CN104057204B - The self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate - Google Patents

The self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104057204B
CN104057204B CN201410258257.7A CN201410258257A CN104057204B CN 104057204 B CN104057204 B CN 104057204B CN 201410258257 A CN201410258257 A CN 201410258257A CN 104057204 B CN104057204 B CN 104057204B
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China
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welding
groove
wire filling
thin plate
strength steel
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CN201410258257.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104057204A (en
Inventor
张轲
施可扬
唐新华
王欢
黄坚
陈永亮
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上海交通大学
沪东中华造船(集团)有限公司
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Publication of CN104057204B publication Critical patent/CN104057204B/en

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/20Bonding
    • B23K26/21Bonding by welding
    • B23K26/24Seam welding
    • B23K26/26Seam welding of rectilinear seams
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K2101/00Articles made by soldering, welding or cutting
    • B23K2101/18Sheet panels

Abstract

The invention provides a kind of self adaptation welding method of wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate; Comprise: step 1, technological experiment is carried out to high-strength steel thin plate, set up the process parameter models of welding wire filling area, upper groove width; Step 2, in welding process, based on the welding wire filling area of the current groove of laser vision sensor Real-time Obtaining, groove width; Step 3, filling area, groove width and process parameter models according to described current groove, real-time adjusting process parameter, realizes the Self Adaptive Control of welding process.The expert database that the present invention passes through specific material, groove type is set up or technological mathematical model, based on the groove filling area of laser vision sensor Real-time Obtaining, realize the self-adaptative adjustment of technological parameter in welding process, ensure that stability and the uniformity of welding quality, improve welding efficiency, decrease weld defect, there is very high practical value, as aviation, space flight, in the welding process of the large-scale thin-plate element such as nuclear power.

