CN104012308B - A kind of seedling-cultivating method of watermelon Long term cultivation - Google Patents

A kind of seedling-cultivating method of watermelon Long term cultivation Download PDF

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CN104012308B
CN104012308B CN201410290428.4A CN201410290428A CN104012308B CN 104012308 B CN104012308 B CN 104012308B CN 201410290428 A CN201410290428 A CN 201410290428A CN 104012308 B CN104012308 B CN 104012308B
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grafting
seedling
watermelon
long term
cultivating
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CN104012308A (en
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肖光辉
梁志怀
王志伟
李基光
贺爱国
张屹
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INSTITUTE OF WATERMELON AND MELON OF HUNAN
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INSTITUTE OF WATERMELON AND MELON OF HUNAN
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Abstract

A seedling-cultivating method for watermelon Long term cultivation, relates to technical field of watermelon cultivation.Comprise the following steps: (1) selects stock variety and the scion Small-sized watermelon kind of applicable Long term cultivation; (2) in good time cultivate rootstock seedling and scion seedling, when firm expansion appears in rootstock seedling the 1st true leaf, scion young plant leaf have more than 1/3 turn green open and flat to cotyledon time employing double break root graft method carry out grafting, then cuttage is in the floating seedling tray filling matrix; (3) grafting is swum in the seedbed that clear water is housed the management carrying out healing and phase of taking root; (4) nutrient solution is injected seedbed after surviving by grafting, the management after grafting being swum in survive in nutrient solution.Watermelon seedling robust growth, neat and consistent that the method is cultivated, well developed root system, vitality are strong, and not easily early ageing, is applicable to carrying out Long term cultivation.

Description

A kind of seedling-cultivating method of watermelon Long term cultivation
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of watermelon cultivation, be specifically related to a kind of seedling-cultivating method of watermelon Long term cultivation.
Background technology
Watermelon occupies the 4th in the large fruit in the world ten, China is the production and supplyment big country of watermelon, watermelon year, harvest area reached 221.25 ten thousand hectares, production area and consumption figure account for more than 1/2 (Sun little Wu of world's total amount, Zhang Xian, Ma Yue, etc. Chinese seedless watermelon research and apply. Beijing: Chinese agriculture publishing house, 2009 years).Watermelon, as a kind of important high-efficiency and economic crop, plays an important role in China's Planter industry structure adjustment and promotion farmer richness increase income.
The stem of watermelon on each joint can pumping indefinite climing, particularly watermelon plant base portion hide indefinite bud can repeatedly pumping be indefinite climing, the side shoot occurred at main climing base portion or indefinite climing growing way can close to main climing.The master of watermelon is climing, lateral bine, repeatedly pumping indefinite climing, as long as nutrition supply abundance can normally be yielded positive results, same plant can repeatedly result, so after watermelon maturation gathers, by strengthening rich water quality management, wiping out old and feeble branches and tendrils, can make that the stalwartness of plant base portion pumping is indefinite climingly bears fruit again.And watermelon is more high temperature resistant, still can normal growth when 35 DEG C ~ more than 40 DEG C high temperature.Summer high temperature and intense light irradiation weather, still can over summering when surface temperature reaches more than 40 DEG C, so watermelon still can be yielded positive results during the broiling summer.Therefore, watermelon can carry out Long term cultivation (Xiao Guanghui, Liang Zhihuai, Wang Zhiwei, etc. the Training technique of watermelon Long term cultivation. Chinese gardening digest, 2014, (3): 160-162).Small-sized watermelon is stronger than common watermelon to the adaptability of environment, and its characteristic main manifestations that grows is: branchiness is strong, female flower occur comparatively early and raw close, easily bear fruit; Fruit shape is little, and fruit development period is short, and under the thermophilic condition of 25 DEG C ~ 30 DEG C, female flower is open into fruit maturation and only needs about 25 days, and more common early mature watermelon kind does sth. in advance 7 ~ 10 days; The capacity of fruit Nutrient element input is little, little to plant idiotrophic growth effect, the periodicity of result is not obvious, strong (the Xiao Guanghui of continuous outcomes ability, Liu Jianxiong. Small-sized watermelon culture technique. Changsha: Hunan science tech publishing house, 2010), so Small-sized watermelon is more suitable for carrying out long season (spring, summer, Qiu Sanji) cultivation.Utilize the insulation in booth or greenhouse and effect of taking shelter from rain, add the rich water quality management of science, carry out Small-sized watermelon Long term cultivation, the photosynthetic efficiency of water melon leaf can be given full play to, there is provided abundant photosynthetic product often to criticize watermelon with guarantee can fully expand, thus realize the object that watermelon once plants Multiple harvests, Long term cultivation, plant one batch of watermelon, at least can gather 5 crowdes of watermelon (Xiao Guanghui, Liang Zhihuai, Wang Zhiwei, etc. the Training technique of watermelon Long term cultivation. Chinese gardening digest, 2014, (3): 160-162).
