CN104048597B - Self adaptation common light path grating interferometer and its implementation - Google Patents

Self adaptation common light path grating interferometer and its implementation Download PDF

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CN104048597B
CN104048597B CN201410261633.8A CN201410261633A CN104048597B CN 104048597 B CN104048597 B CN 104048597B CN 201410261633 A CN201410261633 A CN 201410261633A CN 104048597 B CN104048597 B CN 104048597B
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light
light path
polarization
grating
self adaptation
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CN104048597A (en
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韦春龙
周常河
向显嵩
卢炎聪
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Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of CAS
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Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of CAS
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Abstract

A kind of common light path grating interferometer of self adaptation, including:The grating scale of relative motion, prism of corner cube, speculum, transflection mirror, position sensitive detector, polarization beam apparatus, linear polarization light source, the PZT micro-displacement drivers for driving above-mentioned mirror, data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit, polarization phase-shifting interference photoelectric detection unit or double frequency difference interference photoelectric detection unit.The present invention is using the adaptive approach based on diffraction luminous point position feedback control prism of corner cube or speculum, come ensure dynamic raster interferometer completely be total to light path characteristic, so as to eliminate light path impact of the grating scale body phase to kinematic error, and then obtain high accuracy and resolution ratio.

Description

Self adaptation common light path grating interferometer and its implementation
Technical field
The present invention relates to optical gauge, particularly a kind of self adaptation common light path grating interferometer and its implementation.
Background technology
Grating interferometer is the core of high accuracy optical grating ruler measurement system (pitch is generally less than 10 microns), determines its essence Degree and resolution ratio.High accuracy optical grating ruler measurement system is by grating scale body, installs fixture, reading head and letter based on grating interferometer Number controller and display composition, its function is to carry out the measurement of high precision displacement amount.It is widely used in machine tooling control, crystalline substance Piece treatment and cutting, IC etching equipment, semiconductor detection, robot system, Aero-Space, scientific research, military affairs etc. Field.
High accuracy optical grating ruler measurement system is not only one of modern most basic automation amount instrument, and be modern processing and One of high accuracy, important guarantee means of high-quality in production and scientific research.Especially 20nm/14nm IC etchings set The fields such as the research of standby, nanometer/Asia nano science, Aero-Space, scientific research, military affairs, carry to high accuracy optical grating ruler measurement system The demand of higher precision and resolution ratio is gone out.
For high-precision laser interferometer, although the optical grating ruler measurement system based on grating interferometer has to ring The influence of kinematic error, Shang Nan between the insensitive advantage in border, but reading head and grating scale body due to optical grating ruler measurement system To reach same high accuracy and resolution ratio.
Canon proposes that patent, the U.S. IBM such as US5038032, US5146085, US4912320 propose patent US5442172, attempts to solve above-mentioned kinematic error influence problem, and U.S. ZYGO has also applied for the grating interferometer of many novelties Patent, such as US8300233B2, US0194824A1, US0114061A1, to obtain higher precision and resolution ratio.But with above-mentioned All to there is problems with the technical scheme for representing:It is provided without real complete interference with common path instrument design.Therefore, it is impossible to eliminate The light path impact of above-mentioned kinematic error, can only influence to have alleviated on it.Further, the Wu of Taiwan Danjiang University proposes a kind of accurate The grating interferometer of common light path【Sensors and Actuators A:Physical,193:69-78,2013】Obtain preferable Performance.Thus prove, be to eliminate above-mentioned kinematic error to influence using Common-path method grating interferometer, obtain high accuracy and differentiate The effective means of rate.
The content of the invention
The purpose of the present invention, is on conventional art scheme and achievement in research, to propose that a kind of light path grating that is total to completely is done Interferometer, further realizes that it is dynamically total to light path using adaptive approach, the influence for eliminating above-mentioned kinematic error is reached, so as to obtain Obtain higher precision and resolution ratio.
