CN104062268A - Non-contact pavement weather condition sensor and application method thereof - Google Patents

Non-contact pavement weather condition sensor and application method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104062268A
CN104062268A CN201410288992.2A CN201410288992A CN104062268A CN 104062268 A CN104062268 A CN 104062268A CN 201410288992 A CN201410288992 A CN 201410288992A CN 104062268 A CN104062268 A CN 104062268A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
road
expanding lens
guide rail
pavement
photodetector
Prior art date
Application number
CN201410288992.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王允韬
阮驰
徐松松
陶圣
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中国科学院西安光学精密机械研究所
交通运输部科学研究院
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Priority to CN201410288992.2A priority Critical patent/CN104062268A/en
Publication of CN104062268A publication Critical patent/CN104062268A/en

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Abstract

The invention provides a non-contact sensor for judging the pavement weather condition by measuring the energy of the pavement diffuse reflection light. The sensor can effectively distinguish the dryness, ponding and icing of the pavement. The non-contact pavement weather condition sensor mainly comprises a laser, a data acquisition and analysis system and an arc guide rail positioned on the pavement to be measured, wherein a beam expander and a photoelectric detector are mounted on the arc guide rail; the light emitted by the laser irradiates the pavement to be measured through the beam expander; the photoelectric detector receives the energy of the pavement diffusion reflection light, converts the light signal into an electric signal and delivers into the data acquisition and analysis system; and the beam expander can move along the arc guide rail, or the beam expander and the photoelectric detector are relatively fixed and can move together along the arc guide rail. The non-contact pavement weather condition sensor provided by the invention is simple in structure, low in cost, comprehensive in function and reliable in performance and can be applied to the measurement of various highway pavement weather conditions to provide basis for the decision of the road traffic management department.

