CN104061899B  A kind of vehicle side inclination angle based on Kalman filtering and angle of pitch method of estimation  Google Patents
A kind of vehicle side inclination angle based on Kalman filtering and angle of pitch method of estimation Download PDFInfo
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 CN104061899B CN104061899B CN201410281621.1A CN201410281621A CN104061899B CN 104061899 B CN104061899 B CN 104061899B CN 201410281621 A CN201410281621 A CN 201410281621A CN 104061899 B CN104061899 B CN 104061899B
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 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01C—MEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
 G01C1/00—Measuring angles

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01C—MEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
 G01C9/00—Measuring inclination, e.g. by clinometers, by levels
Abstract
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of vehicle side inclination angle based on Kalman filtering and angle of pitch method of estimation, its object is to, for Integrated Navigation for Land Vehicle and location provide high precision, low cost, high realtime, vehicle attitude angular estimation applied widely, belong to bus location navigation field.
Background technology
Intelligent transportation system (IntelligentTransportationSystems, ITS) is day by day subject to the attention of the developed countries such as Europe, Japan, the U.S. and becomes its study hotspot.Development intelligent vehicle and the autonomous driving system of vehicle are realize safety, the efficiently autonomous optimal selection travelled by improving the scheme of vehicle self intelligence.An important foundation of development intelligent transportation system is Realtime Obtaining vehicle locating information accurately and reliably.In order to make up GPS at antenna by the deficiency that cannot position when blocking, development GPS/INS integrated navigation system receives the extensive concern of Chinese scholars.
Due to the existence of the road vertical and horizontal gradient and the motion of vehicle suspension, cause land fourwheel car can there is certain side rake angle and the angle of pitch in the process of moving, its value is general less, negligible under many circumstances.But in GPS/INS integrated navigation system, side rake angle and the angle of pitch are the key parameters carrying out dead reckoning, can not be ignored.This be due to land fourwheel car in the process of moving, the acceleration of vehicle is generally much smaller than acceleration of gravity, less side rake angle and the angle of pitch will be caused so also to produce larger error when measuring vertical and horizontal acceleration, and the accumulation in time of these errors can cause producing larger error when reckoning speed and positional information.So, accurately realtime measurement is carried out to the attitude angle such as side rake angle and the angle of pitch or estimation is the basis of carrying out highprecision GPS/INS integrated navigation and location.
At present, based on the strapdown navigation technology of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, InertialMeasurementUnit) developed very ripe.An IMU generally contains the accelerometer of three single shafts and the gyro of three single shafts, and this also causes its price comparison expensive, particularly three gyrostatic prices.Patent " a kind of vehicle side inclination angle based on recurrence least square and angle of pitch method of estimation " (publication number: CN103625475A) proposes a kind of vehicle attitude angle evaluation method based on low cost MEMS (MicroElectroMechanicSystem, MEMS (micro electro mechanical system)) sensor.The method only needs two MEMS acceleration transducers, and a MEMS gyro instrument and vehicle speed sensor can complete the estimation of vehicle side inclination angle and the angle of pitch.But the method only considers the operating mode that road surface cross fall rate and head fall rate are less than 20%, and now the angle of pitch and side rake angle are all less, approximate process so have employed in estimation procedure.But under complicated road environment, cross fall rate and the head fall rate on road surface may reach 30%.On the special road section of some proving grounds, cross fall rate and the head fall rate on road surface even can reach 55%.In these situations, the angle of pitch and side rake angle are comparatively large, and can not carry out approximating process, said method can be restricted in actual application.
In order to solve abovementioned technology deficiency in the application, patent of the present invention proposes a kind of vehicle pitch rate based on Kalman filtering and side rake angle evaluation method.Kalman filter take Minimum Mean Square Error as the optimal State Estimation wave filter of criterion, it does not need to store measured value in the past, only carry out recurrence calculation according to the estimated value of current observed reading and previous moment, just can realize the estimation to live signal, have the advantages that memory data output is little, algorithm is easy.The inventive method may be used under complex working condition, estimate larger angle the angle of pitch and side rake angle, and the scope of application is wider, for automobile navigation location provides one more reliable attitude angle evaluation method.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of vehicle side inclination angle based on Kalman filtering and angle of pitch method of estimation are proposed, the method precision is high, cost is low, realtime is good, applied widely, can meet the application demand of vehicle under complex environment.