Technical solution of the invention is as follows:
A kind of common light path grating interferometer of self adaptation, it is characterised in that:Including:The grating scale of relative motion, prism of corner cube, Speculum, transflection mirror, position sensitive detector, the first polarization beam apparatus, linear polarization light source, the PZT microbits for driving above-mentioned mirror Driver, data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit, interference photoelectric detection unit are moved,
1. linear polarization light source sends the P light that light beam is divided into the S light of transmission and reflects through the first polarization beam apparatus, institute The P light stated is after described speculum reflection through the ± m (m after relative motion grating scale diffraction>=1) order diffraction angle of light cone Prism, described S light reflected through described transflection mirror after through ± m (the m after relative motion grating scale diffraction>=1) order diffraction light Incident prism of corner cube, described P light, S light respectively enter other side's light path through prism of corner cube reflection output, and produce and be respectively ± 2m Times Doppler frequency shift, final two-beam road produces 4m times of Doppler frequency shift difference, and the Tongfang at the first described polarization beam apparatus To orthogonal polarisation state outgoing, formed and be total to light path completely, this is total to the interference photoelectric detection unit described in light path incidence, the interference completely The input of data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit described in the output termination of photoelectric detection unit,
2. described position sensitive detector is set in the reverse transmission light direction of described transflection mirror, detects grating scale diffraction light The luminous point change of line, the input of data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit described in the output termination of the position sensitive detector, institute The control end of the PZT micro-displacement drivers described in the data acquisition and processing (DAP) stated and the output termination of control unit, PZT micro-displacements Driver drives speculum or prism of corner cube are changing the orientation of incident and emergent ray.
Described interference photoelectric detection unit is that polarization phase-shifting interferes photoelectric detection unit or double frequency difference interference light electrical resistivity survey Survey unit.
Described polarization phase-shifting interference photoelectric detection unit is by quarter-wave plate, non-polarizing beamsplitter, the second polarization point Beam device, the 3rd polarization beam apparatus and the first detector, the second detector, the 3rd detector, the 4th detector composition.
Described double frequency difference interference photoelectric detection unit by the first polarization beam apparatus, non-polarizing beamsplitter, it is orthogonal partially Shake the second analyzers and correspondence that 45 degree of first analyzers and corresponding 5th detector of placement, 45 degree of the cross-polarizations in place place The 6th detector composition.
Described linear polarization light source is the light source or gas lamp of light emitting diode, laser diode, solid;Single-frequency swash Light device or the laser of double frequency cross-polarization.
Described PZT micro-displacement drivers can also be by MEMS's or electrostatic, or planar micromotor is substituted.
Described grating scale is common grating scale or balzed grating, chi, described grating scale be reflection-type grating scale or The grating scale of transmission-type.
Described position sensitive detector is PSD detector arrays ccd detector or CMOS.
Described prism of corner cube is right-angle prism or speculum assembly angle mirror.
Described data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit are by data collecting card and motion control card and industrial computer group Into.
The self adaptation implementation method of the common light path grating interferometer of described self adaptation, its feature is the method including as follows Step:
1. initialize:The grating interferometer that static state is adjusted to completely be total to optical path states, grating scale without motion, described number According to the light spot position of grating scale diffracted ray in collection and treatment and control unit collection position sensitive detector as object reference position Put, and set the threshold value with reference location difference;
When 2. working, grating scale diffracted ray in the data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit collection position sensitive detector Light spot position, and calculate the difference of the light spot position and described reference location;If the position difference is less than or equal to set 4. fixed threshold value, then be transferred to step;If 3. the position difference is transferred to step more than set threshold value;
3. that the position difference is fed back into described PZT in real time is micro- for described data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit Displacement driver, drives speculum or prism of corner cube movement, is total to the target ginseng of light path situation when luminous point is adjusted into without motion completely Position is examined, step is transferred to 2.;
4. data of described data acquisition and processing (DAP) and the interference photoelectric detection unit described in control unit synchronous acquisition, Corresponding grating scale relative shift is calculated, and is exported in described data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit output end.
Technique effect of the invention:
The present invention realizes that grating interferometer is dynamically total to light path using adaptive approach, can eliminate grating scale kinematic error Influence, so as to obtain higher precision and resolution ratio.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is to realize self adaptation light path grating interferometer altogether using single 3 D PZT micro-displacement device drive speculums Embodiment index path.