During watermelon Long term cultivation, require that seedling is healthy and strong, well developed root system, not easily early ageing, to maintain the sane growing way of watermelon plant whole campaign, thus reach the object of high yield and high quality, so the vigor that plant root keeps stronger for a long time must be made, can not early ageing, can not the soil-borne diseases such as fusarium wilt be infected.And watermelon Long term cultivation is all generally adopt facility cultivation, be difficult to ensure the sufficiently long crop rotation time limit, and vegetative period reaches 8 ~ 9 months, if adopt the cultivation of watermelon own-rooted tree, the generation of the soil-borne diseases such as watermelon blight is more serious, easy generation soil continuous cropping obstacle, thus cause the underproduction even to occur cultivating unsuccessfully.Grafting watermelon changes the generation that root effectively can be prevented and treated the soil-borne diseases such as watermelon blight and alleviate soil continuous cropping obstacle, and the cold resistance of watermelon can be strengthened, and improve the absorption function of root system, thus reach object that is precocious, volume increase, so the nursery of watermelon Long term cultivation generally adopts graft seedling growth.The stock band soil grafting of current employing or stock move into the conventional graft seedling growth technology of nutritive cube after native grafting, the shortcoming such as there is operation inconvenience, seedbed floor space is large, most importantly the Later growth of watermelon easily occur stock root system aging phenomenon and physiological acute wilting.
The aspermous watermelon Floating nursing graft technology (Zhou Quan of the report such as Zhou Quan, julid is put down, the other room of Zhu, etc. aspermous watermelon Floating nursing graft technology. Chinese melon dish, 2013,26 (4): 41-43), adopt expanded polystyrene foam seedling-cultivating tray to be carrier, based on mixed substrate, the seedling-cultivating tray being loaded with stock kind is put into nutrient solution water floating seedling bed and cultivate, again by graft technology, cultivate in aspermous watermelon seedling (scion) grafting to stock.Floating nursing is owing to replacing soil fixing watermelon root system by matrix, nutrient solution is seeped into for seedling provides nutrient and moisture in matrix by capillarity, and matrix nutrition supply is balanced, the epidemic disaster uniformity in seedbed, and easily control, nurturing staff can be reached, promote the object that morning is sent out.The seedling neat and consistent of cultivating, robust growth, well developed root system, planting percent is high.Have the slow seedling of slow Miao Kuaihuo after seedling replanting, low temperature resistant and disease resistance such as significantly to strengthen at the advantage.Only need carry out floating seedlings by disposable preparation nutrient solution, not pour water between whole nursery stage, fishing and topdressing, it is simple to operate, and save seedbed, dart transfer is with the obvious advantage.But this Floating nursing technology retains stock original root system to carry out grafting, there is emerge uneven, grafting of stock and time-consumingly to take a lot of work, operate the shortcomings such as inconvenience, commercial seedling form be inconsistent, and at the Later growth of watermelon, also easily occur stock root system aging phenomenon.If stock is selected improper, be easy to occur that physiological is acute wilting in situation improperly running into unfavorable environmental condition and cultivation management.And this Floating nursing technology is only limited to aspermous watermelon, not used for the nursery of Small-sized watermelon.
