CN104084583A - Laser preparation device and method of metal matrix carbon nanometer composite material - Google Patents

Laser preparation device and method of metal matrix carbon nanometer composite material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104084583A
CN104084583A CN201410363212.6A CN201410363212A CN104084583A CN 104084583 A CN104084583 A CN 104084583A CN 201410363212 A CN201410363212 A CN 201410363212A CN 104084583 A CN104084583 A CN 104084583A
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laser
metal
composite
carbon nano
substrate
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CN201410363212.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104084583B (en
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沈俊
魏文猴
段宣明
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中国科学院重庆绿色智能技术研究院
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Abstract

The invention discloses a laser preparation device and method of a metal matrix carbon nanometer composite material. According to the device and method, a numerical control system is adopted for centralized control, a powder feeder controls metal powder to be laid on a substrate through a computer instruction, area selecting sintering is performed on the metal powder through laser beams according to computer graphic data, meanwhile, carbon source gas is introduced, thermolysis is performed in a high-temperature area controlled by a temperature compensating device, various carbon nanostructure materials are generated through catalysis and combined with a metal matrix in the sintering process in real time, and the metal matrix carbon nanometer composite material can be formed. According to the device and method, a powder paving device, a laser, a temperature adjuster and the like are used for centralized control through the numerical control system, and the device and method have the advantages of being high in instantaneity, high in processing speed and the like. The manufactured metal matrix carbon nanometer composite material is high in efficiency and accuracy and good in performance.

Description

A kind of laser preparing apparatus of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material and method
Technical field
The invention belongs to Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material field shaping technique, particularly a kind of laser preparing apparatus of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material and method.
Background technology
Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material is to have at least unidimensional scale to form in 100nm is evenly distributed in metal and alloy substrate with interior carbon nanomaterial by CNT, carbon nano-fiber, Nano carbon balls etc.Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material has both the premium properties of traditional metal/alloy and carbon nanomaterial, have that density is low, intensity is high, the feature such as good toughness, Heat Conduction good electrical property, hydrophobicity are strong, wear-resistant, in high-tech areas such as automobile, electronics, machinery, Aero-Space, presenting wide application prospect, is the study hotspot of field of new.
At present, the preparation technology of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material mainly contains: chemical vapour deposition technique, electrochemical deposition method, discharge plasma sintering process, powder metallurgic method, mechanical alloying-pressure sintering, melting and solidification method etc.Wherein conventional metallic matrix mainly contains: aluminium base, copper base, iron-based, Ni-based etc.Aspect preparation Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, the cycle is long, efficiency is low, second-rate for current preparation technology; And be difficult to meet product design personalization, complicated, diversified requirement; In addition, interfacial interaction between metallic matrix and carbon nanomaterial directly affects the performance of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, it between most metals matrix and carbon nanomaterial, is mainly physical contact, chemical bond rarely, very difficult formation is combination interface firmly, thereby causes the poor-performing such as electricity, heat, mechanics of composite; Carbon nanomaterial has the yardstick of nanometer scale, and specific area is large, and specific surface energy is high, very easily occurs to be wound around to reunite, and is difficult for evenly, is dispersed in metallic matrix to disperse, affects the enhancing effect of CNT.
Summary of the invention
Given this, the invention provides a kind of laser preparing apparatus of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, this device carries out centralized Control by digital control system to Powder spreader, laser instrument, thermosistor etc., there is the advantages such as real-time, processing speed is fast, the present invention prepares that the Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material cycle is short, efficiency is high, precision is high, performance good, and the present invention simultaneously also provides a kind of
For one of achieving the above object, the invention provides following technical scheme: a kind of laser preparing apparatus of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, it is characterized in that: comprise digital control system 1, vacuum forming chamber 7 and jacking system 13, in described vacuum forming chamber 7, be provided with working head 3 and substrate 14; Described vacuum forming chamber 7 is outside equipped with powder feeder 2, carbon-source gas generator 11, laser instrument 4 and laser transmission apparatus 5; Described powder feeder 2 is controlled working head 3 metal dust is layed on substrate 14; Described laser instrument 4 gives off laser beam and carries out sintering through 5 pairs of metal dusts of laser transmission apparatus; Described carbon-source gas hair generator 11 passes into carbon-source gas being used in when laser beam carries out sintering to metal dust; Described jacking system 13 is for controlling rising or the decline of substrate 14; Described digital control system 1 is connected with laser instrument 4, powder feeder 2 and carbon-source gas generator 11 respectively.
