CN104092278B - Energy management method applied to photovoltaic energy storage system - Google Patents

Energy management method applied to photovoltaic energy storage system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104092278B
CN104092278B CN201410331482.9A CN201410331482A CN104092278B CN 104092278 B CN104092278 B CN 104092278B CN 201410331482 A CN201410331482 A CN 201410331482A CN 104092278 B CN104092278 B CN 104092278B
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China
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power
photovoltaic
operating mode
lithium battery
load
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CN201410331482.9A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104092278A (en
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蔡旭
王海松
姜广宇
叶程广
丁卓禹
何小春
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安徽启光能源科技研究院有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • Y02E10/56Power conversion systems, e.g. maximum power point trackers

Abstract

The invention discloses an energy management method applied to a photovoltaic energy storage system. Power supplies in the photovoltaic energy storage system include a photovoltaic assembly, a lithium battery and a power grid. Working conditions of the photovoltaic energy storage system include conditions of 1, photovoltaic power generation during island operation: when output power of the photovoltaic assembly is larger than load power and the lithium battery is not charged fully, executing the mode; 2, conversion of grid side converters during grid-connected operation: when the output power of the photovoltaic assembly is larger than the load power and the lithium battery is charged fully, executing the mode; 3, power supply through the battery during island operation: when the output power of the photovoltaic assembly is insufficient to supply power to a load and the lithium battery has electricity, executing the mode; 4, rectification of the grid side converters during grid-connected operation: when the output power of the photovoltaic assembly is insufficient to supply power to the load and the lithium battery runs low, executing the mode. By means of the automatic control energy management method, access photovoltaic energy, energy of the battery and energy of the power grid of the photovoltaic energy storage system are utilized in sequence, and therefore, the utilization rate of light energy and automatic control effect can be increased.

Description

It is applied to the energy management method of photovoltaic energy storage system
Technical field
The present invention relates to photovoltaic energy storage field, more particularly to a kind of side for being applied to management energy in photovoltaic energy storage system Method.
Background technology
Photovoltaic energy storage system capacity management strategy core purpose is just so that whole photovoltaic generating system being capable of stable coordination Ground operation, realizes balance and the optimization of energy.Three power supplys are included in the system, i.e.,:Photovoltaic module, lithium battery and electrical network. System condition and energy management strategies are determined, during the Controlling principle of energy management, i.e. system operation should be specified first The priority that the energy is used.Consider that up till now increasing country encourages distributed energy to generate power for their own use, it then follows this principle, Therefore the first priority for selecting photovoltaic module as power supply.It is first in the case of photovoltaic power generation quantity surplus or deficiency First realized power-balance by lithium battery, therefore the second priority that lithium battery is selected as power supply.Only work as photovoltaic module When all reaching restrictive condition with lithium battery, just by public electric wire net access system, therefore electrical network is in the last of power supply selection Priority.It is above-mentioned can management method energy utilization rate it is low, automaticity is low, it is impossible to realize intelligentized photovoltaic energy storage system System.
The content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved is to realize a kind of management science, reliable, being capable of reasonable employment power supply Management method.
To achieve these goals, the technical solution used in the present invention is:It is applied to the energy management of photovoltaic energy storage system Method, power supply includes photovoltaic module, lithium battery and electrical network in photovoltaic energy storage system, and system condition can be divided into following four kinds and include:
The islet operation of operating mode 1, photovoltaic generation:When output power of photovoltaic module is more than bearing power and lithium battery underfill When, perform this pattern;
Operating mode 2 is incorporated into the power networks, grid side converter inversion:When output power of photovoltaic module is more than bearing power, and lithium electricity When pond is in fully charged state, this pattern is performed;
The islet operation of operating mode 3, battery is powered:When output power of photovoltaic module is not enough to powering load, and lithium battery is stored up When having electricity, this pattern is performed;
Operating mode 4 is incorporated into the power networks, grid side converter rectification:When output power of photovoltaic module is not enough to powering load, and lithium When battery electric quantity is not enough, this pattern is performed.
The present invention is secondly electric using energy management method, the access photovoltaic energy of preferential photovoltaic energy storage system is automatically controlled Pond, again electrical network;Improve the utilization rate and automatic control effect of luminous energy.
