CN104014880B - Laser-electrolysis composite machining device and method of tiny holes in non-recast layer - Google Patents

Laser-electrolysis composite machining device and method of tiny holes in non-recast layer Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104014880B
CN104014880B CN201410219245.3A CN201410219245A CN104014880B CN 104014880 B CN104014880 B CN 104014880B CN 201410219245 A CN201410219245 A CN 201410219245A CN 104014880 B CN104014880 B CN 104014880B
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laser
machining
axis workbench
cast layer
electrolysis
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CN104014880A (en
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王恪典
高伟芳
段文强
梅雪松
凡正杰
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Linyi Aolin oke Tools Co.,Ltd.
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Xi an Jiaotong University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a laser-electrolysis composite machining device and method of tiny holes in a non-recast layer. The device and method aim to solve the problem that in the prior art, it is difficult to effectively machine tiny holes without defects. The device comprises a machine tool base and a machine tool stand column, wherein the machine tool base is provided with a workpiece fixture, and the machine tool stand column is perpendicularly arranged on the machine tool base. An electrolysis machining cathode spray nozzle and a laser emission head are arranged above the workpiece fixture, wherein the electrolysis machining cathode spray nozzle and the laser emission head are fixed to the machine tool stand column and are driven through a conversion motor. The electrolysis machining cathode spray nozzle and the laser emission head are arranged with the axes in the same plane, and converted through the conversion motor, so that the advantages of high efficiency in laser machining and good quality in electrolysis machining are integrated, and high-quality and efficient machining of tiny group holes is achieved.

Description

A kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device and method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of processing unit (plant) without re cast layer micro hole and method, and in particular to a kind of small without re cast layer The laser in hole-electrolysis complex machining device and method.
Background technology
At present, in precision instruments product and aircraft industry small group's pore structure extensive application so that micro hole machining skill Art causes the common concern of domestic and international scientific circles and engineering circles.Micro hole machining method is divided into three major types:Machining, special type Processing and Compound Machining.Machining mainly includes machine drilling, mechanical punching;The special process mainly include Laser Processing, Spark machined, Electrolyzed Processing, Ultrasonic machining, electron beam process, ion beam processing etc..
For some have the micro hole of special technical requirement or using the zero of the manufacture of the difficult-to-machine materials such as high temperature alloy Micro hole on part, such as aero engine turbine blades film cooling holes, its aperture is born substantially in the range of 0.3-1.5mm Very big thermic load and mechanical load, traditional machining process is obviously difficult to meet and requires.And several special process sides Formula all respectively has its benefit and limitation, and Laser Processing is typical hot procedure, and its process velocity is fast, the material scope of application Extensively, but easily re cast layer and micro-crack are formed in surface of the work, has a strong impact on the service life and performance of part, thus limited Application of the laser processing technology in the manufacture of the high reliability such as Aero-Space;Spark machined efficiency relatively laser machine it is low, and Equally exist re cast layer;Electrolyzed Processing carries out ablation using anodic electrochemical dissolution principle to material, and the technology has and do not receive material Material mechanical property, mechanical performance are limited, and piece surface crudy is good, without re cast layer and residual stress, without heat affected area, instrument The advantages of negative electrode is lossless, but working (machining) efficiency is far below spark machined and laser processing technology.
At present, it is using abrasive flows technique, abrasive flows to remove laser, the universal method of spark machined micro hole re cast layer Processing is, using a kind of viscoplasticity abrasive medium of half flow regime containing abrasive material, to force under a certain pressure in surface to be machined On flow through, the process of surface of the work microcosmic injustice material is removed by the scraping action of abrasive grain.The method can be obtained Preferably surface quality, but dead angle is difficult to remove, and not uniform enough to the removal of re cast layer.Recently, also it has been proposed that using spy Fixed chemical solution carries out erosion removal re cast layer to workpiece, this method be based on re cast layer and matrix material due to tissue and The difference of composition has different corrosion resistance principles to chemical solution, has the advantages that to remove that re cast layer is uniform, good economy performance, but It is poor universality, and there may be a certain degree of damage to workpiece significant points.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome above-mentioned deficiency, there is provided a kind of laser-electrolysis without re cast layer micro hole is compound to be added Work device and method, can integrate Laser Processing high efficiency and the measured advantage of Electrolyzed Processing matter, realize the height in small group hole Quality highly-efficient processing.
The laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device a kind of in order to achieve the above object includes being provided with work The lathe base of part fixture, and the machine pillar being vertically set on lathe base, work piece holder top is provided with and is fixed on The electrochemical machining system driven by conversion motor and Optical Maser System on machine pillar;
The electrochemical machining system includes being connected with conversion motor and the negative electrode nozzle with tool cathode, and and negative electrode The connected electrolyte circulation system of nozzle and current supply circuit, the positive pole connection work piece holder of current supply circuit, power cathode connection work Tool negative electrode;
The Optical Maser System includes Nd:YAG milliseconds pulse laser and Nd:It is cold that YAG milliseconds pulse laser is connected Water dispenser, and the laser instrument emitting head being connected with conversion motor, Nd:YAG milliseconds pulse laser and conversion motor controller connect Connect computer.
The work piece holder is arranged with y-axis workbench, and y-axis workbench is arranged with x-axis workbench, x-axis workbench Side is provided with location-plate, and conversion motor is fixed on machine pillar by z-axis workbench, and z-axis workbench is connected with z-axis servo Motor;The x-axis workbench, y-axis workbench and z-axis workbench are all connected with computer.
The negative electrode nozzle includes top cover, connecting plate, drill chuck rear axle, drill chuck, Inner guide set, outer flow guide sleeve and instrument Negative electrode;
The connecting plate is connected on z-axis workbench by two right angle contiguous blocks being arranged symmetrically, negative electrode nozzle tip Top cover with centre bore is set, and drill chuck rear axle and top cover are connected by centre bore;Connecting plate lower end is arranged has sky The Inner guide set in chamber, Inner guide set lower end is coaxially connected with the gap of outer flow guide sleeve, Inner guide set and outer flow guide sleeve and defines electricity Solution liquid runner, runner is provided with drill chuck in convergence shape in the cavity of Inner guide set, and tool cathode is connected with drill chuck and reaches Outside outer flow guide sleeve, the front end parcel insulation fairlead of tool cathode.
The drill chuck is provided with the first sealing ring with Inner guide inner room, and the tool cathode is oriented to inner room and arranges with insulation There is the second sealing ring.
The work piece holder is arranged in work box, work box bottom connection electrolyte circulation system, and work box includes exhausted Edge erecting bed, and the fixture erecting bed being arranged on insulating mounting platform, work piece holder is arranged on fixture erecting bed.
The fixture erecting bed is fixed on fixture erecting bed by T-bolt and flange surface nut.
The material of the surrounding fence of the work box adopts lucite.
The work box has epoxy resin lid, and guiding gutter is equipped with following above epoxy resin lid, and is provided with Additional space needed for processing.
A kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis combined machining method, comprises the following steps:
Step one:Using computer settings Pulsed Laser Parameters, and corresponding motor program is worked out, by laser switch Break-make control laser processing procedure and synkinesia process, disposably prepare in the workpiece being fixed on work piece holder some Pre-manufactured hole;
Step 2:Keep x-axis workbench and y-axis operating position constant, rise laser instrument emitting head, make conversion motor inverse Hour hands are accurately rotated by 90 °, and tool cathode is switched to into operating position;
Step 3:Open to knife power supply, apply between tool cathode and workpiece anode 1 volt to knife voltage, z-axis workbench Slow feeding, is stretched in pre-manufactured hole using short circuit to skill in using a kitchen knife in cookery guiding stick electrode;
Step 4:Tool cathode is slowly fed under the drive of z-axis workbench, make outer flow guide sleeve lower end rubber packing tight Patch workpiece, starts electrolyte circulation system, and electric power output voltage is adjusted to into machining voltage, starts the removal work of re cast layer Sequence, after completing a hole, rises Electrolyzed Processing head, and antikinesis working table movement program is carried out to the re cast layer in next hole Remove.
Compared with prior art, a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device of the present invention has and swashs Light device system and electrochemical machining system, incorporate Laser Processing high efficiency and the measured advantage of Electrolyzed Processing matter, are capable of achieving small The high-quality highly-efficient processing in group hole, and operation switching only need to adjust on z-axis workbench, and the work being electrolysed to knife is greatly reduced Amount.
Further, there is a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device of the present invention x-axis to work Platform, y-axis workbench and z-axis workbench, can be linked by computer program control realization.
Further, a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device of the present invention has lucite Work box, be easy to observe process.
Further, a kind of work box of the laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device of the present invention has Epoxy resin lid, prevents salt fog in electrolytic process from splashing.