Description

A kind of non-contact road surface meteorology sensor and application process thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of non-contact road surface meteorology sensor, for judging that whether road surface is dry, moist or freezing.
Background technology
In order to improve the traffic efficiency of road, need to obtain in real time various information.Consider that various vehicles all rely on frictional ground force travel and brake, surface gathered water, freeze and all can significantly reduce the friction force on tire and ground, so pavement behavior information is very closely related to road efficiency and traffic safety.Obtain pavement behavior informational needs and use road surface meteorology sensor, according to the difference of detection mode, road surface meteorological sensor is mainly divided into contact and contactless two kinds at present.
Prior art one:
Contact road surface meteorological sensor based on conductivity measurement.In the liquid phase of water salt (snow melting agent) mixed system, inorganic salts are dissociated into negative ions, and these ions, as charge carrier, make salt solution have certain conductivity.When system transition is solid phase, according to phase transformation theory, salt branch crystallization from system, in system, the forfeiture of charge carrier can cause the variation of conductivity.Thereby, by measuring the variation of conductivity, can judge exactly whether road surface freezes.According to the difference of specific implementation, electrical conductivity method can be divided into two electrode methods, four electrode method and electric revulsion etc.
The advantage of this class technology is that principle is simple, dependable performance.Shortcoming is to judge whether road surface freezes, and construction inconvenience, also can seriously reduce the serviceable life on road surface simultaneously.
Prior art two:
The non-contact road surface meteorological sensor of surveying based on road surface diffuse reflection spectrum.Under different road surface meteorologies, the reflectance spectrum on road surface has different features, so can judge by spectrographic detection technology the meteorology on road surface.In order to reduce costs, conventionally only survey the road reflection coefficient of a few features wavelength, correspondingly, need the spectrum of light source can cover above-mentioned wave band.Can adopt wide spectrum light source or the light source of several specific wavelengths is combined to use.
The advantage of this class technology is that principle is simple, reliability is high.Shortcoming is that the laser instrument of some characteristic wavelength is rarer and expensive, and the cost compare of sensor integral body is high.
Prior art three:
Non-contact road surface meteorological sensor based on reflected light Polarization Detection technology.Under the meteorology of different road surfaces, road reflection polarisation of light state is different.By optical polarization detection technique, the light intensity of the S light in reflected light and P light is recorded respectively, then try to achieve catoptrical polarization state.Can judge the meteorology on road surface thus.
Polarization separation optical device and detector that this class Technology Need is a large amount of, increased complicacy and the cost of system.
Summary of the invention
The defect existing in order to overcome above prior art, the present invention proposes a kind ofly by measuring road surface, to diffuse that energy judges that the non-contacting sensor of road surface meteorology, this sensor can differentiate whether road surface is dry effectively, ponding and freezing.
Technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:
A non-contact road surface meteorology sensor, the arc-shaped guide rail that mainly comprises laser instrument, data acquisition and analysis system and be positioned at top, road surface to be measured, is provided with beam expanding lens and photodetector on described arc-shaped guide rail; The light that laser instrument sends is radiated on road surface to be measured by beam expanding lens, and photodetector receives the road surface energy that diffuses, and light signal is converted to electric signal and sends into data acquisition and analysis system; Described beam expanding lens can move along arc-shaped guide rail, or beam expanding lens also can move along arc-shaped guide rail relative to fixing together with photodetector.
Above-mentioned beam expanding lens and photodetector integral body, as probe assembly, specifically can have the version of following two kinds of optimizations:
The first: photodetector is fixed on road surface method line position all the time, and beam expanding lens can move along arc-shaped guide rail.
The second: beam expanding lens and photodetector be fixed together and can together with along arc-shaped guide rail, move, both are parallel to each other by place optical axis; If the spacing of beam expanding lens and photodetector is d, the distance between probe assembly and irradiation area center, road surface is r, should guarantee r/d>100.
In addition, the present invention also does other following optimization restrictions and improves:
The light that above-mentioned laser instrument sends is coupled and is exported to beam expanding lens by multimode optical fiber.
Above-mentioned laser instrument is semiconductor laser.
Above-mentioned laser instrument is single long wavelength semiconductor laser.
For the probe assembly of the above-mentioned two kinds forms of specifically optimizing structure, the present invention gives general application process, comprising:
(1) open laser instrument, send the light of firm power, by beam expanding lens, be radiated on road surface to be measured;
(2) guarantee in the constant situation in irradiation area center, controlling beam expanding lens moves along arc-shaped guide rail, mobile total kilometres are π r/18, incident angle variation range be 0 ?10 °, photodetector records the energy send into data acquisition and analysis system of diffusing corresponding to different incidence angles in real time; Complete and set after stroke, data acquisition and analysis system be take beam expanding lens incident angle as horizontal ordinate, and the luminous power of the corresponding reception of detector is ordinate, draws a curve, obtains reflecting luminous power ?angular spectrum;
(3), according to described reflected optical power-angular spectrum, judge the meteorology on road surface to be measured.
The present invention is simple in structure, with low cost, complete function, dependable performance, can be applied to the measurement of various highway pavement meteorologies, for the decision-making of control of traffic and road department provides foundation.Specifically there is following advantage:
1, structure is simple and clear, and installation, easy to adjust, based on this hardware structure, utilizes ripe control and data analysis technique can record simply, quickly road surface meteorology.
2, apply dexterously diffuse reflection principle, surveyed the road surface energy that diffuses, do not needed the Polarization Detection components and parts of complex and expensive.