The watermelon root pruning and grafting technology that Vegetable Research Centre, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forest Sciences first elects (is permitted brave, Gong Guoyi, Liu Guodong, Deng. Grafting watermelon new technology---root pruning and grafting method. Chinese watermelon and muskmelon, 2002 (4): 33-34.), its main contributions is, change the method that traditional grafting utilizes stock primitive root system, for removing stock primitive root system, while graft union, induction stock produces new root; The root system of new induction is without main root, and fibrous root is many, weakens the apical dominance of root system, enhances improving activity of root system, and after production showing field planting, slow seedling is fast, and the resistance to low temperature of seedling obviously strengthens with the growth potential in early stage; Root pruning and grafting shoot root system is powerful, and ability and the drought resistance of its absorption rich water are obviously better than traditional grafting, later stage premature senescence resistance, not easily occur that acute physiology is wilting; Because the primitive root system of stock is disconnected, the bleeding sap of grafting wound reduces, and putrefactive phenomenon is few, and therefore, heal, survival rate is high.Owing to having carried out 1 cuttage to rootstock seedling, classification cuttage and management can be carried out to the size of rootstock seedling, uniformity and the regularity of grafting can have been ensured, effectively can improve the quality of grafting, raise labour efficiency further, reduce production cost, improve the yield of watermelon.Its defect is, strict to requirement for environmental conditions with the phase of taking root in the healing of grafting, if the temperature of healing and phase of taking root, moisture condition are not suitable for or manage slightly neglecting, then survival rate is lower; If cultivation matrix is nutritious, not easily takes root after grafting cuttage thus affect survival rate; If cultivation matrix nutrition is poor, affect the growth of grafting.If according to the specific requirement of watermelon Long term cultivation to nursery, above-mentioned water is floated graft seedling growth combine with root pruning and grafting nursery, the nutrient management mode of the Floating nursing of science adjustment simultaneously, then not only can integrate the advantage that water floats graft seedling growth and root pruning and grafting nursery, these defects of root pruning and grafting can also be made up.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to, according to the growth and development characteristics of Small-sized watermelon Long term cultivation, select suitable stock variety and scion variety of watermelon, Bound moisture floats the advantage of graft seedling growth and root pruning and grafting nursery, the way to manage of science adjustment nutrient solution, overcome the shortcoming that water floats graft seedling growth and root pruning and grafting nursery dexterously, a kind of seedling-cultivating method of applicable Small-sized watermelon Long term cultivation is provided, reach the vigor upgrading seedling root, well developed root system, vitality are strengthened, and not easily early ageing, growth of seedling is healthy and strong, neat and consistent, is applicable to the object of Long term cultivation.
A seedling-cultivating method for watermelon Long term cultivation, comprises the following steps:
(1) stock variety and the scion Small-sized watermelon kind of applicable Long term cultivation is selected;
(2) adopt double break root graft method to carry out grafting, then cuttage is in the floating seedling tray filling matrix;
(3) cuttage there is is the floating seedling tray of grafting to swim in the seedbed that clear water is housed to carry out the management of healing with the phase of taking root;
(4) nutrient solution is injected seedbed after surviving by grafting, makes cuttage have the floating seedling tray of grafting to swim in the management after surviving in nutrient solution.
Stock variety described in step (1) comprises: No. 3, river in Zhejiang Province anvil, No. 1, the glad anvil in capital, the magic power introduced from Japan, No. 1, river in Zhejiang Province anvil or No. 1, cucurbit anvil; Small-sized watermelon kind described in step (1) is the variety of watermelon that single melon weighs 1.5 ~ 2 kilograms; Comprise: early spring carbuncle, Jin Fu, cherub, by bit, red little jade or Huang little Yu.
Step (2) occurs firm expansion when rootstock seedling the 1st true leaf, scion young plant leaf have more than 1/3 turn green open and flat to cotyledon time employing double break root graft method carry out grafting.
Step (4) described nutrient solution prescription is: nitrogen content 95 ~ 300 mg/litre, phosphorus pentoxide content 18 ~ 300 mg/litre, potassium oxide content 20 ~ 300 mg/litre, iron content is no more than 20 mg/litre, Boron contents is no more than 2 mg/litre, and Fe content is no more than 4 mg/litre, and Zn content is no more than 2 mg/litre, copper content is no more than 0.5 mg/litre, pH6 ~ 7.