The technical solution used in the present invention is as follows: a kind of vehicle side inclination angle based on Kalman filtering and angle of pitch method of estimation, it is characterized in that: the present invention is directed to land locomotion fourwheel car, set up the system motion model meeting its travelling characteristic, further by Kalman filtering algorithm realize to vehicle side inclination angle and the angle of pitch realtime, accurately estimate, may be used under complicated road environment, estimate larger angle the angle of pitch and side rake angle, and only needing low cost vehiclemounted sensor, cost is lower.Concrete steps comprise:
1) the system motion model of vehicle traveling process is set up.
Ignore earth rotation speed, suppose that the rate of pitch of vehicle, roll velocity and vertical velocity are zero, then can set up the kinetics equation of vehicle travel process:
In formula (1), v _{x}, v _{y}represent longitudinal velocity and the transverse velocity of vehicle respectively, a _{x}, a _{y}represent longitudinal acceleration and the transverse acceleration of vehicle respectively, ω _{z}represent the yaw velocity of vehicle, the definition of abovementioned variable all defines in bodywork reference frame, and g represents acceleration of gravity, and φ, θ represent side rake angle and the angle of pitch of vehicle respectively, and upper mark " " represents differential, as represent v _{x}differential.
By (1) Shi Ke get
In formula (2), the differential of longitudinal speed of a motor vehicle obtains time differentiate by longitudinal speed of a motor vehicle.
Consider in normal vehicle operation process, v _{y}with numerical value all less, thus can ignore, then formula (2) can be reduced to:
2) state equation and the observation equation of Kalman filtering is set up.
The matrix form of the Kalman filtering state equation after discretize is:
In formula (4), k represents the discretize moment; System state vector is X=[x
_{1}x
_{2}] ' and x
_{1}=θ, x
_{2}=φ, i.e. X=[θ φ] ', superscript in the present invention ' represent matrix transpose; W (k1) represent zeromean system white Gaussian noise vector and W=[w
_{1}w
_{2}] ', be w wherein
_{1}, w
_{2}represent two system white Gaussian noise components respectively, the system noise covariance battle array Q (k1) that W (k1) is corresponding is:
The matrix form of Kalman filtering observation equation discretize is:
Z(k)＝H(k)·X(k)+V(k)(5)
In formula (5), Z is observation vector, and H is observation battle array, and V represents that white noise vector observed by mutual incoherent zeromean with W.Because observation vector and state vector all refer to side rake angle and the angle of pitch, so
In formula (6), a _{x_m}, a _{y_m}with ω _{z_m}represent respectively and utilize low cost MEMS (MicroElectroMechanicSystem, MEMS (micro electro mechanical system)) longitudinal acceleration, transverse acceleration and yaw velocity measured by sensor, v _{x_m}represent the vehicular longitudinal velocity obtained by vehicle speed sensor, represent v _{x_m}differential, the longitudinal speed signal measured by vehicle speed sensor obtains time differentiate, namely at each discrete instants k, has:
In formula (7), dt represents sampling time interval, in the present invention, and dt=0.01 (second);
represent by formula (6) calculate obtain vehicle pitch rate observation noise and
be average be 0, variance is
white Gaussian noise,
represent through type (6) calculate obtain vehicle side inclination angle observation noise and
be average be 0, variance is
white Gaussian noise; The observation noise variance matrix R that V is corresponding can be expressed as
3) required onboard sensor is installed
From formula (6), only need record the longitudinal velocity of vehicle, longitudinal acceleration, transverse acceleration and yaw velocity, the observed quantity needed for Kalman filtering observation equation can be obtained, thus utilize Kalman filtering recursive algorithm to estimate the angle of pitch and the side rake angle of vehicle; Therefore, only need two low cost MEMS acceleration transducers, a low cost MEMS gyro instrument and vehicle speed sensor can meet measurement requirement;
Wherein two low cost MEMS acceleration transducers are installed near vehicle centroid position, one along the bodywork reference frame longitudinal axis, in order to measure longitudinal acceleration, one along bodywork reference frame transverse axis, in order to measure transverse acceleration.Low cost MEMS gyro instrument is also installed near vehicle centroid position, installs, in order to measure yaw velocity along the vertical axle of bodywork reference frame.Vehicle speed sensor is for measuring longitudinal speed of a motor vehicle, and the sensor such as Hall element or photoelectric code disk all can adopt, and does not limit at this, but requires that vehicle speed measurement trueness error is less than 0.05 meter per second.After recording longitudinal vehicle speed signal, try to achieve its differential, for calculating observation amount according to formula (7);