The important technical parameters such as the focal position that in device of the present invention, its digital control system is responsible for coordinate controlling that laser switch, laser species, laser power, metallic matrix kind (copper, nickel, iron etc.), active element source, paving bisque are thick, carbon source kind, carbon nanomaterial content, preheat temperature, scanning shake border, sweep speed, sweep span, scanning strategy.
Further, also comprise thermosistor 12 and the temperature compensation means 15 being connected with thermosistor, described thermosistor 12 is connected with digital control system 1, and described thermosistor 12 carries out operating temperature compensation and effectively controls for controlling 15 pairs of laser sintered districts of temperature compensation means; Described temperature compensation means is laid on substrate 14 round laser sintered district.
Further, also include air inlet 8 and the gas outlet 9 being arranged on vacuum forming chamber 7.
Further, described gas outlet 9 is connected with exhaust gas processing device 10.
For achieve the above object two, the invention provides following technical scheme: a kind of laser preparation method of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, specifically comprises the following steps:
Step (1). set up the threedimensional model of parts, and it is discrete to carry out layering, generates scanning path data, and by data importing in digital control system;
Step (2). first vacuum forming chamber is vacuumized, then to the indoor inert gas injecting of vacuum forming, control the indoor oxygen concentration of moulding within the scope of finite concentration;
Step (3). powder feeder, to the indoor metal dust of sending into of vacuum forming, is laid layer of metal powder to substrate, unnecessary metal dust is reclaimed simultaneously;
Step (4). according to default graph data, laser beam flying metal dust forms focal beam spot on the processing plane of metal dust, and deposite metal powder forms part individual layer cross section; Carbon-source gas generator passes into carbon-source gas simultaneously, when it passes through high-temperature area, by pyrolysis catalysis, generated all kinds of carbon nano-structured materials, the metallic matrix in described carbon nano-structured material and thawing process of setting carries out compound, to form Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material;
Step (5). the scanning pattern generating according to step (1), repeating step (3)~(5), realize the three-dimensional of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material and process by the method for sintering successively, obtain the nano combined parts of Metal Substrate carbon of moulding.
Further, metal dust is first used heater preheating before being preset to substrate.
Further, between step (4) and step (5), also comprise step (41); Described step (41) is specially: utilize infrared radiation thermometer testing laser sintering zone operating temperature, and by thermosistor, control temperature compensation means laser sintered district is carried out operating temperature compensation and effectively controlled.
Further, in described metal dust, include Ti, Ni isoreactivity element.
Owing to having adopted above technical scheme, the present invention has following useful technique effect:
1, the present invention carries out centralized Control by digital control system to Powder spreader, laser instrument, thermosistor etc., has the advantages such as real-time, processing speed is fast, and the present invention prepares that the Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material cycle is short, efficiency is high, and precision is high, performance good.
2, with respect to existing equipment and technology, the preparation technology that the present invention adopts precinct laser sintering method (SLS) and chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) to combine, can realize product design personalization, complicated, diversified requirement, greatly degree has been promoted the application of the nano combined parts of Metal Substrate carbon.
3, the present invention is provided with temperature compensation means, can accurately control reaction temperature.Metal dust is first used heater preheating before being preset to substrate, can prevent warpage and crackle in forming process, also can reduce powder and melt the input requirements to laser energy completely, under same laser can input condition, preheating can obtain shaping efficiency faster, preheating can reduce the moisture in metal dust, guarantees that laser is incident on dry powder surface.