3, by reflected optical power-angular spectrum, judge the meteorology on road surface, rather than the energy of reflection light under special angle, accuracy in detection greatly improved.
4, adopt single long wavelength semiconductor laser as light source, cheap.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is schematic diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is reflected optical power-angular spectrum of embodiment mono-, and that three theoretical curves in figure correspond respectively to is dry, the moist and three kinds of states that freeze.
From figure, we can see, in ranges of incidence angles (0-8 °), the reflected optical power under moist and icing two states sharply declines with the increase of incident angle.But under dampness, the fall off rate of reflected optical power is slightly larger than icing state.By contrast, the not significant variation within the scope of 0-8 ° of the reflected optical power value under drying regime.It is interval that ranges of incidence angles that can 0-8 ° is divided into following four judgements:
1.0.9 ° > θ >0 °, P (humidity) >P (freezing) >P (being dried);
2.1.8 ° > θ >0.9 °, P> (freezing) P (humidity) >P (being dried);
3.3.4 >1.8 ° of P of ° > θ (freezing) >P (being dried) >P (humidity);
4.5.3 >3.4 ° of P of ° > θ (being dried) >P (freezing) >P (humidity);
Wherein θ represents incident angle, and P represents reflected optical power value.
Fig. 3 is the reflection luminous power ?angular spectrum of embodiment bis-, three corresponding dry, moist and three kinds of states that freeze of curve difference in way.
Similar with Fig. 2, reflected optical power moist and icing two states sharply declines with the increase of incident angle.But under dampness, the fall off rate of reflected optical power is slightly larger than icing state.Reflected optical power value under drying regime not significant variation within the scope of 0-8 ° by contrast.The ranges of incidence angles of 0-8 ° can be divided into following four judgements interval:
1.1.4 ° > θ >0 °, P (humidity) >P (freezing) >P (being dried);
2.2.8 ° > θ >1.4 °, P> (freezing) P (humidity) >P (being dried);
3.4.4 >2.8 ° of P of ° > θ (freezing) >P (being dried) >P (humidity);
4.7.3 >4.4 ° of P of ° > θ (being dried) >P (freezing) >P (humidity);
Wherein θ represents incident angle, and P represents reflected optical power value.
Fig. 4 is structure principle chart of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is the structural representation of embodiment mono-.
Fig. 6 is the structural representation of embodiment bis-.
Embodiment
The present invention mainly comprises semiconductor laser, photodetector, beam expanding lens, signal amplifier and data acquisition and analysis system.As shown in Figure 1, the light sending from semiconductor laser 1 is exported by beam expanding lens 2, is radiated on road surface, forms a relatively large hot spot.Photodetector 3 receives road reflection luminous energy, and light signal is converted to electric signal, then through signal amplifier 4, enters data acquisition system (DAS) 5 and carries out data processing.When the incident angle of light source changes, the energy of the road surface diffuse reflection light wave that detector receives also changes thereupon, take laser incident angle as horizontal ordinate, and detector received optical power is ordinate, can draw out " reflected optical power-angular spectrum " on road surface, as shown in Figure 2.
When road surface is dried, surfaceness is larger, and dry pavement can be regarded is Ideal Diffuse Reflection body, surface reflection is followed lambert's cosine law, and in the ranges of incidence angles of 0-8 °, reflected optical power value changes smaller, negligible, approximate think straight line, as shown in Figure 2.
Road surface is moist or when icing, change has all occurred for surface topography and medium, and " reflective power-angular spectrum " also can change.Wherein:
For moist road surface, moisture has been clogged the gap on road surface, so the roughness ratio dry pavement on moist road surface is little, it is no longer Ideal Diffuse Reflection body, moist road surface is thought of as to the set of the smooth bin of inclination angle stochastic distribution, use principle in geometrical optics can analytical calculation reflected optical power with the variation of incident angle, i.e. " reflected optical power-angular spectrum ".Result of calculation and experimental data demonstration, the reflected optical power on moist road surface is obvious with the variation of incident angle, and the shape of its " reflected optical power-angular spectrum " is different from dry pavement completely, as shown in Figure 2.
For freezing road surface, because icing process can produce specific texture at ice face, its roughness is between moist road surface and dry pavement, so its " reflected optical power-angular spectrum " had both been different from moist road surface and is also different from dry pavement.Fig. 2 has also shown " the utilizing emitted light power-angular spectrum " on the freezing road surface that data calculate, and calculates method used and moist road surface is similar.
In sum, according to the shape facility of " reflected optical power-angular spectrum ", just can judge the meteorology on three kinds of road surfaces.
In the present invention, in order to guarantee that search coverage does not change when incident angle changes, designed following method and apparatus:
As shown in Figure 3: take search coverage center as initial point o, crossing initial point o optional one surface perpendicular to road surface is principal plane.On principal plane, according to actual conditions, determine that a suitable distance is as radius r, the initial point o of take draws circular arc as the center of circle, according to the shape of circular arc, make guide rail 6, and guide rail 6 is the shift position curve of beam expanding lens 2.Make beam expanding lens point to all the time initial point o, change the position of beam expanding lens on arc guide rail 6 simultaneously, change the incident angle of laser.
Embodiment mono-
As shown in Figure 4, beam expanding lens 2 and detector 3 ice rafts are fixed together, keeping parallelism.To both be arranged on guide rail 6 again.In this embodiment, the incident angle of light wave is identical with detector acceptance angle degree.Beam expanding lens 2 and detector 3 move on guide rail 6, and the incident angle of laser and the receiving angle of detector together change thereupon.Measure reflected optical power-angular spectrum, according to the feature of spectral line, determine the meteorology on road surface.
Embodiment bis-
As shown in Figure 5, in this embodiment, beam expanding lens 2 is separated with detector 3, and detector is fixed on road surface method line position, receives the reflected optical power of forward.Beam expanding lens moves on guide rail 6, and the incident angle of laser changes thereupon.Measure reflected optical power-angular spectrum, according to the feature of spectral line, determine the meteorology on road surface.