It is efficient that a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis combined machining method of the present invention has given full play to Laser Processing Rate and the flawless advantage of Electrolyzed Processing, using laser processing technology pre-manufactured hole, a little re cast layer of hole wall residual are quickly formed Removed by electrolytic method with allowance, due to there is pre-manufactured hole, removed using the Electrolyzed Processing of the outer liquid-charging type of high pressure ring electrode The re cast layer of expected thickness, and the polishing of hole inwall is realized, the use of the tool-electrode of this processing scheme can be solid rod Shape electrode, therefore the electrode size less than hollow tube-shaped electrode can be obtained, extend the pore diameter range of processing, Electrolyzed Processing operation The material of removal is fewer, compares traditional electrolytic method, and Compound Machining can obtain the efficiency for being close to Laser Processing.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the schematic three dimensional views of apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of negative electrode nozzle in apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of working chamber in apparatus of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram that laser of the present invention quickly forms hole shape;
Fig. 5 is the schematic diagram that present invention electrolysis removes re cast layer and crackle.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings the present invention will be further described.
Referring to Fig. 1, a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device includes being provided with work piece holder 13 Lathe base 11, machine pillar 17 is vertically installed with lathe base 11, work piece holder 13 is arranged with y-axis workbench 10, y Axle workbench 10 is arranged with x-axis workbench 9, and the side of x-axis workbench 9 is provided with location-plate 8, and conversion motor 2 passes through z-axis work Make platform 16 to be fixed on machine pillar 17, z-axis workbench 16 is connected with z-axis servomotor 18, x-axis workbench 9, y-axis workbench 10 and z-axis workbench 16 be all connected with computer, the top of work piece holder 13 be provided be fixed on machine pillar 17 by conversion The electrochemical machining system and Optical Maser System of the conversion of motor 2;Electrochemical machining system includes being connected with conversion motor 2 and with instrument The negative electrode nozzle of negative electrode 14, and the electrolyte circulation system that is connected with negative electrode nozzle and current supply circuit, the positive pole of current supply circuit Connection work piece holder 13, negative pole fastening means negative electrode 14.Negative electrode nozzle is connected with feed tube, and the other end of feed tube stretches into electrolysis In liquid bath 7, feed tube is disposed with from the inlet to the outlet filter 6, corrosion free pump 5, pressure regulator valve 4 and flowmeter 3, corrosion free pump 5 The overflow pipe for stretching into electrolytic bath 7 is provided with and between pressure regulator valve 4, overflow valve is provided with overflow pipe, adjust electrolyte in nozzle The flow velocity at place;Optical Maser System includes Nd:YAG milliseconds pulse laser and Nd:The connected cold water of YAG milliseconds pulse laser Machine, and the laser instrument emitting head 15, Nd being connected with conversion motor 2:Millisecond pulse laser produced by YAG pulse lasers by Fiber guides enter laser instrument emitting head 15, Nd:YAG pulse lasers and the connection computer of conversion motor 2.
Referring to Fig. 2, negative electrode nozzle include top cover 27, connecting plate 20, drill chuck rear axle 19, drill chuck 22, Inner guide set 23, Outer flow guide sleeve 25 and tool cathode 14;Connecting plate 20 is connected to z-axis workbench 16 by two right angle contiguous blocks being arranged symmetrically On, negative electrode nozzle tip arranges the top cover 27 with threaded central aperture, during drill chuck rear axle 19 and top cover 27 are threaded connection Heart hole is fixed;The set of the Inner guide with cavity 23 is fixed in the lower end of connecting plate 20 by locating slot, and Inner guide covers 23 lower ends and coaxially connects Outer flow guide sleeve 25 is connected to, connecting plate 20 is connected with top cover 27 and Inner guide set 23 using soket head cap screw, and by corresponding Positioning boss and locating slot ensure that the gap of axiality, Inner guide set 23 and outer flow guide sleeve 25 defines electrolyte channel, runner In convergence shape, Inner guide to cover and processes external threads on 23 external cylindrical surfaces, and coaxially connected outer flow guide sleeve 25, Inner guide covers 23 sky Drill chuck 22 is provided with chamber, tool cathode 14 is connected with drill chuck 22 and reaches outside outer flow guide sleeve 25, before tool cathode 14 End parcel insulation fairlead 24, between drill chuck 22 and Inner guide set 23 three the first sealing rings 21, the tool cathode are provided with Second sealing ring 26 is provided between 14 and insulation fairlead 24.