Fig. 2 is to drive two transflection mirrors to realize self adaptation light path grating altogether respectively using two three-dimensional PZT micro-displacements devices The embodiment index path of interferometer.
Fig. 3 is to realize self adaptation light path grating interferometer altogether using single 3 D PZT micro-displacement device drive prism of corner cubes Embodiment index path.
Fig. 4 is embodiment index path in figure 3 using double frequency difference interference art.
Specific embodiment
With reference to embodiment and accompanying drawing, the invention will be further described, but should not limit protection model of the invention with this Enclose.
1st, embodiment 1.Such as Fig. 1.
Laser 8 sends linearly polarized light, and P light and S light are divided into through the first polarization beam apparatus 7, respectively by speculum 3 and thoroughly The incident diffraction grating 1 of anti-mirror 4, by the diffraction of diffraction grating 1 after (be set to ± 1 grade of light) two-way diffraction light direction and diffraction grating 1 Vertically, after and being reflected through prism of corner cube 2, P light and S light respectively enter respective other side's light path (S light and P light), are formed and are total to light completely Road, then be orthogonal line polarisation through the outgoing of the first polarization beam apparatus 7, into dotted line frame by 10, four points of non-polarizing beamsplitter One of wave plate 9, the second polarization beam apparatus 12, the 3rd polarization beam apparatus 15 and the first detector 11, the second detector the 13, the 3rd visit The polarization phase-shifting for surveying device 14, the 4th detector 16 composition interferes photoelectric detection unit (hereinafter referred to as A), forms 90 ° of four tunnel phase shift Detectable signal, and then by data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit by Phaseshifting interferometry (Optical Shop Testing [M], John Wiley&Sons, 2007, Chapter14, p547) the corresponding phase information in position of diffraction grating 1 is calculated, Finally it is converted into corresponding displacement information and is exported.
There is such scheme optics 4 to segment feature, and heat insensitive.With certain anti-rotating (yaw), roll (roll), translation (stand off), the ability of sidesway (offset), but for pursuing higher precision and resolution ratio, will It is limited.
In order to preferably eliminate the influence of all kinematic errors of grating scale, adopt with the following method:One is revealed in transflection Jing4Chu Quantitative S light, light spot position real-time detection is carried out with position sensitive detector 6;And at speculum 3, by speculum 3 by three-dimensional PZT micro-displacements device 5 drives.When diffraction grating chi 1 is moved, if there is kinematic error, diffracted ray will be caused to move, it is bad Change light path feature altogether, cause the luminous point on position sensitive detector 6 to move.Data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit 17 are (with figure below Abbreviation B) amount of movement is fed back into the three-dimensional PZT micro-displacements device at speculum 3, dynamic driving it, make to cause the quick detection in position Luminous point on device 6 return at common light path luminous point (actual treatment be less than with reference location difference threshold, i.e. luminous point amount of movement Threshold value).Data acquisition and processing (DAP) and the above-mentioned polarization phase-shifting of the synchronous acquisition of control unit 17 interfere photoelectric detection unit Data, calculate corresponding grating scale relative shift, and export in data acquisition and processing (DAP) and the output end of control unit 17.Thus, Can ensure to obtain a dynamic for self adaptation light path grating interferometer altogether, eliminate the influence of all kinematic errors of grating scale.Cause This can realize higher precision and resolution ratio.In such scheme, data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit 17 by data collecting card and Motion control card and industrial computer are constituted.
2nd, embodiment 2.Such as Fig. 2.
From two position sensitive detector 6-1 (i.e. in artwork 1 6) and 6-2 unlike Fig. 1, are respectively adopted, as luminous point move The dynamic quick detection feedback in position.And two three-dimensional PZT micro-displacement device drive transflections mirrors 4 and 3 are respectively adopted, and (speculum 3 changes in artwork 1 It is transflection mirror) carry out adaptive inertia weight light path control altogether.A is the polarization phase-shifting interference light electrical resistivity survey in the dotted line frame in Fig. 1 in figure Unit is surveyed, B is then data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit 17 in Fig. 1.In figure, PZT micro-displacement device control lines are not marked.