4) Kalman filtering recursion:
For the system state equation described by formula (4) and formula (5) and measurement equation, use kalman filtering theory, set up standard filtering recursive process below, this recursive process comprises time renewal and measurement updaue, the first two steps of recursive process are upgrade the time below, and remaining three steps are measurement updaue:
Time upgrades:
State onestep prediction equation
Onestep prediction error covariance matrix
Measurement updaue:
Filter gain matrix K (k)=P (k, k1) H ^{t}(k) [H (k) P (k, k1) H ' (k)+R (k)] ^{1}
State estimation
Estimation error variance battle array P (k)=[IK (k) H (k)] P (k, k1)
After abovementioned recurrence calculation, vehicle can be estimated in real time at the side rake angle of each discrete instants k and the angle of pitch.
Advantage of the present invention and remarkable result:
(1) method of estimation that the present invention proposes can estimate vehicle side inclination angle and the angle of pitch of larger angle, while guarantee estimation precision, meets the application demand under complex working condition;
(2) the present invention carries out Rational Simplification to vehicle dynamic model according to the vehicle feature that travels, thus set up system state equation and the observation equation of Kalman filtering, and utilizing Kalman filtering recursive algorithm to carry out the estimation of side rake angle and the angle of pitch, estimated result can meet precision and the requirement of realtime of practical application;
(3) sensor used in the present invention is low cost sensor, is convenient to largescale promotion.
Embodiment
Intelligent transportation system (IntelligentTransportationSystems, ITS) is day by day subject to the attention of the developed countries such as Europe, Japan, the U.S. and becomes its study hotspot.Development intelligent vehicle and the autonomous driving system of vehicle are realize safety, the efficiently autonomous optimal selection travelled by improving the scheme of vehicle self intelligence.An important foundation of development intelligent transportation system is Realtime Obtaining vehicle locating information accurately and reliably.In order to make up GPS at antenna by the deficiency that cannot position when blocking, development GPS/INS integrated navigation system receives the extensive concern of Chinese scholars.
Due to the existence of the road vertical and horizontal gradient and the motion of vehicle suspension, certain side rake angle and the angle of pitch can be there is in the process of moving in land fourwheel car, its value is general less, negligible under many circumstances, but but can not be ignored when carrying out the dead reckoning of GPS/INS integrated navigation.This is because land vehicle acceleration is in the process of moving generally much smaller than acceleration of gravity, to such an extent as to less side rake angle and the angle of pitch may cause producing larger error during measurement vertical and horizontal acceleration, the accumulation in time of these errors can cause producing larger error when reckoning speed and positional information.So measure accurately side rake angle and the angle of pitch or estimate to carry out the important leverage of GPS/INS integrated navigation, its accuracy is the key factor affecting vehicle location precision.
Be commonly used to determine that the method for the attitude angle such as side rake angle and angle of pitch information uses complete sextuple Inertial Measurement Unit IMU (InertialMeasurementUnit), this IMU comprises 3 accelerometers and 3 rateofturn gyroscopes, utilize the kinematic relation between IMU output quantity and the differential of angle information, and ignore earth rotation speed, dynamics of vehicle process can be modeled as [herein can list of references: H.EricTsenga, LiXu, DavorHrovat, Estimationoflandvehiclerollandpitchangles [J] .VehicleSystemDynamics:InternationalJournalofVehicleMech anicsandMobility, 2007, 45 (5): 433443.]:
In formula, ω _{x}, ω _{y}and ω _{z}represent the angular velocity around the bodywork reference frame longitudinal axis, transverse axis and vertical axle respectively, v _{x}, v _{y}and v _{z}represent the linear velocity along the bodywork reference frame longitudinal axis, transverse axis and vertical axle respectively, a _{x}, a _{y}and a _{z}represent the acceleration along the bodywork reference frame longitudinal axis, transverse axis and vertical axle respectively; φ, θ, and ψ represents inclination, pitching and yaw three Eulerian angle respectively; G represents acceleration of gravity; Upper mark " " represents differential, as represent v _{x}differential.