4, vacuum forming chamber of the present invention can guarantee the vacuum environment requirement that Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material is produced; vacuum forming chamber is provided with air inlet and gas outlet; can be to the indoor injection protective gas of vacuum forming; can make the foreign gas in forming process to discharge in time on the one hand; be conducive on the other hand improve the gas flow in forming room; greatly reduced the use amount of protection gas, foreign gas can be flowed to gas outlet direction.
5, the present invention introduces titanium (Ti), nickel (Ni) isoreactivity element in sintering process, between metallic matrix and carbon nanomaterial, react and generate transition zone, utilize the chemical bond increase carbon nanomaterial of transition zone and the interface binding power of metallic matrix, thereby improve the effect of impregnation of metallic matrix to carbon nanomaterial, the performances such as the electricity of raising Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, heat, mechanics.
Accompanying drawing explanation
In order to make the object, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in further detail, wherein:
Fig. 1 is the laser preparing apparatus general structure schematic diagram of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material;
Fig. 2 is the schematic flow sheet of the laser preparation method of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material.
The specific embodiment
Below with reference to accompanying drawing, the preferred embodiments of the present invention are described in detail; Should be appreciated that preferred embodiment is only for the present invention is described, rather than in order to limit the scope of the invention.
Embodiment 1
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of laser preparing apparatus of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, comprises digital control system 1, vacuum forming chamber 7 and jacking system 13, is provided with working head 3 and substrate 14 in described vacuum forming chamber 7; Described vacuum forming chamber 7 is outside equipped with powder feeder 2, carbon-source gas generator 11, laser instrument 4 and laser transmission apparatus 5; Described powder feeder 2 is controlled working head 3 metal dust is layed on substrate 14; Described laser instrument 4 gives off laser beam and carries out sintering through 5 pairs of metal dusts of laser transmission apparatus; Described carbon-source gas hair generator 11 passes into carbon-source gas being used in when laser beam carries out sintering to metal dust; Described jacking system 13 is for controlling rising or the decline of substrate 14; Described digital control system 1 is connected with laser instrument 4, powder feeder 2 and carbon-source gas generator 11 respectively.
The important technical parameters such as the focal position that in device of the present invention, its digital control system is responsible for coordinate controlling that laser switch, laser species, laser power, metallic matrix kind (copper, nickel, iron etc.), active element source, paving bisque are thick, carbon source kind, carbon nanomaterial content, preheat temperature, scanning shake border, sweep speed, sweep span, scanning strategy.
As the improvement to the present embodiment, also comprise thermosistor 12 and the temperature compensation means 15 being connected with thermosistor, described thermosistor 12 is connected with digital control system 1, and described thermosistor 12 carries out operating temperature compensation and effectively controls for controlling 15 pairs of laser sintered districts of temperature compensation means; Described temperature compensation means is laid on substrate 14 round laser sintered district.
As the improvement to the present embodiment; the preparation facilities of composite also includes air inlet 8 and the gas outlet 9 being arranged on vacuum forming chamber 7; can carry out composite can be to the indoor injection protective gas of vacuum forming while preparing; can make the foreign gas in forming process to discharge in time on the one hand; be conducive on the other hand improve the gas flow in forming room; greatly reduced the use amount of protection gas, foreign gas can be flowed to gas outlet direction.
Described gas outlet 9 is connected with exhaust gas processing device 10.
The present invention carries out centralized Control by digital control system to Powder spreader, laser instrument, thermosistor etc., has the advantages such as real-time, processing speed is fast, and the present invention prepares that Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material efficiency is high, precision is high, performance good.