3rd, embodiment 3.Such as Fig. 3.
Two position sensitive detector 6-1 (i.e. in artwork 1 6) and 6-2 is respectively adopted as the quick detection feedback in luminous point movement position. Transflection mirror 4 and transflection mirror 3 (speculum 3 is changed to transflection mirror in artwork 1) are maintained static.The PZT micro-displacements device 5 of one three-dimensional drives Dynamic prism of corner cube 2 carries out adaptive inertia weight light path control altogether.A is the polarization phase-shifting interference photoelectricity in the dotted line frame in Fig. 1 in figure Probe unit, B is then data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit 17.In figure, PZT micro-displacement device control lines are not marked.
4th, embodiment 4.Such as Fig. 4.
Laser according to double frequency cross-polarization does light source, then corresponding optical signal detection and treatment are using outside double frequency Difference interferometry substitutes above-mentioned polarization phase-shifting interferometry.Made an amendment by taking Fig. 3 as an example, other above-mentioned cases can all be made accordingly to change with this Become.
The laser 8 of double frequency cross-polarization sends linearly polarized light, and two-beam, a branch of conduct are divided into by non-polarizing beamsplitter 18 Reference light is by locating 45 degree of analyzers 19 of placement of cross-polarization for detector 22 is received;Another beam is through the first polarization beam apparatus 7 It is divided into P light and S light, respectively by transflection mirror 4 and transflection mirror 3 (speculum 3 is changed to transflection mirror in artwork 1) incidence diffraction grating 1, The two-way diffraction light direction for (being set to ± 1 grade of light) after by the diffraction of diffraction grating chi 1 is vertical with 1 diffraction grating, and through prism of corner cube 2 After reflection, P light and S light respectively enter respective other side's light path (S light and P light), are formed and are total to light path completely, then through the first polarization beam splitting The outgoing of device 7 is orthogonal line polarisation, by locating 45 degree of analyzers 20 of placement of cross-polarization for detector 21 is received.Two-way photoelectricity Signal input data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit B, and then by double frequency difference interference art (Optical Shop Testing [M], John Wiley&Sons, 2007, Chapter14, p640) calculate the position corresponding phase letter of diffraction grating chi 1 Breath, is finally converted into corresponding displacement information and exports.The corresponding common light path control of adaptive inertia weight is with case 3.In figure, PZT is micro- Displacement device control line is not marked.By non-polarizing beamsplitter 18, the first polarization beam apparatus 7,45 degree of placements of cross-polarization One analyzer 19 and corresponding 5th detector 22, second analyzer 20 of 45 degree of placements of place's cross-polarization and the corresponding 6th visit Survey device 21 and constitute double frequency difference interference photoelectric detection unit.Data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit B are by data collecting card and fortune Dynamic control card and industrial computer composition.
In above-mentioned case, grating scale can also be transmission-type;When transmission-type is used, prism of corner cube is relative to reflection type optical Grid chi makees mirror image placement, and reflection-type grating scale is also substituted by transmission-type grating scale.

Claims (11)

1. a kind of self adaptation is total to light path grating interferometer, including:The grating scale (1) of relative motion, prism of corner cube (2), speculum (3), transflection mirror (4), position sensitive detector (6), the first polarization beam apparatus (7), linear polarization light source (8), for driving described angle It is the PZT micro-displacement drivers of cone prism (2) or speculum (3) or transflection mirror (4), data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit, dry Relate to photoelectric detection unit, it is characterised in that:
1. linear polarization light source (8) sends the P light that light beam is divided into the S light of transmission and reflects through the first polarization beam apparatus (7), Described P light is after described speculum (3) reflection through the ± m order diffraction angles of light after relative motion grating scale (1) diffraction Cone prism (2), wherein m>=1, described S light reflected through described transflection mirror (4) after after relative motion grating scale (1) diffraction ± m (m>=1) order diffraction angle of light cone prism (2), described P light, S light enter respectively through prism of corner cube (2) reflection output Enter other side's light path, and produce respectively ± 2m times Doppler frequency shift, 4m times of Doppler frequency shift difference of final two-beam road generation, and The described equidirectional orthogonal polarisation state outgoing in the first polarization beam apparatus (7) place, forms and is total to light path completely, and it is incident that this is total to light path completely Described interference photoelectric detection unit, data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control described in the output termination of the interference photoelectric detection unit The input of unit,
2. described position sensitive detector (6) is set in the reverse transmission light direction of described transflection mirror (4), detects grating scale diffraction The luminous point change of light, the input of data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit described in the output termination of the position sensitive detector (6) End, the control end of the PZT micro-displacement drivers described in described data acquisition and processing (DAP) and the output termination of control unit, PZT Micro-displacement driver drives speculum or prism of corner cube to change the orientation of incident and emergent ray.
