CN104049038A - Ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method for composite material - Google Patents

Ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method for composite material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104049038A
CN104049038A CN201410276118.7A CN201410276118A CN104049038A CN 104049038 A CN104049038 A CN 104049038A CN 201410276118 A CN201410276118 A CN 201410276118A CN 104049038 A CN104049038 A CN 104049038A
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China
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acoustic emission
transducer
ultrasonic
detection
receiving
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CN201410276118.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
刘松平
刘菲菲
李乐刚
傅天航
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AVIC COMPOSITE Corp Ltd
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AVIC COMPOSITE Corp Ltd
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Priority to CN201410276118.7A priority Critical patent/CN104049038A/en
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Abstract

The invention relates to an ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method for a composite material. The method can detect internal defects of the composite material according to an acoustic emission signal excited by pulse ultrasonic waves in the composite material; an emission transducer and a receiving transducer adopt an asymmetric mode and two layouts such as a separation type and an integration type and are arranged on the same side or any side of a part of the composite material; the positions and the attitudes of the emission transducer and the receiving transducer are selected within 0-360 degrees, so that multi-channel ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection can be realized; defects can be judged and positioned according to a time domain feature of an acoustic emission signal in the detected composite material. According to the method, the composite material detection capability of ultrasonic-acoustic emission is greatly improved; the detection thickness is 50mm, and the detection sensitivity to the defects which have the diameters being phi3mm and are 0.13mm and 49mm deep is achieved; the ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection resolution, a surface detection blind area and the detection capacity are obviously improved.