Embodiment 2
Fig. 2 shows the flow chart of the laser preparation method of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material;
A laser preparation method for Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, specifically comprises the following steps:
Step (1). set up the threedimensional model of parts, and it is discrete to carry out layering, generates scanning path data, and by data importing in digital control system;
Step (2). first vacuum forming chamber is vacuumized, then to the indoor inert gas injecting of vacuum forming, control the indoor oxygen concentration of moulding within the scope of finite concentration;
Step (3). powder feeder, to the indoor metal dust of sending into of vacuum forming, is laid layer of metal powder to substrate, unnecessary metal dust is reclaimed simultaneously;
Step (4). according to default graph data, laser beam flying metal dust forms focal beam spot on the processing plane of metal dust, and deposite metal powder forms part individual layer cross section; Carbon-source gas generator passes into carbon-source gas simultaneously, when it passes through high-temperature area, by pyrolysis catalysis, generated all kinds of carbon nano-structured materials, the metallic matrix in described carbon nano-structured material and thawing process of setting carries out compound, to form Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material;
Step (5). the scanning pattern generating according to step (1), repeating step (3)~(5), realize the three-dimensional of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material and process by the method for sintering successively, obtain the nano combined parts of Metal Substrate carbon of moulding.
As the improvement to the present embodiment, between step (4) and step (5), also comprise step (41), described step (41) is specially: utilize infrared radiation thermometer testing laser sintering zone operating temperature, and utilize thermosistor to control temperature compensation means laser sintered district is carried out operating temperature compensation and effectively controlled;
As the improvement to the present embodiment, in whole forming process, introduce a small amount of titanium (Ti), nickel (Ni) isoreactivity element, between metallic matrix and carbon nanomaterial, react and generate transition zone, utilize the chemical bond increase carbon nanomaterial of transition zone and the interface binding power of metallic matrix, thereby improve the effect of impregnation of metallic matrix to carbon nanomaterial, the performances such as the electricity of raising Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, heat, mechanics.
Ti, Ni isoreactivity element can evenly mix by the front metal dust of sintering.
As the improvement to the present embodiment, metal dust is first used heater preheating before being preset to substrate.By this step process, can prevent warpage and crackle in forming process, also can reduce powder and melt the input requirements to laser energy completely, under same laser can input condition, preheating can obtain shaping efficiency faster, preheating can reduce the moisture in metal dust, guarantees that laser is incident on dry powder surface.
The preparation technology that the present invention adopts precinct laser sintering method (SLS) and chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) to combine, by sintering layer of metal matrix, the equally distributed carbon nanomaterial of diffuse type of simultaneously growing on this basis, its structure will be with CNT, Graphene, and the variforms such as Nano carbon balls exist, and by the transition zones such as TiC each material component of combining closely, pile up and cohere layer by layer, dispersed to prepare, the Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material of strong construction.The present invention will shorten manufacturing cycle dramatically, improve preparation efficiency, produce given shape requirement, function and be combined good Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material product with structure.
The foregoing is only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, be not limited to the present invention, obviously, those skilled in the art can carry out various changes and modification and not depart from the spirit and scope of the present invention the present invention.Like this, if within of the present invention these are revised and modification belongs to the scope of the claims in the present invention and equivalent technologies thereof, the present invention is also intended to comprise these changes and modification interior.

Claims (8)

1. the laser preparing apparatus of a Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, it is characterized in that: comprise digital control system (1), vacuum forming chamber (7) and jacking system (13), in described vacuum forming chamber (7), be provided with working head (3) and substrate (14); Described vacuum forming chamber (7) is outside equipped with powder feeder (2), carbon-source gas generator (11), laser instrument (4) and laser transmission apparatus (5); Described powder feeder (2) is controlled working head (3) metal dust is layed on substrate (14); Described laser instrument (4) gives off laser beam, through laser transmission apparatus (5), metal dust is carried out to sintering; Described carbon-source gas hair generator (11) passes into carbon-source gas being used in when laser beam carries out sintering to metal dust; Described jacking system (13) is for controlling rising or the decline of substrate (14); Described digital control system (1) is connected with laser instrument (4), powder feeder (2) and carbon-source gas generator (11) respectively.