Claims (7)

1. a non-contact road surface meteorology sensor, is characterized in that: the arc-shaped guide rail that comprises laser instrument, data acquisition and analysis system and be positioned at top, road surface to be measured, is provided with beam expanding lens and photodetector on described arc-shaped guide rail; The light that laser instrument sends is radiated on road surface to be measured by beam expanding lens, and photodetector receives the road surface energy that diffuses, and light signal is converted to electric signal and sends into data acquisition and analysis system;
Described beam expanding lens can move along arc-shaped guide rail, or beam expanding lens also can move along arc-shaped guide rail relative to fixing together with photodetector.
2. non-contact road surface meteorology sensor according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described photodetector is fixed on road surface method line position all the time, and beam expanding lens can move along arc-shaped guide rail.
3. non-contact road surface meteorology sensor according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described beam expanding lens be fixed together with photodetector and can together with along arc-shaped guide rail, move, both are parallel to each other by place optical axis; If the spacing of beam expanding lens and photodetector is d, beam expanding lens and photodetector integral body are as probe assembly, and the distance between this probe assembly and irradiation area center, road surface is r, should guarantee r/d>100.
4. non-contact road surface meteorology sensor according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the light that described laser instrument sends is coupled and is exported to beam expanding lens by multimode optical fiber.
5. non-contact road surface meteorology sensor according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described laser instrument is semiconductor laser.
6. non-contact road surface meteorology sensor according to claim 5, is characterized in that: described laser instrument is single long wavelength semiconductor laser.
7. the application process of non-contact road surface meteorology sensor claimed in claim 1, comprising:
Open laser instrument, send the light of firm power, by beam expanding lens, be radiated on road surface to be measured;
Guarantee in the constant situation in irradiation area center, controlling beam expanding lens moves along arc-shaped guide rail, mobile total kilometres are π r/18, incident angle variation range be 0 ?10 °, photodetector records the energy send into data acquisition and analysis system of diffusing corresponding to different incidence angles in real time; Complete and set after stroke, data acquisition and analysis system be take beam expanding lens incident angle as horizontal ordinate, and the luminous power of the corresponding reception of detector is ordinate, draws a curve, obtains reflecting luminous power ?angular spectrum;
According to described reflected optical power-angular spectrum, judge the meteorology on road surface to be measured.
CN201410288992.2A 2014-06-24 2014-06-24 Non-contact pavement weather condition sensor and application method thereof CN104062268A (en)

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Cited By (5)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106781230A (en) * 2017-01-13 2017-05-31 常州因特力交通科技有限公司 Highway based on infrared spectrum technology freezes and detects and early warning system and its method
CN107784261A (en) * 2016-08-31 2018-03-09 北京万集科技股份有限公司 A kind of pavement state detection method and device
CN108151799A (en) * 2017-12-05 2018-06-12 中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院 A kind of contactless road surface state monitoring device of multispectral multi-angle and method
CN109434275A (en) * 2018-09-27 2019-03-08 广东工业大学 A kind of transparent material surface laser processing auxilary focusing method
CN110108655A (en) * 2019-05-23 2019-08-09 桂林电子科技大学 A kind of pavement of road state testing method and detection system

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107784261B (en) * 2016-08-31 2020-04-28 北京万集科技股份有限公司 Road surface state detection method and device
CN107784261A (en) * 2016-08-31 2018-03-09 北京万集科技股份有限公司 A kind of pavement state detection method and device
CN106781230B (en) * 2017-01-13 2019-06-21 常州因特力交通科技有限公司 Highway based on infrared spectrum technology, which freezes, to be detected and early warning system and its method
CN106781230A (en) * 2017-01-13 2017-05-31 常州因特力交通科技有限公司 Highway based on infrared spectrum technology freezes and detects and early warning system and its method
CN108151799A (en) * 2017-12-05 2018-06-12 中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院 A kind of contactless road surface state monitoring device of multispectral multi-angle and method
CN109434275A (en) * 2018-09-27 2019-03-08 广东工业大学 A kind of transparent material surface laser processing auxilary focusing method
CN110108655A (en) * 2019-05-23 2019-08-09 桂林电子科技大学 A kind of pavement of road state testing method and detection system

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Application publication date: 20140924