000kg/0.067hm before broadcasting 2
Often execute diammonium phosphate 15~20kg/0.067hm 2, or urea 10~15kg/0.067hm 2with superphosphate 80~100kg/0.067hm 2, inorganic fertilizer and organic manure apply as base manure simultaneously;
2. soil treatment: first spread fertilizer over the fields equably fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, then use 0.5% phoxim granule 1.5-2.5 Kg/0.067hm 2convert 100 times of soil and be evenly spread on earth's surface, shallow plowing (rake) immediately, a kind of farm tools is flat;
3. ridging: make micro-ridge by wide 80m, ridge face is smooth, stays wide 20cm between ridge and ridge, the furrow ditch of dark 10-20cm;
4. overlay film: mulch film selects 100 ㎝ wide, and thickness is the ultra-thin black film of the brute force of 0.010-0.015 ㎜, whole area 80 ㎝, i.e. ridge face width 80 ㎝, wide 20 ㎝ of furrow, the high 10-20 ㎝ in ridge;
5. on film punching with special mould, to get four lines diameter on film be 3-5cm, be the cave of 3-6cm deeply, row with go between 15-25cm apart, 10-20cm apart between cave and cave;
6. date of seeding: first arrival in April is at the beginning of 6 months;
7. bunch planting: bark of ash thickness of sowing 850-1350 grain/m 2, seeding quantity 6-12kg/hm 2, type of seeding: with fine earth seed dressing, fill with in the cave of the 3.0-5.0 getting centimetre with little spoon; After seed is sowed, with iron mesh screen, wet soil in small, broken bits is sieved on seed, thickness is 0.1-0.2 centimetre, then covers levigate dry cow dung 0.2-0.3 centimetre;
8. look into seedling thinning: after sowing 80d, look into timely seedling, fill the gaps with seedlings, every cave can retain seedling 3-7 strain, and the density of keeping a full stand of seedings is 35-40 ten thousand strains/hm 2.
3. field management
1. weeding: intertill and clean tillage: bark of ash is broadcast rear seedbed and kept moistening, broadcasts latter 30 days and emerges.After seedling all sprouts, start weeding for the first time, with scissors, from weeds basal part of stem, wipe out the weeds that grow membrane pores;
2. overwinter management: entering before the winter of bark of ash plantation First Year, the broken place of mulch film firming is sealed, prevent that livestock from gnawing or trampleing on;
3. topdress: the bark of ash Second Year of growing seedlings, imposes urea 40kg/hm 2, also can spray by 0.3% concentration potassium dihydrogen phosphate 10 kg/hm 2;
4 results
Receipts are dug period: bark of ash seedling growth 2 years, and fresh diameter 0.3cm can receive and dig when above; Also can receive and dig in mid or late April;
Bark of ash seedling is received and is dug: first pick up mulch film, with three tooth iron wooden forks, bark of ash one side soil is hollowed out, then bark of ash seedling is dug down, the bark of ash seedling digging out adds native binding, receives cutout and does not hinder root skin.
This technology tool has the following advantages:
1. by bunch planting of the present invention, grow seedlings; can produce in a large number bark of ash seedling; famous and precious middle Tibetan medicine material bark of ash can be cultivated by large-scale artificial; wild resource can be effectively protected; the destruction that Qinghai-Tibet grassland causes owing to gathering medicinal herbs is simultaneously effectively suppressed, and has significant social benefit and ecological benefits.
2. because the present invention has used black film covering, ground weeds, because of the not enough growth that suppresses weeds of illumination, reduce weeding cost, and black film, at bark of ash early growth period, carries out good sunshade, saves the cost of sunshade.Film above utilization in 2 years has reduced cost, increases farmers' income, and improves the availability of mulch film, reduces the destruction to environment, increases benefit.Reduced again in transplanting process the damage of young plant and human cost simultaneously.