2. the laser preparing apparatus of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: also comprise thermosistor (12) and the temperature compensation means being connected with thermosistor (15), described thermosistor (12) is connected with digital control system (1), and described thermosistor (12) carries out operating temperature compensation and effectively controls laser sintered district for controlling temperature compensation means (15); Described temperature compensation means is laid on substrate (14) round laser sintered district.
3. the laser preparing apparatus of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: also include the air inlet (8) and gas outlet (9) that are arranged on vacuum forming chamber (7).
4. the laser preparing apparatus of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material according to claim 3, is characterized in that: described gas outlet (9) are connected with exhaust gas processing device (10).
5. a laser preparation method for Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material, is characterized in that: specifically comprise the following steps:
Step (1). set up the threedimensional model of parts, and it is discrete to carry out layering, generates scanning path data, and by data importing in digital control system;
Step (2). vacuum forming chamber is vacuumized, then to the indoor inert gas injecting of vacuum forming, control the indoor oxygen concentration of moulding within the scope of finite concentration;
Step (3). powder feeder, to the indoor metal dust of sending into of vacuum forming, is laid layer of metal powder to substrate, unnecessary metal dust is reclaimed simultaneously;
Step (4). according to default graph data, laser beam flying metal dust forms focal beam spot on the processing plane of metal dust, and deposite metal powder forms part individual layer cross section; In the powder of deposite metal, pass into carbon-source gas, when it passes through high-temperature area, by pyrolysis catalysis, generated all kinds of carbon nano-structured materials, the metallic matrix in described carbon nano-structured material and thawing process of setting carries out compound, to form Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material;
Step (5). the scanning pattern generating according to step (1), repeating step (3)~(5), realize the three-dimensional of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material and process by the method for sintering successively, obtain the nano combined parts of Metal Substrate carbon of moulding.
6. the laser preparation method of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material according to claim 5, is characterized in that: described metal dust is first used heater preheating before being preset to substrate.
7. the laser preparation method of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material according to claim 5, is characterized in that: between step (4) and step (5), also comprise step (41); Described step (41) is specially: utilize infrared radiation thermometer testing laser sintering zone operating temperature, and by thermosistor, control temperature compensation means laser sintered district is carried out operating temperature compensation and effectively controlled.
8. the laser preparation method of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material according to claim 5, is characterized in that: in described metal dust, include Ti, Ni isoreactivity element.
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CN105033254A (en) * 2015-07-29 2015-11-11 南京航空航天大学 Method for manufacturing high-performance in-situ TiC reinforced titanium-based composite workpiece on basis of CNTs and laser additive manufacturing and processing technology
CN107983955A (en) * 2016-10-17 2018-05-04 中国航空工业集团公司北京航空制造工程研究所 A kind of preheating insulation device for selective laser fusing shaping
CN108465814A (en) * 2018-03-29 2018-08-31 中国科学院重庆绿色智能技术研究院 In-situ synthesizing TiC enhances the laser preparing apparatus and method of titanium matrix composite
CN108465813A (en) * 2018-03-29 2018-08-31 中国科学院重庆绿色智能技术研究院 The integral forming device and method of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material parts

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CN105033254A (en) * 2015-07-29 2015-11-11 南京航空航天大学 Method for manufacturing high-performance in-situ TiC reinforced titanium-based composite workpiece on basis of CNTs and laser additive manufacturing and processing technology
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CN108465814A (en) * 2018-03-29 2018-08-31 中国科学院重庆绿色智能技术研究院 In-situ synthesizing TiC enhances the laser preparing apparatus and method of titanium matrix composite
CN108465813A (en) * 2018-03-29 2018-08-31 中国科学院重庆绿色智能技术研究院 The integral forming device and method of Metal Substrate carbon nano-composite material parts

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