2. self adaptation according to claim 1 is total to light path grating interferometer, it is characterised in that described interference photodetection Unit is that polarization phase-shifting interferes photoelectric detection unit or double frequency difference interference photoelectric detection unit.
3. self adaptation according to claim 2 is total to light path grating interferometer, it is characterised in that described polarization phase-shifting interference Photoelectric detection unit is by quarter-wave plate (9), non-polarizing beamsplitter (10), the second polarization beam apparatus (12), the 3rd polarization point Beam device (15) and the first detector (11), the second detector (13), the 3rd detector (14), the 4th detector (16) composition.
4. self adaptation according to claim 2 is total to light path grating interferometer, it is characterised in that described double frequency difference interference Photoelectric detection unit is by the first polarization beam apparatus (7), non-polarizing beamsplitter (18), 45 degree of first analyzings of placement of cross-polarization Device (19) and corresponding 5th detector (22), second analyzer (20) of 45 degree of placements of place's cross-polarization and the corresponding 6th visit Survey device (21) composition.
5. self adaptation according to claim 1 light path grating interferometer altogether, it is characterised in that described linear polarization light source is Light emitting diode, laser diode, the light source or gas lamp of solid;The laser of single-frequency or the laser of double frequency cross-polarization Device.
6. self adaptation according to claim 1 is total to light path grating interferometer, it is characterised in that described PZT Micro-displacement Drivings Device can also be by MEMS's or electrostatic, or planar micromotor is substituted.
7. self adaptation according to claim 1 is total to light path grating interferometer, it is characterised in that described grating scale is common Grating scale or balzed grating, chi, described grating scale are the grating scale of reflection-type or the grating scale of transmission-type.
8. self adaptation according to claim 1 light path grating interferometer altogether, it is characterised in that described position sensitive detector is PSD detector arrays ccd detector or CMOS.
9. self adaptation according to claim 1 light path grating interferometer altogether, it is characterised in that described prism of corner cube is Right-angle prism or speculum assembly angle mirror.
10. the common light path grating interferometer of self adaptation according to any one of claim 1 to 9, it is characterised in that described number It is made up of data collecting card and motion control card and industrial computer according to collection and treatment and control unit.
The self adaptation implementation method of the common light path grating interferometer of self adaptation described in 11. claims 1, it is characterised in that the method Comprise the following steps:
1. initialize:The grating interferometer that static state is adjusted to completely be total to optical path states, grating scale (1) without motion, described number The light spot position of grating scale (1) diffracted ray on position sensitive detector (6) is gathered as target according to collection and treatment and control unit Reference position, and set the threshold value with reference location difference;
When 2. working, the data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit gather grating scale diffracted ray on position sensitive detector (6) Light spot position, and calculate the difference of the light spot position and described reference location;If the position difference is less than or equal to set 4. fixed threshold value, then be transferred to step;If 3. the position difference is transferred to step more than set threshold value;
3. the position difference is fed back to described PZT micro-displacements by described data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit in real time Driver, drives speculum (3) or prism of corner cube (2) mobile, is total to the target of light path situation when luminous point is adjusted into without motion completely 2. reference position, be transferred to step;
4. the data of described data acquisition and processing (DAP) and the interference photoelectric detection unit described in control unit synchronous acquisition, calculate Corresponding grating scale relative shift, and exported in described data acquisition and processing (DAP) and control unit output end.
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