Description

A kind of compound substance ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method
Technical field
The invention belongs to Dynamic Non-Destruction Measurement, relate to a kind of for the field compound substances such as Aeronautics and Astronautics, weapons, boats and ships, metallurgy, iron and steel, traffic, building ultrasonic-acoustic emission method.
Background technology
Ultrasonic is the important method that is widely used at present various materials and the quantitative Non-Destructive Testing of fault of construction thereof, in fields such as Aero-Space, weapons, electronics, boats and ships, metallurgy, petrochemical industry oil, traffic, buildings, be used widely, particularly, in field of compound material, current 80% composite structure has all adopted Ultrasonic Detection.For compound material ultrasound detection method, mainly contain reflectometry and through transmission technique at present, utilize external ultrasound pulse sound source, the reflection/transmission sound wave behavior forming in detected compound substance, carry out detection and the differentiation of defect, its main deficiency is: (1) is very responsive to defect orientation, along with the angle between defect orientation and the incident acoustic wave direction of propagation increases, the Detection capability of defect is significantly declined, and then easily cause undetected; (2) acoustic attenuation is violent, is difficult to realize the Non-Destructive Testing of the material that the acoustic attenuation such as large thickness compound substance and concrete dynamic modulus compound substance are violent.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of broad band ultrasonic pulsed sound that utilizes as excitation sound wave, by this excitation ultrasonic pulse and detected compound substance, interact, the acoustic emission behavior around producing in defect, by receiving the acoustic emission signal from compound substance and internal defects, realize the Non-Destructive Testing of compound substance, overcoming conventional ultrasound detection affected by defect orientation, easily cause undetected deficiency, solve the material that the acoustic attenuation such as large thickness compound substance and concrete dynamic modulus compound substance are violent Non-Destructive Testing compound substance ultrasonic-acoustic emission method.
Technical solution of the present invention is, the acoustic emission signal that the ultrasonic pulse sound wave that the method produces based on shock pulse excites in compound substance, realizes the detection of composite inner defect,
Piezoelectric sensor in the pulse excitation transmitting transducer excited by impact of ultrasound emission unit output, makes transmitting transducer produce excitation ultrasound wave, by transmitting transducer, to detected composite material parts transmitting, encourages ultrasound wave,
Piezoelectric sensor in receiving transducer receives the acoustic emission wave from detected composite material parts, through piezoelectric sensor, convert electric impulse signal to and export to acoustic emission receiving element, the frequency characteristic of piezoelectric sensor is determined according to the piezoelectric sensor frequency characteristic in transmitting transducer, the frequency characteristic of piezoelectric sensor and the frequency characteristic of sensing element are asymmetric mode
The frequency characteristic of acoustic emission receiving element and the Frequency Response Matching of the piezoelectric sensor in receiving transducer, the gain-adjusted scope of acoustic emission receiving element is 0-60dB, the output of acoustic emission receiving element is connected with signal display unit by high-frequency signal line, receiving transducer and transmitting transducer are placed in homonymy or any side of detected composite material parts, and the distance of receiving transducer and transmitting transducer is in the radius of 0-50mm.
The incoming position of described transmitting transducer and incident direction, different with testing requirement according to detected composite material parts feature, within the scope of 0-360 °, select incoming position and the incident direction of transmitting transducer.
The position of described receiving transducer and attitude, different with testing requirement according to detected composite material parts feature, the receiving angle of the relative transmitting transducer of selective reception transducer in 0-360 °, receives the acoustic emission signal from detected composite material parts inherent vice.
Described ultrasonic-transmitting transducer and the receiving transducer that use in acoustic emission detection method adopt the transmitting transducer of varying number and constituting of receiving transducer, realize the channel ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection of composite material parts.
Described ultrasonic-transmitting transducer that uses in acoustic emission detection method and receiving transducer adopt two kinds of separate type and integrated forms, realize different composite material parts ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection.
The frequency of described receiving transducer is the integral multiple of the frequency of transmitting transducer.
The frequency of described transmitting transducer is the integral multiple of the frequency of receiving transducer.
The transmitting transducer using in described detection method and receiving transducer are for hand-held or be arranged on automatic checkout equipment.
The advantage that the present invention has and beneficial effect, the present invention utilizes broad band ultrasonic pulsed sound as excitation sound wave, by this excitation ultrasonic pulse and detected compound substance, interact, the acoustic emission behavior around producing in defect, by receiving the acoustic emission signal from compound substance and internal defects, realize the Non-Destructive Testing to composite material parts.Owing to presenting circumferential distribution characteristics in defect acoustic emission signal around, receiving transducer either direction around defect can receive the acoustic emission signal from defect effectively, therefore, this method is insensitive to the direction of defect, thereby overcome conventional ultrasound orienting reflex/transmission detection method and be subject to the restriction of defect orientation, cause the low and undetected problem of detection sensitivity, and then improved widely defect detection ability and detecting reliability.
The present invention adopts wideband pulse ultrasonic as excitation signal, in composite inner, excite high-quality acoustic emission signal, frequency characteristic and the resolution of acoustic emission signal get a qualitative improvement, the time domain rule of signal is very clear, thereby has improved widely the accuracy of defect recognition and quantitative test.
Detection signal in the present invention is directly from defect acoustic emission signal around, acoustic emission source is directly from defect self, for detection of signal quality directly and Defect Correlation, reduce propagation sound path and the energy loss of sound wave in compound substance, and then significantly improved the detectability of large thickness compound substance and many spaces compound substance and high attenuation compound substance.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 be compound substance of the present invention ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 be the present invention detect compound substance ultrasonic-acoustic emission defect positioning method schematic diagram.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is elaborated.
Compound substance ultrasonic-an acoustic emission detection method, the acoustic emission signal that the ultrasonic pulse sound wave that the method produces based on shock pulse excites in compound substance, realizes the detection of composite inner defect, shown in Figure 1,