Description of the drawings
The content of every width accompanying drawing expression in description of the invention is briefly described below:
Fig. 1 photovoltaic energy storage electricity generation system block diagrams;
Fig. 2 is system block diagram under the state of operating mode 1
Fig. 3 is system block diagram under the state of operating mode 2
Fig. 4 is system block diagram under the state of operating mode 3
Fig. 5 is system block diagram under the state of operating mode 4
Fig. 6 is system condition transition diagram;
Fig. 7 is experimental waveform figure when switching between operating mode 1 and the state of operating mode 3;
Specific embodiment
It can be seen from Fig. 1, three power supplys are included in the system:Photovoltaic module, lithium battery and electrical network.Wherein photovoltaic module Jing photovoltaics survey converter connection dc bus, and lithium battery Jing batteries side converter connection dc bus, dc bus Jing full-bridges are inverse Become device connection load, electrical network is accessed on the wire between load and full-bridge inverter.
Photovoltaic side Boost can be operated in MPPT maximum power point tracking (Maximum Power Point Tracking, MPPT) pattern and constant pressure (Constant Voltage, CV) pattern;Battery side One Buck-Boost converter body can be with It is operated in Boost patterns and Buck patterns;When it is operated in Buck patterns, low-pressure side voltage is controlled, for battery discharge;When When it is operated in Boost patterns, high side voltage is controlled, for battery charging.When electrical network accesses photovoltaic energy storage system, full-bridge Inverter is operated in grid-connect mode, and when electrical network disconnects, full-bridge inverter is operated in independence (isolated island) pattern.
The first priority that system selects photovoltaic module as power supply, in photovoltaic power generation quantity surplus or deficiency In the case of, realized power-balance by lithium battery first, the second priority that lithium battery is selected as power supply only works as light When volt component and lithium battery all reach restrictive condition, the last priority for just selecting electrical network in power supply.
Based on mentioned above principle, whether it is connected with electrical network according to photovoltaic generating system, system running pattern can be divided into orphan Island operational mode and the big class of pattern two that is incorporated into the power networks, are specifically divided into four kinds of work condition states, specific as follows:
The islet operation of operating mode 1, photovoltaic generation;Operating mode 2 is incorporated into the power networks, grid side converter inversion;The islet operation of operating mode 3, electricity Pond powers;Operating mode 4 is incorporated into the power networks, grid side converter rectification.
From the energy flow direction in the mode of operation and system of converter in operating mode in Fig. 21, islet operation, Under photovoltaic generation operating mode, now output power of photovoltaic module is more than bearing power and lithium battery underfill, i.e. PPV>PloadAnd SOC< 95%.Used as main power supply, photovoltaic side Boost is operated in CV patterns to photovoltaic, and control DC bus-bar voltage is constant. Full-bridge inverter is operated in independent inverter mode.If photovoltaic power output more than bearing power and lithium cell charging power it With i.e. PPV>Pload+Pbat_charge, then battery side One Buck-Boost converter body be operated in Buck patterns with control battery charging;Instead If Pload<PPV<Pload+Pbat_charge, then One Buck-Boost converter body do not work.
From the energy flow direction in the mode of operation and system of converter in operating mode in Fig. 32, it is incorporated into the power networks, Under grid side converter inversion operating mode, now output power of photovoltaic module is more than bearing power, and lithium battery is in and completely fills shape State, i.e. PPV>PloadAnd SOC>95%.Full-bridge inverter is operated in grid-connect mode to control intermediate dc bus voltage constant, will The electricity of surplus feeds back to public electric wire net.Photovoltaic side Boost is operated in MPPT patterns.Lithium battery side Buck-Boost becomes Parallel operation does not work.
From the energy flow direction in the mode of operation and system of converter in operating mode in Fig. 43, islet operation, Under battery condition of supplying power, now output power of photovoltaic module is not enough to powering load, and lithium battery stores certain electricity, i.e., PPV<PloadAnd SOC>5%.Lithium battery is operated in Boost patterns as main power supply, battery side One Buck-Boost converter body It is constant to control DC bus-bar voltage.Full-bridge inverter is operated in independent inverter mode.If photovoltaic has faint power output, i.e., PPV_min<PPV<Pload, then photovoltaic side Boost be operated in MPPT patterns;If photovoltaic inactivity is exported, i.e. PPV<PPV_min, Then photovoltaic side Boost does not work.