3. the present invention has now implemented 100 mu of plantations in study base, more than fresh output 15000 kg/ha of seedling.Its economic benefit is good, and gross earnings are more than 60,000 yuan/hectare, removes 1.5 ten thousand yuan/hectare of costs, and net earnings is more than 4.5 ten thousand yuan/hectare.Be equivalent to plant the more than 5 times of wheat.The present invention is adapted at the area application such as Gansu Province's Gannan Plateau, western Sichuan, northwestern Yunnan Province, southeast Qinghai and Eastern Tibet.
embodiment
Bark of ash species involved in the present invention really refer to gentianaceae plant bark of ash ( gentiana macrophyllapall.), gentiana straminea maxim ( gentiana stramineamaxim.), gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ( gentiana crassicaulisduthie .) or radix gentiane dahuvicae ( gentiana dahuricafisch.).Culture technique involved in the present invention means the key technology of the mulch bunch planting of above-mentioned 4 kinds of bark of ash.
Embodiment 1
2010 20 mu of Zha Gulu town, Zhuoni County, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gannan, Nian Gansu Province plantation bark of ash.The present invention implements according to following steps:
1, seed treatment
1. seed collection: the seed of gathering choosing growth is vigorous, the plant of life in 3 years of neat and consistent, during most of capsule flavescence, seed wherein becomes brown or brown, at this moment can gather in the crops seed.With scissors, fruit ear is cut, put ventilating and cooling place, after-ripening 8 days, threshing;
2. seed storage: after bark of ash seed collection, when seed moisture content 12%, be contained in cotton bag and store, storage period, bark of ash seed is ventilative, avoids sootiness, the plague of rats, insect pest, water wet etc.The bark of ash seed storage phase is no more than 12 months;
seed treatment: storage period alternating temperature is processed or broadcast front gibberellin and process.
A. the alternating temperature of seed is processed: gather in the crops to November 30: 20 to 10 ℃ of storage temperature; December: 5 to-3 ℃ of storage temperature; January: 0 to-6 ℃ of storage temperature; February: storage temperature-3 are to 5 ℃; March: 10 to 15 ℃ of storage temperature; April: 15 to 20 ℃ of storage temperature; The percentage of seedgermination of processing by alternating temperature reaches more than 80%;
b.the gibberellin of seed is processed: broadcast front gibberellin and process, concentration is 10ug/g, soaks 20 hours, and emergence rate can reach 90%~95%;
2, mulch sowing
1. site preparation and fertilization overlay film: soil treatment formula: execute rotten fertilizer (farmyard manure) 2000kg/0.067hm before broadcasting 2
Often execute diammonium phosphate 16kg/0.067hm 2, inorganic fertilizer and organic manure apply as base manure simultaneously.Soil treatment: first spread fertilizer over the fields equably fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, then use 0.5% phoxim granule 2.5 Kg/0.067hm 2convert soil and be evenly spread on earth's surface, shallow plowing immediately, a kind of farm tools is flat;
2. soil treatment: first spread fertilizer over the fields equably fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, then use 0.5% phoxim granule 1.5-2.5 Kg/0.067hm 2convert 100 times of soil and be evenly spread on earth's surface, shallow plowing (rake) immediately, a kind of farm tools is flat,
3. ridging: make micro-ridge by wide 80m, ridge face is smooth, stays wide 20cm between ridge and ridge, the furrow ditch of dark 10cm.
4. broadcast front weeding: before broadcasting, eliminate annual and perennial weed.
5. overlay film: mulch film selects 100 ㎝ wide, the ultra-thin black film of brute force of thickness 0.005 ㎜, whole area 80 ㎝, i.e. ridge face width 80 ㎝, wide 20 ㎝ of furrow, high 10 ㎝ in ridge.
6. on film punching with special grinding tool, to get four lines diameter on film be 3cm, be the cave of 5cm deeply, row with go between 20cm apart, 14cm apart between cave and cave.
7. date of seeding: on May 5th, 2010, last thoughtful two weeks of date of seeding applied glyphosate;
8. bunch planting: 1050/m of bark of ash thickness of sowing 2, seeding quantity 8kg/hm 2, type of seeding: with fine earth seed dressing, fill with in 5.0 centimetres of caves of getting with little spoon; After seed is sowed, with iron mesh screen, wet soil in small, broken bits is sieved on seed, 0.1 centimetre of earthing, covers 0.2 centimetre of thin cow dung;
9. look into seedling thinning: after sowing 80d, look into seedling, thinning, find that there is while being short of seedling in cave, the seedling balled transplanting at overstocked place can be filled the gaps with seedlings, after cultivation, water in time, in order to surviving.Every cave retains seedling 3 strains.The density of keeping a full stand of seedings is 340,000 strains/hm 2;
Look into seedling thinning: after sowing 80d, look into timely seedling, fill the gaps with seedlings, every cave can retain seedling 3-7 strain, and the density of keeping a full stand of seedings is 35-40 ten thousand strains/hm 2.