Sensing element 1A in the pulse excitation transmitting transducer 1 excited by impact of ultrasound emission unit 2 outputs, make transmitting transducer 1 produce excitation ultrasound wave 8, as shown in P1 in Fig. 1, by transmitting transducer 1, to detected composite material parts 6 transmittings, encourage ultrasound waves 8, while there is defect 7 in detected composite material parts 6, excitation ultrasound wave 8 interacts with defect 7, in defect 7, produce acoustic emission behavior around, form acoustic emission source, thereby in defect 7, form acoustic emission wave 9 around, this acoustic emission wave 9 is by E 1(t), E 2(t) ..., E i(t) ... E n(t) form, i=1,2 ..., n,
Piezoelectric sensor 3A in receiving transducer 3 receives the acoustic emission wave 9 from detected composite material parts 6, through piezoelectric sensor 3A, convert electric impulse signal to and export to acoustic emission receiving element 4, the frequency characteristic of piezoelectric sensor 3A is determined according to the sensing element 1A frequency characteristic in transmitting transducer 1, the frequency characteristic of the frequency characteristic of piezoelectric sensor 3A and sensing element 1A is asymmetric mode
The Frequency Response Matching of piezoelectric sensor 3A in the frequency characteristic of acoustic emission receiving element 4 and receiving transducer 3, the gain-adjusted scope of acoustic emission receiving element 4 is 0-60dB, the output of acoustic emission receiving element 4 is connected with signal display unit 5 by high-frequency signal line, by signal display unit 5, shows acoustic emission signal V d(t), receiving transducer 3 is placed in transmitting transducer 1 homonymy or any side that is detected composite material parts 6, and the distance of receiving transducer 3 and transmitting transducer 1 is in the radius of 0-50mm.
The incoming position of transmitting transducer 1 and incident direction, different with testing requirement according to detected composite material parts feature, within the scope of 0-360 °, select incoming position and the incident direction of transmitting transducer 1, as shown in Figure 1 P 1, P 2, P 3direction.
The position of receiving transducer 3 and attitude, different with testing requirement according to detected composite material parts feature, the receiving angle of selective reception transducer 3 relative transmitting transducers 1 in 0-360 °, receives the acoustic emission signal from detected composite material parts inherent vice.
The transmitting transducer 1 using in ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method and receiving transducer 3 adopt the transmitting transducer 1 of varying number and constituting of receiving transducer 3, realize the channel ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection of composite material parts.
The transmitting transducer 1 using in ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method and receiving transducer 3 adopts two kinds of separate types and integrated forms, realize different composite material parts ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection.
The frequency of receiving transducer is the integral multiple of the frequency of transmitting transducer.
The frequency of transmitting transducer is the integral multiple of the frequency of receiving transducer.
The transmitting transducer using in detection method and receiving transducer are for hand-held or be arranged on automatic checkout equipment.
Defect estimation in detection method: feature and the variation of the acoustic emission signal showing according to signal display unit 5, carry out the differentiation of defect, realize the Non-Destructive Testing to detected composite material parts 6,
1) differentiation of defect: while there is no defect in detected composite material parts, there is no acoustic emission wave E i(t), now, receiving transducer 3 does not receive acoustic emission wave E i(t), on the indicator screen in signal display unit 5, there will not be acoustic emission wave E i(t) corresponding pulse display signal; When detected composite material parts inside exists defect, can produce acoustic emission wave E around in defect i(t), now, receiving transducer 3 receives acoustic emission wave E i(t) on the indicator screen, and then in signal display unit 5, there will be acoustic emission wave E i(t) corresponding pulse display signal V d(t), according to V d(t) existence can be carried out the differentiation of defect,
2) depth of defect is determined: the depth H that detects defect is definite by (1) formula, and the horizontal level L of defect is definite by (2) formula, referring to Fig. 2,
H=(t 0-t D)×ν×sinθ??????????????(1)
L=(t 0-t D)×ν×cosθ??????????????(2)
Here, t 0the initial time that-acoustic emission signal receives, t d-from the acoustic emission wave 9E of defect i(t) travel-time, the acceptance angle of θ-receiving transducer 3, ν-velocity of sound.
The detecting step of compound material ultrasound-acoustic emission detection method is,
1. transmitting transducer 1 is connected with ultrasound emission unit 2 by high frequency connecting line, receiving transducer 3 is connected with acoustic emission receiving element 4 by high frequency connecting line; 2. acoustic emission receiving element is connected with signal display unit 5 by high frequency connecting line; 3. ultrasound emission unit 2 and signal display unit power on, and enter ultrasonic-acoustic emission operation window; 4. will be detected composite material component port surface brush wet, then transmitting transducer 1 and receiving transducer 3 are placed in to the wet surface of detected composite material parts brush, according to given track while scan, move transmitting transducer 1 and receiving transducer 3, the change in detection signal rule that synchronous signal display unit 5 shows in real time, carry out the differentiation of defect, for detecting defect, according to (1) formula and (2) formula, determine the depth and place of defect; When adopting detection automatically, transmitting transducer 1 and receiving transducer 3 are arranged on automatic scanning equipment, detected composite material parts is carried out to autoscan, and testing result shows with imaging mode, realizes detected compound material ultrasound-acoustic emission autoscan imaging is detected.
Embodiment 1
Adopt compound substance in the present invention ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method and detecting step, select single-shot-mono-receipts detecting pattern, select manual scanning mode, transmitting transducer 1 and receiving transducer 3 adopt integrated form layout transducer, the two is the zero distance that approaches, and be positioned at the same side of composite material parts, the frequency of transmitting transducer 1 is selected 2MHz, the frequency of receiving transducer 3 is selected 5MHz, respectively 5mm and 10mm carbon fibre composite part have been carried out to the actual detection application of series, the actual effect that detects shows, blind area is detected on detection resolution and surface can reach single compound material laying layer thickness, can detect Ф 3mm in composite structure, dark and the dark defect of 9.8mm of 0.13mm, got the good actual effect that detects.
Embodiment 2
Adopt compound substance in the present invention ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method and detecting step, select single-shot-bis-receipts detecting patterns, select autoscan mode, transmitting transducer 1 and receiving transducer 3 adopt separate arrangement, install on autoscan checkout equipment, between transmitting transducer 1 and receiving transducer 3, distance is 10mm, and be positioned at the both sides of composite material parts, the frequency of transmitting transducer 1 is selected 1MHz, the frequency of receiving transducer 3 is selected 2MHz, respectively 20mm and 50mm carbon fibre composite part have been carried out to the actual detection application of series, the actual effect that detects shows, blind area is detected on detection resolution and surface can reach single compound material laying layer thickness, can detect Ф 3mm in composite structure, 0.13mm is dark, 10mm, the defect that 49mm is dark, got the good actual effect that detects.