From the energy flow direction in the mode of operation and system of converter in operating mode in Fig. 54, it is incorporated into the power networks, Grid side converter rectification.Now output power of photovoltaic module is not enough to powering load, and electric quantity of lithium battery is not enough, i.e. PPV< PloadAnd SOC<5%.Full-bridge inverter is operated in grid-connect mode and maintains DC bus-bar voltage constant.Lithium battery side Buck-Boost Converter is operated in Buck patterns and is charged until SOC with controlling battery>Till 95%.If photovoltaic has faint power output, i.e., PPV_min<PPV<Pload, then photovoltaic side Boost be operated in MPPT patterns;If photovoltaic inactivity is exported, i.e. PPV<PPV_min, Then photovoltaic side Boost does not work.
Table 1 is given according to PPV<Pload、PPV>Pload、SOC>5%th, 5%<SOC<95%th, SOC>95% this five conditions The system conditions of division.System operation required bar for possessing under certain specific operation is can clearly be seen that from table Part.
SOC<5% 5%<SOC<95% SOC>95%
PPV>Pload Operating mode 1 Operating mode 1 Operating mode 2
PPV<Pload Operating mode 4 Operating mode 3 Operating mode 3
Table 1
It can be seen from Fig. 6, under the precondition for ensureing power supply priority, operating mode switching adopts following methods:
When system operation is in operating mode 1, if detecting SOC>95%, then illustrate that now lithium battery has been filled with, should have more than needed Energy feed-in electrical network, i.e. system is switched to operating mode 2 by operating mode 1.If detecting PPV<Pload, then now photovoltaic power output is not Powering load is enough to, according to power supply order of preference, it should be switched to lithium battery power supply, i.e. system and be switched to by operating mode 1 Operating mode 3.
When system operation is in operating mode 2, if detecting PPV<Pload, then photovoltaic module not energy more than needed feedback is illustrated Enter electrical network, according to power supply order of preference, lithium battery power supply, i.e. system should be switched to operating mode 3 is switched to by operating mode 2.
When system operation is in operating mode 3, if detecting PPV>Pload, then illustrate photovoltaic module can independent powering load, press According to power supply order of preference, it should be switched to photovoltaic power supply, i.e. system and be switched to operating mode 1 by operating mode 3.If detecting SOC< 5%, then illustrate that battery electric quantity is not enough, can only be switched to operating mode 4 by electrical network powering load, i.e. system by operating mode 3.
When system operation is in operating mode 4, if detecting PPV>Pload, then illustrate photovoltaic module can independent powering load, press According to power supply order of preference, it should be switched to photovoltaic power supply, i.e. system and be switched to operating mode 1 by operating mode 4.
The grid collapses when system operation is in operating mode 2, now switch to operating mode 2 and are continued to run with by photovoltaic power supply.
The grid collapses when system operation is in operating mode 4, now switch to that operating mode 3 is battery-powered to be continued to run with.
The grid collapses when system operation is in operating mode 1 or operating mode 3, now system original operating mode can be maintained to continue to transport Row a period of time.
4 operating mode switching conditions are given in Fig. 6, respectively:(1)SOC>95%;(2)SOC<5%;(3)PPV<Pload; (4)PPV>Pload
Above-mentioned front two switching conditions can be by controller and battery management system (Battery Management System, BMS) communication obtain data judged.
Two switching conditions judgement in practice afterwards must be divided into following a few class situations.When system operation is in grid-connected operating mode (including operating mode 2 and operating mode 4), photovoltaic side Boost is operated in MPPT patterns, and system can detect photovoltaic maximum output Power, so as to compare with bearing power, whether Rule of judgment is set up.When system operation is in operating mode 1, due to photovoltaic side Boost is operated in CV patterns, and the maximum exportable power of photovoltaic module cannot be measured, now can be female by detection direct current Whether line voltage is fallen is come whether indirect Rule of judgment sets up that (DC bus-bar voltage falls and mean output power of photovoltaic module It is not enough to powering load, i.e. PPV<Pload).When system operation is in operating mode 3, One Buck-Boost converter body is operated in Boost moulds Formula, power can only be exported from battery and can not be input into, so PPV>PloadCan be embodied in DC bus-bar voltage lifting first, therefore Can by detect DC bus-bar voltage whether lifting judging P indirectlyPV>PloadWhether set up.
DC bus-bar voltage falls particularly significant with the threshold value setting of lifting.Threshold values arranges too low, and system may be due to There is the mistake switching of operating mode in sampling error and external disturbance;Threshold values arranges too high, can cause DC bus-bar voltage excursion too Greatly, system operation reliability and transducer effciency are reduced.Consider, set threshold values that DC bus-bar voltage falls as Vdc_min =Vdc_rating(1-10%) (Vdc_ratingFor DC bus-bar voltage rated value);Set the threshold values of DC bus-bar voltage lifting as Vdc_max=Vdc_rating(1+10%).I.e.:Work as Vdc<Vdc_minWhen, it is meant that DC bus-bar voltage falls, condition PPV<PloadInto It is vertical;Work as Vdc>Vdc_maxWhen, it is meant that DC bus-bar voltage lifting, condition PPV>PloadSet up.