The attitude angle information of vehicle can be tried to achieve by the navigation computation of sextuple IMU, and this has and relates in a large amount of vehicle location document.But sextuple IMU is expensive, particularly three gyrostatic prices.Although the measuring accuracy of MEMS (MicroElectroMechanicSystem, MEMS (micro electro mechanical system)) sensor is lower compared to traditional sensors, because it has the low outstanding feature of cost, its application is still more and more extensive.Namely the present invention studies how to use as far as possible few MEMS sensor and side rake angle and the angle of pitch of accurately estimating vehicle in conjunction with data processing method, to overcome the low shortcoming of MEMS sensor precision.Meanwhile, few sensor also can reduce costs further as far as possible.The data processing method used also to ensure to the side rake angle of wideangle and the angle of pitch applicable equally, to meet the application demand under complex working condition.
By formula (1), can finding out to estimate side rake angle and the angle of pitch, not needing yaw angle information ψ.Meanwhile, because the side rake angle of vehicle and the angle of pitch are all slowly change continuously, its corresponding magnitude of angular velocity is less, and vehicle vertical velocity is general also less, can ignore.Therefore, ω reasonably can be thought _{x}≈ 0, ω _{y}≈ 0, ν _{z}≈ 0.Then formula (1) and (2) can be reduced to:
Known according to formula (3), if the known and yaw velocity of vehicle of the original state of vehicle can obtain, then the side rake angle of vehicle and the angle of pitch can be tried to achieve by integration method.But in fact, direct integation method, due to sensor error and inevitable numerical operation error, can cause larger drift, particularly when using the MEMS sensor of low cost.Therefore, the present invention does not adopt direct integation method, but utilizes formula (4) to propose a kind of vehicle side inclination angle based on Kalman filtering algorithm and angle of pitch method of estimation.Kalman filter take Minimum Mean Square Error as the optimal State Estimation wave filter of criterion, it does not need to store measured value in the past, only carry out recurrence calculation according to the estimated value of current observed reading and previous moment, just can realize the estimation to live signal, have the advantages that memory data output is little, algorithm is easy.
By (4) Shi Ke get
In formula (5), the differential of longitudinal speed of a motor vehicle obtains time differentiate by longitudinal speed of a motor vehicle, considers in normal vehicle operation, v _{y}with numerical value is less, thus can ignore, then formula (5) can be reduced to:
The vertical and horizontal gradient on road surface is the principal element affecting vehicle side inclination angle and the angle of pitch, and the vertical and horizontal gradient is larger, and side rake angle and the angle of pitch are also larger.The vertical and horizontal gradient of general road is all less, carries out side rake angle and the angle of pitch when solving, can carry out approximating process, that is:
But consider under complicated road environment, cross fall rate and the head fall rate on road surface may reach 30%.On some special road sections of proving ground, cross fall rate and the head fall rate on road surface even can reach 55%.In these situations, side rake angle and the angle of pitch are all comparatively large, when solving arcsin computing, can not carry out approximating process.This patent considers application demand under complex working condition exactly, under the prerequisite of not carrying out approximating process, carry out Kalman filtering reckoning.Set up state equation and the observation equation of Kalman filtering below.