Claims (8)

1. compound substance is ultrasonic-an acoustic emission detection method, and the acoustic emission signal that the ultrasonic pulse sound wave that the method produces based on shock pulse excites in compound substance, realizes the detection of composite inner defect, it is characterized in that,
Sensing element (1A) in the pulse excitation transmitting transducer excited by impact (1) of ultrasound emission unit (2) output, make transmitting transducer (1) produce excitation ultrasound wave (8), by transmitting transducer (1), to detected composite material parts (6) transmitting, encourage ultrasound wave (8)
Piezoelectric sensor (3A) in receiving transducer (3) receives the acoustic emission wave (9) from detected composite material parts (6), through piezoelectric sensor (3A), convert electric impulse signal to and export to acoustic emission receiving element (4), the frequency characteristic of piezoelectric sensor (3A) is determined according to the frequency characteristic of the piezoelectric sensor (1A) in transmitting transducer (1), the frequency characteristic of the frequency characteristic of piezoelectric sensor (3A) and piezoelectric sensor (1A) is asymmetric mode
The Frequency Response Matching of the piezoelectric sensor (3A) in the frequency characteristic of acoustic emission receiving element (4) and receiving transducer (3), the gain-adjusted scope of acoustic emission receiving element (4) is 0-60dB, the output of acoustic emission receiving element (4) is connected with signal display unit (5) by high-frequency signal line, receiving transducer (3) and transmitting transducer (1) are placed in homonymy or any side of detected composite material parts (6), and the distance of receiving transducer (3) and transmitting transducer (1) is in the radius of 0-50mm.
2. a kind of compound substance claimed in claim 1 is ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method, it is characterized in that, incoming position and the incident direction of described transmitting transducer (1), different with testing requirement according to detected composite material parts feature, within the scope of 0-360 °, select incoming position and the incident direction of transmitting transducer (1).
3. a kind of compound substance according to claim 1 is ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method, it is characterized in that, position and the attitude of described receiving transducer (3), different with testing requirement according to detected composite material parts feature, in 0-360 °, the receiving angle of the relative transmitting transducer (1) of selective reception transducer (3), receives the acoustic emission signal from detected composite material parts inherent vice.
4. a kind of compound substance according to claim 1 is ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method, it is characterized in that, described ultrasonic-transmitting transducer (1) and the receiving transducer (3) that use in acoustic emission detection method adopt the transmitting transducer (1) of varying number and constituting of receiving transducer (3), realize the channel ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection of composite material parts.
5. a kind of compound substance according to claim 1 is ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method, it is characterized in that, described ultrasonic-transmitting transducer (1) that uses in acoustic emission detection method and receiving transducer (3) adopt two kinds of separate type and integrated forms, realize different composite material parts ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection.
6. a kind of compound substance according to claim 1 is ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method, it is characterized in that, and the frequency of described receiving transducer (3) is the integral multiple of the frequency of transmitting transducer (1).
7. a kind of compound substance according to claim 1 is ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method, it is characterized in that, and the frequency of described transmitting transducer (1) is the integral multiple of the frequency of receiving transducer (3).
8. a kind of compound substance according to claim 1 is ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method, it is characterized in that, and the transmitting transducer using in described detection method (1) and receiving transducer (3) they are hand-held or are arranged on automatic checkout equipment.
CN201410276118.7A 2014-06-19 2014-06-19 Ultrasonic-acoustic emission detection method for composite material Pending CN104049038A (en)

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Cited By (7)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN106770670A (en) * 2016-11-18 2017-05-31 中航复合材料有限责任公司 A kind of composite material defect method of discrimination holographic based on impulse ultrasound
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CN107085039A (en) * 2017-04-20 2017-08-22 苏州博昇科技有限公司 A kind of method for the Air Coupling ultrasound detection signal intensity for increasing composite
CN107132280A (en) * 2017-05-02 2017-09-05 长沙理工大学 A kind of large-scale component damage probability based on sound ultrasound is imaged localization method
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CN109307715A (en) * 2017-11-16 2019-02-05 中国石油化工股份有限公司 The passive sound fusion detection method of storage tank bottom plate master
CN109307707A (en) * 2017-11-16 2019-02-05 中国石油化工股份有限公司 The passive sound fusion detection method of storage tank bottom plate distributed wireless master

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