The gap of Inner guide set 23 and outer flow guide sleeve 25 defines electrolyte channel, and runner points to micro- in convergence shape, outlet Thin electrode, axial direction when realizing Electrolyzed Processing rushes liquid.This liquid-charging type compare traditional liquid-charging type (just flow, reflux, side Stream), the vibration of tool-electrode can be avoided, while taking away metal ion and micro-bubble in process, significantly improve and add The stability of work process.Referring to Fig. 3, work piece holder 13 is arranged on surrounding fence and adopts in work box 12 made by lucite, And with epoxy resin lid 28, guiding gutter being equipped with following above epoxy resin lid 28, central area cuts out compound adding Additional space needed for work, work box 12 is integrally placed in installation pedestal, and installation pedestal center is provided with passage, is easy to assembling, The bottom of work box 12 is provided with the liquid back pipe of connection electrolytic bath 7, and work box 12 includes insulating mounting platform 31, and is arranged on absolutely Fixture erecting bed 30 on edge erecting bed 31, work piece holder 13 is arranged on fixture erecting bed 30, and fixture erecting bed 30 is by T-shaped Bolt 29 and flange surface nut 32 are fixed on fixture erecting bed 30, are provided with work piece holder 13 and are drawn electric screw 33 and connect confession The positive pole of electrical circuit 1, connecting the silicon rubber of organic glass fence has preferable elasticity, case lid and wall box lucite fence Adopt interference fit to strengthen sealing effectiveness.
Referring to Fig. 1, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis combined machining method, including following step Suddenly:
Step one:Set the parameter of pulse laser used on computers --- peak power, pulsewidth, repetition rate, Mode of operation etc., the motor program of authorized strength work platform in special-purpose software starts afterwards laser beam machining program, and program can be controlled automatically The break-make of laser switch processed, is needing the position for removing material to open switch, is processed process;From a hole to the next one During the synkinesia in hole, switch is closed, under control of the computer, Nd:YAG high power lasers can be disposable Prepare the less pre-manufactured hole of some tapers.
Step 2:Keep operating position constant, rise laser instrument emitting head, in a program input instruction, make conversion electricity Machine is accurately rotated by 90 ° counterclockwise, and electrolysis cathode nozzle is switched to into operating position.
Step 3:Open to knife power supply, apply between tool cathode and the anode of workpiece 34 1 volt or so to knife voltage, z-axis Slow feeding, is stretched in pre-manufactured hole using short circuit to skill in using a kitchen knife in cookery guiding stick electrode, when observing that electric current has mutation, indicates that work Tool electrode is contacted with workpiece 34, there occurs short circuit, at this moment will rollback electrode, the relative position at trimming electrode axis and hole center Put, again to knife.
Tool-electrode is stretched into after pre-manufactured hole, with small step distance adjustment workbench in X-direction position, using electric current during short circuit Mutation determines a boundary coordinate x in hole1, the position of workbench is then reversely adjusted, determine another boundary coordinate x in hole2, The x coordinate that then can determine that its center is x0=1/2 (x1+x2), same method obtains the y-coordinate y at center0, it is ensured that tool-electrode Centering.
Step 4:Continue to make negative electrode nozzle slowly feed under the drive of z-axis workbench 16, make the outer water conservancy diversion of negative electrode nozzle The rubber packing for covering 25 bottoms is close to workpiece 34, realizes that self-adapting seal starts electrolyte circulation system, and power supply output is electric Pressure is adjusted to machining voltage U, starts the postprocessing working procedures of re cast layer, and in electrochemical machining process, electrolyte is extracted by corrosion free pump 5, In the runner that the elements such as filter 6, pressure regulator valve 4, flowmeter 3 enter negative electrode nozzle, along the outer wall high speed of tool cathode 14 Go out, in the gap of implantation tool negative electrode 14 and circular hole wall, take away electrochemical reaction product, the electrolysis of the processing district that upgrades in time Liquid, after completing a hole, rises Electrolyzed Processing head, and antikinesis working table movement program is carried out to the re cast layer in next hole Remove, the relative position of pre-manufactured hole is determined by CAD program, therefore electrolysis postprocessing working procedures afterwards are loaded down with trivial details without the need for carrying out again Knife is worked.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device, it is characterised in that:Including being provided with work piece holder (13) lathe base (11), and the machine pillar (17) being vertically set on lathe base (11), on work piece holder (13) Side is provided with the electrochemical machining system driven by conversion motor (2) and the Optical Maser System being fixed on machine pillar (17), The electrochemical machining system includes being connected with conversion motor (2) and with the negative electrode nozzle of tool cathode (14), and and negative electrode The connected electrolyte circulation system of nozzle and current supply circuit, positive pole connection work piece holder (13) of current supply circuit, negative pole connection work Tool negative electrode (14);
The Optical Maser System includes Nd:YAG milliseconds pulse laser and Nd:The connected cold water of YAG milliseconds pulse laser Machine, and the laser instrument emitting head (15) being connected with conversion motor (2), Nd:YAG milliseconds pulse laser and conversion motor (2) Connection computer.