To guarantee that operating mode set forth above and energy management strategies can be realized effectively, need to propose that related power limits bar Part:
(1) lithium battery maximum discharge power is more than maximum load power, it is ensured that individually can be met by during lithium battery power supply Load needs.That is below equation:
Pbat_discharge_max≥Pload_max
(2) load-side DC/AC converter rated power is more than lithium battery maximum charge power and maximum load power sum, So that it is guaranteed that electrical network can powering load while to lithium cell charging.That is below equation:
Pdc/ac_rating≥(Pbat_charge_max+Pload_max)
(3) load-side DC/AC converter rated power is more than photovoltaic peak power output, it is ensured that electrical network can receive photovoltaic Peak power output.That is below equation:
Pdc/ac_rating≥PPV_max
Fig. 7 (a), (b) are the handoff procedure figure between operating mode 1 and operating mode 3.In Fig. 7 (a), system is operated in work before switching Condition 1, now bearing power is 1.5kW, lithium cell charging power 1kW.Can be with load from 1kW mutation to 3kW from Fig. 7 (a) Moment, by detecting DC bus-bar voltage i.e. V is fallendc<Vdc_min, judge PPV<PloadCondition is set up, and now lithium battery is from filling Electricity condition is transitioned into discharge condition naturally, and maintenance load uninterrupted power supply is combined with photovoltaic.As can be seen that when negative from Fig. 7 (b) Carry from 3kW be changed into 1.5kW again when, raise i.e. V by detecting DC bus-bar voltagedc>Vdc_max, judge PPV>PloadCondition into Vertical, system switches back to operating mode 1 from operating mode 3.In stateful switchover process, DC bus-bar voltage exists and of short duration fall and lift Rise, but inverter output voltage maintains all the time 220V.

Claims (6)

1. the energy management method of photovoltaic energy storage system is applied to, it is characterised in that:
Power supply includes photovoltaic module, lithium battery and electrical network in photovoltaic energy storage system,
System condition is divided into following four kinds:
The islet operation of operating mode 1, photovoltaic generation:When output power of photovoltaic module is more than bearing power and lithium battery underfill, hold Capable this pattern;Under the execution state of the operating mode 1, photovoltaic module is operated in constant pressure mould as main electricity, photovoltaic side converter Formula, control DC bus-bar voltage is constant, and full-bridge inverter is operated in independent inverter mode, if photovoltaic power output is more than load Power and lithium cell charging power sum, then battery side convertor controls lithium cell charging, on the contrary then battery side converter not work Make;
Operating mode 2 is incorporated into the power networks, grid side converter inversion:When output power of photovoltaic module is more than bearing power, and lithium battery is In fully charged state when, perform this pattern;Under the execution state of the operating mode 2, full-bridge inverter is operated in grid-connect mode to control Intermediate dc bus voltage constant, by the electricity of surplus public electric wire net is fed back to, and photovoltaic side converter is operated in MPPT patterns, lithium Battery side converter does not work;
The islet operation of operating mode 3, battery is powered:When output power of photovoltaic module is not enough to powering load, and lithium battery is stored During electricity, this pattern is performed;Under the execution state of the operating mode 3, lithium battery is operated in as main electricity, battery side converter Boost patterns are constant to control DC bus-bar voltage, and full-bridge inverter is operated in independent inverter mode, if photovoltaic module has work( Rate is exported, then photovoltaic side Boost is operated in MPPT patterns;If photovoltaic inactivity is exported, photovoltaic side Boost Do not work;
Operating mode 4 is incorporated into the power networks, grid side converter rectification:When output power of photovoltaic module is not enough to powering load, and lithium battery During not enough power supply, this pattern is performed;Under the execution state of the operating mode 4, full-bridge inverter is operated in grid-connect mode and maintains direct current female Line voltage is constant, and lithium battery side converter is operated in Buck patterns and is charged until battery is full of, if photovoltaic with controlling battery There is power output in component, then photovoltaic side Boost is operated in MPPT maximum power point tracking pattern;If photovoltaic module inactivity Output, then photovoltaic side Boost does not work.