3. field management
1. intertill and clean tillage: bark of ash is broadcast rear seedbed and kept moistening, broadcasts and emerges for about rear 25-30 days, starts weeding for the first time after seedling all sprouts; Due to the black thin film using, effectively controlled weed growth, early growth period, bark of ash is taken root more shallow, and for avoiding the infringement to bark of ash seedling, application scissors is wiped out from weeds basal part of stem the weeds or the hand-lifting that membrane pores, grow and is removed less weeds.During weeding, do not want cut wound or break young plant.The optionally weeding of weeds in furrow;
2. overwinter management: the entering before the winter of bark of ash plantation First Year, for the sustainable utilization of mulch film, at mulch film, broken place wants firming to seal, and prevents that livestock from gnawing or trampleing on;
3. topdress: bark of ash Second Year full-bloom stage imposes urea 40kg/hm 2;
4. gather in the crops
1. receive and dig period: in early April, 2013 gathers in the crops, 1200 kilograms of the fresh seedlings of average yield per mu bark of ash.

Claims (1)

1. a bark of ash bunch planting method, the steps include:
A. seed collection, storage and processing
1. seed collection: the seed of gathering choosing growth is vigorous, life in 3 years of neat and consistent or transplant the plant of Second Year afterwards, during most of capsule flavescence, seed wherein becomes brown or brown, and results kind of a period of the day from 11 p.m. to 1 a.m is cut fruit ear with scissors, puts ventilating and cooling place, after-ripening 7-8 days, threshing;
2. seed storage: after bark of ash seed collection, when seed moisture content 10-13%, be contained in cotton bag and store, the bark of ash seed storage phase is no more than 12 months;
seed treatment: storage period alternating temperature is processed or broadcast front gibberellin and process
The alternating temperature of seed is processed: gather in the crops to November 30: 20 to 10 ℃ of storage temperature; December: 5 to-3 ℃ of storage temperature; January: 0 to-6 ℃ of storage temperature; February: storage temperature-3 are to 5 ℃; March: 10 to 15 ℃ of storage temperature; April: 15 to 20 ℃ of storage temperature;
the gibberellin of seed is processed: broadcast front gibberellin and process, concentration is 10ug/g, soaks 20 hours, and emergence rate can reach 90%~95%;
b.mulch sowing
1. site preparation and fertilization overlay film: soil treatment formula: execute rotten fertilizer 1000~2000kg/0.067hm before broadcasting 2
Often execute diammonium phosphate 15~20kg/0.067hm 2, or urea 10~15kg/0.067hm 2with superphosphate 80~100kg/0.067hm 2, inorganic fertilizer and organic manure apply as base manure simultaneously;
2. soil treatment: first spread fertilizer over the fields equably fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, then use 0.5% phoxim granule 1.5-2.5 Kg/0.067hm 2convert 100 times of soil and be evenly spread on earth's surface, shallow plowing immediately, a kind of farm tools is flat,
3. ridging: make micro-ridge by wide 80m, ridge face is smooth, stays wide 20cm between ridge and ridge, the furrow ditch of dark 10-20cm;
4. broadcast front weeding: go out except annual and perennial weed;
5. overlay film: it is wide that 1. mulch film is selected 100 ㎝, and thickness is the ultra-thin black film of the brute force of 0.010-0.015 ㎜, whole area 80 ㎝, i.e. ridge face width 80 ㎝, wide 20 ㎝ of furrow, the high 10-20 ㎝ in ridge;
6. on film, punch: with special grinding tool, getting four lines diameter on film is 1-4cm, is the cave of 3-6cm deeply, between row and row at a distance of 15-25cm, 10-20cm apart between cave and cave;
7. date of seeding: first arrival in April is at the beginning of 6 months, sowing in to two week after glyphosate is used;