2. a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device according to claim 1, its feature exists In:The work piece holder (13) is arranged with y-axis workbench (10), and y-axis workbench (10) is arranged with x-axis workbench (9), x The side of axle workbench (9) is provided with location-plate (8), and conversion motor (2) is fixed on machine pillar by z-axis workbench (16) (17) on, z-axis workbench (16) is connected with z-axis servomotor (18);
The x-axis workbench (9), y-axis workbench (10) and z-axis workbench (16) are all connected with computer.
3. a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device according to claim 2, its feature exists In:The negative electrode nozzle includes top cover (27), connecting plate (20), drill chuck rear axle (19), drill chuck (22), Inner guide set (23), outer flow guide sleeve (25) and tool cathode (14);
The connecting plate (20) is connected on z-axis workbench (16) by two right angle contiguous blocks being arranged symmetrically, negative electrode nozzle Top arranges the top cover (27) with centre bore, and drill chuck rear axle (19) and top cover (27) are connected by centre bore;Connection Plate (20) lower end arranges the Inner guide set (23) with cavity, and Inner guide set (23) lower end is coaxially connected with outer flow guide sleeve (25), The gap of Inner guide set (23) and outer flow guide sleeve (25) defines electrolyte channel, and runner is in convergence shape, Inner guide set (23) Drill chuck (22) is provided with cavity, tool cathode (14) is connected with drill chuck (22) and reaches outer flow guide sleeve (25) outward, instrument Front end parcel insulation fairlead (24) of negative electrode (14).
4. a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device according to claim 3, its feature exists In:The first sealing ring (21), the tool cathode (14) and insulation are provided between the drill chuck (22) and Inner guide set (23) The second sealing ring (26) is provided between fairlead (24).
5. a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device according to claim 1, its feature exists In:The work piece holder (13) is arranged in work box (12), work box (12) bottom connection electrolyte circulation system, work box (12) including insulating mounting platform (31), and the fixture erecting bed (30) being arranged on insulating mounting platform (31), work piece holder (13) it is arranged on fixture erecting bed (30).
6. a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device according to claim 5, its feature exists In:The fixture erecting bed (30) is fixed on fixture erecting bed (30) by T-bolt (29) and flange surface nut (32).
7. a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device according to claim 5, its feature exists In:The material of the surrounding fence of the work box (12) adopts lucite.
8. a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis complex machining device according to claim 5, its feature exists In:The work box (12) with epoxy resin lid (28), above epoxy resin lid (28) and it is following be equipped with guiding gutter, and The additional space being provided with needed for processing.
9. a kind of laser without re cast layer micro hole-electrolysis combined machining method, it is characterised in that:Comprise the following steps:
Step one:Using computer settings Pulsed Laser Parameters, and corresponding motor program is worked out, by the logical of laser switch Disconnected control laser processing procedure and synkinesia process, disposably prepare in the workpiece (34) being fixed on work piece holder (13) Some pre-manufactured holes;
Step 2:Keep x-axis workbench (9) and y-axis workbench (10) position constant, rise laser instrument emitting head, make conversion electricity Machine (2) is accurately rotated by 90 ° counterclockwise, and tool cathode (14) is switched to into operating position;
Step 3:Open to knife power supply, apply between tool cathode and workpiece (34) anode 1 volt to knife voltage, z-axis workbench (16) slow feeding, is stretched in pre-manufactured hole using short circuit to skill in using a kitchen knife in cookery guiding stick electrode;
Step 4:Tool cathode (14) is slowly fed under the drive of z-axis workbench (16), make outer flow guide sleeve (25) be close to work Part (34), starts electrolyte circulation system, and electric power output voltage is adjusted to into machining voltage, starts the removal work of re cast layer Sequence, after completing a hole, rises Electrolyzed Processing head, and antikinesis working table movement program is carried out to the re cast layer in next hole Remove.
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