Description

The self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate
Technical field
The present invention relates to high-accuracy automatic welding technique, especially the self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate.
Background technology
Along with development and the aviation of solder technology, space flight, shipbuilding, the industry-by-industries such as electric power station, to Product jointing high-quality, raise the efficiency the pursuit reducing labor strength, and employing automatic welding technique is an inevitable trend.
And for large-scale component, 1) because the size of workpiece is comparatively large, so install location comparatively difficulty, this is just unavoidable is there is certain position deviation in assembling, thus cause misalignment, groove gap irregular; 2) limit by part processing precision, be also difficult to the uniformity and the repeatability that ensure whole piece weld groove size; 3) in welding process because heat input and the effect of stress thereof make workpiece produce distortion, cause the change of joint location and size.
Relevant existing literature content: paper " the aluminium alloy self adaptation based on laser vision sensor is welded " (Beijing University of Technology's journal, the 8th phase in 2006) proposes a kind of self adaptation welding method for the tungsten level argon arc welding of aluminium alloy.(the 5th application of national computer in welding is academic with exchange of technology meeting paper collection for paper " laser-vision sensing TIG weld self adaptation fill with control system ", on October 29th, 2008, Nanning), also propose a kind of adaptive welding method for the argon arc welding of tungsten level.
In the automatic welding method of routine, be generally by human eye Real Time Observation in welding process, the situation according to welding carries out to welding current, voltage or wire feed rate stability and the uniformity that real-time manual setting ensures welding quality.But such adjustment difficulty is large, requires high to the technical merit of welder, be also difficult to the uniformity of the welding quality ensureing whole product.If can automatically according to the adjustment welding condition that the situation of change of groove is automatically real-time in welding process, undoubtedly to guarantee product quality, reduce weld defect, the operation easier reducing workman very has practical significance.
In order to solve the deficiencies in the prior art, the invention provides a kind of self adaptation welding method of wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate.Be intended to solve due to the difficult problem that workpiece welding groove change width uncertainty is brought in robot welding production process, reduce Fixture Design difficulty, the raising accuracy of manufacture, also improves the intellectuality of robot automation's streamline, flexibility degree simultaneously.
Through analyzing prior art literature search, find the self adaptation welding method application that there is no the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate.
Summary of the invention
For defect of the prior art, the object of this invention is to provide the self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate.
The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
The invention provides a kind of self adaptation welding method of wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate, described method comprises the steps:
Step 1, carries out technological experiment to high-strength steel thin plate, sets up the process parameter models of welding wire filling area;
Step 2, in welding process, based on welding wire filling area, the groove width of the current groove of laser vision sensor Real-time Obtaining;
Step 3, welding wire filling area, groove width and process parameter models according to described current groove, real-time adjusting process parameter, realizes the Self Adaptive Control of welding process.
Preferably, in step 1, described high-strength steel thin plate is specially the thickness that wire filling laser welding energy can be adopted once-forming, high-strength steel thin plate refers to the material thickness adopting a 10kw optical-fiber laser energy through welding herein, concrete material thickness is 3-8mm, but different according to material, is not limited only to this scope.
Preferably, in step 1, the process parameter models of described welding wire filling area is specially welding wire filling area, mathematic(al) representation between weld width and height, speed of welding, laser power, wire feed rate technological parameter or expert database, tested by welding procedure and set up welding wire filling area in the mode of relationship, weld width or height with laser power, wire feed rate and speed of welding before corresponding relation; So-called expert database is exactly tested by welding procedure to set up welding wire filling area in the mode of form, weld width and height and laser power, corresponding relation between wire feed rate and speed of welding.
Preferably, in step 1, the process parameter models of described welding wire filling area is also that wire feed angle, gas ingredients, flow, defocusing amount remain unchanged, this place is the qualifications of self adaptation welding method, because the factor affecting welding quality is a lot, but mainly laser power, speed of welding and wire feed rate.So, for convenience of FEEDBACK CONTROL, other parameter constant of the maintenance of trying one's best.
Preferably, in step 2, the welding wire filling area of described current groove specifically extracts different groove features, then the welding wire filling area of current groove is obtained, be in particular by vision sensor according to the corresponding groove characteristic point of different groove type-collections, obtain the coordinate value of characteristic point, then in conjunction with the geometry of groove by calculating the area needing filler wire of current groove.
Preferably, described groove is I type groove, double V-groove, U-shaped groove or Y type groove etc.
Preferably, in step 3, described adjusting process parameter be specially based on the relationship between welding wire filling area and technological parameter solve obtain or according to the expert database set up in advance by table look-up or the real-time inference of intelligent control method obtains.
Preferably, in step 3, described Self Adaptive Control specifically refers to the change according to current groove, real-time adjustment laser power, speed of welding, wire feed rate technological parameter, be specially: based on welding wire filling area, weld width and the relationship between weld bead height and technological parameter, according to the change of current groove area in welding process, corresponding laser power is obtained, the technological parameter such as laser scanning speed, wire feed rate, thus the real-time adjustment realizing laser power, speed of welding and wire feed rate by solving equation or the method for tabling look-up.
Compared with prior art, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
(1) the present invention passes through for specific material, the expert database that specific groove type is set up or technological mathematical model, based on the groove filling area of laser vision sensor Real-time Obtaining, thus realize the self-adaptative adjustment of technological parameter in welding process, effectively ensure that stability and the uniformity of welding quality, improve welding efficiency, decrease weld defect, there is very high practical value, special at some as aviation, space flight, in the welding process of the large-scale thin-plate element such as nuclear power.
(2) the present invention adopts wire filling laser welding to be adopt the very high laser of energy density as thermal source, in the process of laser scanning, filler wire is carried out to groove simultaneously, the energy density of existing laser weld is high, heat input is little, speed of welding is high, welding quality and workpiece deformation little, have again arc-welding to the good feature of the adaptability of groove, be the new welding method recently just starting gradually to be applied.Adopt different welding heat source, silk filling method, at heat source characteristic, welding condition, modeling method etc. all have the different of essence from tungsten level argon arc welding (TIG welds).