The matrix form of the Kalman filtering state equation after discretize is:
In formula (8), k represents the discretize moment; System state vector is X=[x
_{1}x
_{2}] ' and x
_{1}=θ, x
_{2}=φ, i.e. X=[θ φ] ', superscript in the present invention ' represent matrix transpose; W (k1) represent zeromean system white Gaussian noise vector and W=[w
_{1}w
_{2}] ', be w wherein
_{1}, w
_{2}represent two system white Gaussian noise components respectively, the system noise covariance battle array Q (k1) that W (k1) is corresponding is
The matrix form of Kalman filtering observation equation discretize is:
Z(k)＝H(k)·X(k)+V(k)(9)
In formula (9), Z is observation vector, and H is observation battle array, and V represents that white noise vector observed by mutual incoherent zeromean with W.Because observation vector and state vector all refer to side rake angle and the angle of pitch, so
In formula (9), a _{x_m}, a _{y_m}with ω _{z_m}represent the longitudinal acceleration, transverse acceleration and the yaw velocity that utilize measured by low cost MEMS sensor respectively, v _{x_m}represent the vehicular longitudinal velocity obtained by vehicle speed sensor, represent v _{x_m}differential, the longitudinal speed signal measured by vehicle speed sensor obtains time differentiate, namely at each discrete instants k, has:
In formula (11), dt represents sampling time interval, in the present invention, and dt=0.01 (second);
represent by formula (10) calculate obtain vehicle pitch rate observation noise and
be average be 0, variance is
white Gaussian noise,
represent through type (10) calculate obtain vehicle side inclination angle observation noise and
be average be 0, variance is
white Gaussian noise; The observation noise variance matrix R that V is corresponding can be expressed as
From formula (10), only need record the longitudinal velocity of vehicle, longitudinal acceleration, transverse acceleration and yaw velocity, the observed quantity needed for Kalman filtering observation equation can be obtained, thus utilize Kalman filtering recursive algorithm to estimate the angle of pitch and the side rake angle of vehicle.Therefore, only need two low cost MEMS acceleration transducers, a low cost MEMS gyro instrument and vehicle speed sensor can meet measurement requirement.
Wherein two low cost MEMS acceleration transducers are installed near vehicle centroid position, one along the bodywork reference frame longitudinal axis, in order to measure longitudinal acceleration, one along bodywork reference frame transverse axis, in order to measure transverse acceleration, low cost MEMS gyro instrument is also installed near vehicle centroid position, install along the vertical axle of bodywork reference frame, in order to measure yaw velocity, vehicle speed sensor is for measuring longitudinal speed of a motor vehicle, the sensor such as Hall element or photoelectric code disk all can adopt, do not limit at this, but require that vehicle speed measurement trueness error is less than 0.05 meter per second, after recording longitudinal vehicle speed signal, according to formula (11), differentiate is carried out to it and can obtain its differential,
In fact, control or yaw stabilizing control system if vehicle is provided with electronic stability, then these information can be obtained by the CAN of vehicle (ControllerAreaNetwork, controller local area network) bus.
For the system state equation described by formula (8) and formula (9) and measurement equation, use kalman filtering theory, set up standard filtering recursive process below, this recursive process comprises time renewal and measurement updaue, the first two steps of recursive process are upgrade the time below, and remaining three steps are measurement updaue:
Time upgrades:
State onestep prediction equation
Onestep prediction error covariance matrix
Measurement updaue:
Filter gain matrix K (k)=P (k, k1) H ^{t}(k) [H (k) P (k, k1) H ' (k)+R (k)] ^{1}
State estimation
Estimation error variance battle array P (k)=[IK (k) H (k)] P (k, k1)
After abovementioned recurrence calculation, vehicle can be estimated in real time at the side rake angle of each discrete instants k and the angle of pitch.
In the process that abovementioned whole side rake angle and the angle of pitch are estimated, this patent utilizes formula (6) but not formula (7) carries out the estimation of side rake angle and the angle of pitch, and what namely do not adopt side rake angle and the angle of pitch approximates process.Such one side can ensure the precision estimated, makes the inventive method estimate same being suitable for for the side rake angle of wideangle with the angle of pitch on the other hand, meets the application demand under complex working condition.The inventive method provides a kind of high precision, low cost, high realtime, vehicle attitude angular estimation method applied widely for Integrated Navigation for Land Vehicle and positioning field.
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CN106156481A (en) *  20151216  20161123  东南大学  A kind of method for estimating attitude angles of rescuing and obstacleclearing vehicle based on lossless Kalman filtering 
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