2. the energy management method for being applied to photovoltaic energy storage system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:
When system conditions 1, if detecting lithium battery SOC > 95%, operating mode 2 is switched to by operating mode 1, if detecting light Volt component power output is not enough to powering load, then be switched to operating mode 3 by operating mode 1;
When system conditions 2, if detecting output power of photovoltaic module is not enough to powering load, switched by operating mode 2 To operating mode 3;
When system conditions 3, if detecting output power of photovoltaic module more than bearing power, work is switched to by operating mode 3 Condition 1, if detecting lithium battery SOC < 5%, by operating mode 3 operating mode 4 is switched to;
When system conditions 4, if detecting output power of photovoltaic module more than bearing power, work is switched to by operating mode 4 Condition 1.
3. the energy management method for being applied to photovoltaic energy storage system according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterised in that:
There is electric network fault when operating condition 2, then operating mode 1 is switched to by operating mode 2 and is powered by photovoltaic module and continue to run with;
There is electric network fault when operating condition 4, then operating mode 3 is switched to by operating mode 4 and is continued to run with by lithium battery power supply;
There is electric network fault when operating condition 1 or 3, then system maintains former operating mode operation.
4. the energy management method for being applied to photovoltaic energy storage system according to claim 3, it is characterised in that:The lithium electricity The collection of pond electric quantity signal is obtained by battery management system;
Output power of photovoltaic module and the power output of load are obtained by system condition state:
When system operation is in operating mode 2,4 state, photovoltaic side converter is operated in MPPT patterns, and it is defeated that system detectio goes out photovoltaic maximum Go out power, so as to compare with bearing power, whether Rule of judgment is set up;When system operation is in 1 state of operating mode, by detection Whether DC bus-bar voltage falls is come whether indirect Rule of judgment is set up;When system operation is in 3 state of operating mode, battery side conversion Device is operated in Boost patterns, by detecting whether DC bus-bar voltage whether come indirect Rule of judgment set up by lifting.
5. the energy management method for being applied to photovoltaic energy storage system according to claim 4, it is characterised in that:Dc bus The threshold values of Voltage Drop is Vdc_min=Vdc_rating(1-10%), wherein Vdc_ratingFor DC bus-bar voltage rated value, direct current is set The threshold values of busbar voltage lifting is Vdc_max=Vdc_rating(1+10%);If current DC bus-bar voltage Vdc>Vdc_maxWhen, condition light Volt component power output is set up more than bearing power.
6. the energy management method for being applied to photovoltaic energy storage system according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The management Method is performed when switching each operating mode, need to meet following condition:
1)Lithium battery maximum discharge power is more than maximum load power, it is ensured that individually by can meet load need during lithium battery power supply Will;
2)Load-side DC/AC converter rated power is more than lithium battery maximum charge power and maximum load power sum, so as to Guarantee electrical network can powering load while to lithium cell charging;
3)Load-side DC/AC converter rated power is more than photovoltaic peak power output, it is ensured that electrical network can receive photovoltaic maximum Power output.
CN201410331482.9A 2014-07-11 2014-07-11 Energy management method applied to photovoltaic energy storage system CN104092278B (en)

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CN105471369A (en) * 2014-11-17 2016-04-06 浙江万向太阳能有限公司 Off-grid PV power generation system and power supply method thereof
CN104821600B (en) * 2015-05-14 2017-02-22 南通大学 Flexible grid-connected scheduling algorithm for distributed wind and photovoltaic hybrid power generation system
CN107040034A (en) * 2016-02-03 2017-08-11 珠海格力电器股份有限公司 A kind of photovoltaic energy storage air-conditioning device and control method
CN105870964A (en) * 2016-03-31 2016-08-17 国网天津市电力公司 Microgrid-based distributed photovoltaic power generation boost (Boost) control method
CN106505602A (en) * 2016-11-01 2017-03-15 北京科诺伟业科技股份有限公司 A kind of control method of energy-storage system
CN106602703A (en) * 2016-12-28 2017-04-26 佛山市索尔电子实业有限公司 Solar-energy and commercial-power alternative power supply system and method thereof
CN106712102B (en) * 2017-03-09 2020-04-07 四川科陆新能电气有限公司 Control system and method for reducing light abandoning and electricity limiting of photovoltaic power station
CN108233420A (en) * 2018-02-01 2018-06-29 中车株洲电力机车有限公司 A kind of photovoltaic solar system and its control method
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