Accompanying drawing explanation
By reading the detailed description done non-limiting example with reference to the following drawings, other features, objects and advantages of the present invention will become more obvious:
Fig. 1 is wire filling laser welding Self Adaptive Control schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is that laser vision sensor of the present invention extracts groove feature schematic diagram.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is described in detail.Following examples will contribute to those skilled in the art and understand the present invention further, but not limit the present invention in any form.It should be pointed out that to those skilled in the art, without departing from the inventive concept of the premise, some distortion and improvement can also be made.These all belong to protection scope of the present invention.
embodiment 1
The present embodiment relates to a kind of self adaptation welding method of wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate, and described method comprises the steps:
The present embodiment adopts on the wire filling laser welding of 3mm marine high strength steel thin plate, and landfilling area Self Adaptive Control schematic diagram as shown in Figure 1.Wherein, 1 is high-strength steel sheet workpiece to be welded, 2 is the laser vision sensor based on triangulation principle, 3 is processor (image procossing of vision sensor and feature deriving means), 4 is master controller (master controller of self adaptation welding), 5 is wire feed controller (controlling the wire feed controller of wire feed rate), and 7 is the laser be irradiated in welding process on workpiece, and 8 is the welding wire of wire filling laser welding.
The first step, wire filling laser welding technological experiment is carried out to high-strength steel thin plate 1 (can adopt wire filling laser welding can be once-forming thickness), set up the groove filling area of wire filling laser welding, groove width and laser power, speed of welding, technological mathematical model between wire feed rate, this process modeling is stored in master controller 4 with function or the form of tabling look-up.
Second step, laser vision sensor 2 Real-time Collection bevel for welding image based on triangulation principle, the geometrical characteristic of current groove is obtained after processor 3 (image procossing of vision sensor and feature deriving means) image procossing and feature extraction, such as groove width, the degree of depth, gap, misalignment etc., thus the area obtaining the filling of current groove welding welding wire needs;
As shown in Figure 2, the characteristic point of double V-groove is 0,1,2,3,4,5, based on these 6 characteristic points, the width of groove can be obtained by processor 3 (image procossing of vision sensor and feature deriving means), the degree of depth, gap, the data such as misalignment, thus the filling area obtaining current groove.
The type of groove is not limited only to double V-groove, also can be I type groove, U-shaped groove, before welding process starts, should set the groove type of welding in processor 3 (image procossing of vision sensor and feature deriving means) in advance.In welding process, processor 3 (image procossing of vision sensor and feature deriving means) also can calculate the groove area needing to fill according to corresponding groove type-collection characteristic of correspondence point.
3rd step, master controller 4 are according to the actual filling area, groove width etc. of current groove, technological mathematical model based on first step foundation solves or tables look-up and obtains corresponding wire feed rate, the welding condition such as speed of welding, laser power, exported by master controller 4, thus realize the Self Adaptive Control of welding process.
As shown in Figure 2, the wire feed rate value that master controller 4 exports sends into the wire feed rate that wire feed controller (controlling the wire feed controller of wire feed rate) 5 regulates the welding wire of wire filling laser welding in real time, the laser power that master controller 4 exports sends into the output that laser controller 9 regulates laser power in real time, and the speed of welding value that master controller 4 exports sends into motion controller, regulate the speed of welding of wire filling laser welding in real time.
The present invention is in welding process, filling area, the groove width of the current groove of laser vision sensor Real-time Obtaining, master controller adjusts speed of welding in real time based on the welding wire filling area set up in advance and welding condition model, laser power, technological parameters such as wire feed rate thus realize the Self Adaptive Control of welding parameter, ensure stability and the uniformity of welding quality.This is for the precision welding of the long straight weld of large-sized structural parts, ensure stability and the uniformity of welding quality, raise the efficiency, reduce matching requirements and processing request, improve adaptability, reduce weld defect, and repair rate, this is for requiring that the important component of high-quality welding is particularly important, in shipbuilding, nuclear power, the fields such as electric power station have important actual application value.
Above specific embodiments of the invention are described.It is to be appreciated that the present invention is not limited to above-mentioned particular implementation, those skilled in the art can make various distortion or amendment within the scope of the claims, and this does not affect flesh and blood of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a self adaptation welding method for the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate, is characterized in that, described method comprises the steps:
Step 1, carries out technological experiment to high-strength steel thin plate, sets up the process parameter models of welding wire filling area;
Step 2, in welding process, based on welding wire filling area, the groove width of the current groove of laser vision sensor Real-time Obtaining;
Step 3, welding wire filling area, groove width and process parameter models according to described current groove, real-time adjusting process parameter, realizes the Self Adaptive Control of welding process;
In step 1, the process parameter models of described welding wire filling area is specially welding wire filling area, the mathematic(al) representation between weld width and height, speed of welding, laser power, wire feed rate technological parameter or expert database;
In step 1, the process parameter models of described welding wire filling area is also that wire feed angle, gas ingredients, flow, defocusing amount remain unchanged.
2. the self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, in step 1, described high-strength steel thin plate is specially the high-strength steel thin plate with the thickness that wire filling laser welding energy can be adopted once-forming.
3. the self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, in step 2, the welding wire filling area of described current groove specifically extracts different groove features, then obtains welding wire filling area, the groove width of current groove.
4. the self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate as claimed in claim 3, it is characterized in that, described groove is I type groove, double V-groove, U-shaped groove or Y type groove.
5. the self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, in step 3, described adjusting process parameter be specially based on the relationship between welding wire filling area and technological parameter solve obtain or according to the expert database set up in advance by table look-up or the real-time inference of intelligent control method obtains.
6. the self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, in step 3, described Self Adaptive Control specifically refers to the change according to current groove, real-time adjustment laser power, speed of welding, wire feed rate technological parameter.
CN201410258257.7A 2014-06-11 2014-06-11 The self adaptation welding method of the wire filling laser welding of high-strength steel thin plate CN104057204B (en)

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