8. bunch planting: bark of ash thickness of sowing 850-1350 grain/m 2, seeding quantity 6-12kg/hm 2, type of seeding: with fine earth seed dressing, fill with in the cave of the 3.0-5.0 getting centimetre with little spoon; After seed is sowed, with iron mesh screen, wet soil in small, broken bits is sieved on seed, thickness is 0.1-0.2 centimetre, then covers levigate dry cow dung 0.2-0.3 centimetre;
9. look into seedling thinning: after sowing 80d, look into timely seedling, fill the gaps with seedlings, every cave can retain seedling 3-7 strain, and the density of keeping a full stand of seedings is 35-40 ten thousand strains/hm 2;
C. field management
1. weeding: intertill and clean tillage: bark of ash is broadcast rear seedbed and kept moistening, broadcasts latter 30 days and emerges;
After seedling all sprouts, start weeding for the first time, with scissors, from weeds basal part of stem, wipe out the weeds that grow membrane pores;
2. overwinter management: entering before the winter of bark of ash plantation First Year, the broken place of mulch film firming is sealed, prevent that livestock from gnawing or trampleing on;
3. topdress: the bark of ash Second Year of growing seedlings, imposes urea 40kg/hm 2, also can spray by 0.3% concentration potassium dihydrogen phosphate 10 kg/hm 2;
D. gather in the crops
1. receive and dig period: bark of ash seedling growth 2 years, fresh diameter 0.3cm can receive and dig when above; Also can receive and dig in mid or late April;
2. bark of ash seedling is received and is dug: first pick up mulch film, with three tooth iron wooden forks, bark of ash one side soil is hollowed out, then bark of ash seedling is dug down, the bark of ash seedling digging out adds native binding, receives cutout and does not hinder root skin.
CN201410338271.8A 2014-07-16 2014-07-16 Hole sowing and seeding culture method of large-leaved gentian Pending CN104094761A (en)

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Cited By (8)

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CN105432295A (en) * 2015-12-02 2016-03-30 宁蒗县国兵生物科技有限公司 Gentiana macrophylla planting method for preventing successive cropping obstacles
CN105724026A (en) * 2016-03-08 2016-07-06 广西壮族自治区药用植物园 Radix gentianae dahuricae cultivation method
CN106818111A (en) * 2016-12-20 2017-06-13 庆阳敦博科技发展有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of bark of ash
CN107896849A (en) * 2017-12-11 2018-04-13 中国农业科学院麻类研究所 A kind of ramie planting method
CN109452118A (en) * 2018-11-02 2019-03-12 内蒙古科技大学包头医学院 A kind of radix gentiane dahuvicae type of seeding
CN111527822A (en) * 2020-04-24 2020-08-14 内蒙古医科大学 Treatment method, artificial planting and wild tending method of gentiana dabryi seeds
CN112753511A (en) * 2020-12-31 2021-05-07 青海师范大学 Artificial planting method for large-leaved gentian
CN113632690A (en) * 2021-05-31 2021-11-12 丽江华利生物开发药业有限公司 Cultivation method of gentiana crassicaulis, roots of gentiana crassicaulis and application of roots

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105432295A (en) * 2015-12-02 2016-03-30 宁蒗县国兵生物科技有限公司 Gentiana macrophylla planting method for preventing successive cropping obstacles
CN105724026A (en) * 2016-03-08 2016-07-06 广西壮族自治区药用植物园 Radix gentianae dahuricae cultivation method
CN105724026B (en) * 2016-03-08 2019-09-27 广西壮族自治区药用植物园 A kind of radix gentiane dahuvicae cultural method
CN106818111A (en) * 2016-12-20 2017-06-13 庆阳敦博科技发展有限公司 A kind of implantation methods of bark of ash
CN107896849A (en) * 2017-12-11 2018-04-13 中国农业科学院麻类研究所 A kind of ramie planting method
CN109452118A (en) * 2018-11-02 2019-03-12 内蒙古科技大学包头医学院 A kind of radix gentiane dahuvicae type of seeding
CN111527822A (en) * 2020-04-24 2020-08-14 内蒙古医科大学 Treatment method, artificial planting and wild tending method of gentiana dabryi seeds
CN112753511A (en) * 2020-12-31 2021-05-07 青海师范大学 Artificial planting method for large-leaved gentian
CN113632690A (en) * 2021-05-31 2021-11-12 丽江华利生物开发药业有限公司 Cultivation method of gentiana crassicaulis, roots of gentiana crassicaulis and application of roots

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