The healing of step (3) is swum in the seedbed that 3 ~ 4 centimetres of dark clear water are housed by the floating seedling tray of good for cuttage grafting with the management of phase of taking root.
The healing of step (3) is on seedbed, build moisture-heat preservation and shading facility with the management of phase of taking root, by the scientific management of temperature, humidity and illumination, promote taking root of the healing of grafting wound and stock, after 10 days, grafting survives completely, namely enter grafting survive after management.
Seedbed is built moisture-heat preservation and shading facility, within after grafting 1 ~ 3 day, keep temperature daytime 25 DEG C ~ 30 DEG C, night 18 DEG C ~ 22 DEG C, stuffy, keep air humidity more than 95%, illumination management, based on shading, is respectively shown in light 0.5 ~ 1 hour when scion is not wilted in the morning and evening; After grafting 4 ~ 6 days, temperature controlled at 22 DEG C ~ 25 DEG C daytime, night 18 DEG C ~ 20 DEG C, air humidity is reduced to 90%, when scion is not wilted every day ventilation and penetrating light 2 ~ 3 hours, and extend the ventilation and penetrating light time gradually, namely, every day extends 1 ~ 3 hour ventilation and penetrating light time; Grafting after 7 days day temperature still control at 22 DEG C ~ 25 DEG C, then be reduced to 16 DEG C ~ 18 DEG C night, air humidity is reduced to 85%, slightly wilt not shading or only sunlight is strong at noon time hide l ~ 2 hour, after 10 days, grafting survives completely, namely enter grafting survive after management.
Management after step (4) survives is the nutrient solution that injection 8 ~ 10 centimetres is dark in seedbed.
Cuttage is allowed to have the floating seedling tray of grafting to swim in nutrient solution, temperature keeps daytime 20 DEG C ~ 25 DEG C, night 16 DEG C ~ 18 DEG C, progressively throw off the covering for moisture-heat preservation and shading, only in overlay film insulation at night, when watermelon seedling grows to 2 leaf 1 heart, night, temperature was reduced to 15 DEG C ~ 16 DEG C, within before field planting 1 week, carried out cold acclimation, and night, temperature drop was to 13 DEG C ~ 15 DEG C; At any time the axillalry bud grown between stock cotyledon is erased in time, after grafting 16 ~ 24 days, when grafting 2 leaf 1 heart goes out garden field planting to during 3 leaf 1 heart.
When the neat seedling of stock, cotyledon are open and flat, with the paclobutrazol solution spray 1 time of 80 ~ 85 mg/litre, stock hypocotyl are increased and is slightly beneficial to grafting, improve graft survival rate.
Stock variety in said method described in step (1) is that disease-resistant, affinity is strong, early ageing and hypocotyl easily produce the kind of adventive root by force, not easily for well developed root system, warm tolerance.
Small-sized watermelon kind described in step (1) is strong adaptability, tolerance to low temperature and weak light, easily bear fruit, commodity is good, not early ageing, single melon weigh the variety of watermelon of 1.5 ~ 2 kilograms.
First to choose when double break root graft described in step (2) is grafting stock, and stock primitive root system is cut away at stock plumular axis collar place of 5 ~ 7 centimetres below cotyledonary node, the method of plant propagation with cutting or cleft graft is adopted to carry out grafting again, then by the cuttage of root pruning and grafting seedling in the porous foam floating seedling tray filling matrix, 1 strain is inserted in every cave.
Matrix described in step (2) is be the matrix of primary raw material preparation with the peat composed of rotten mosses (or fully fermentation the agricultural wastes such as edible fungi residue, crops straw, sawdust), perlite, vermiculite, comprises the seedling medium of commercial goods seedling medium or oneself preparation.
Floating seedling tray described in step (2) is polystyrene foam seedling-cultivating tray, coil high (thickness) 6 ~ 8 centimetres, require that there is multiple nursery hole according to nursery, the size in hole is the degree of depth 5.5 ~ 7.5 centimetres, upper bore is 4.5 ~ 5.5 centimetres, lower bore is 2.0 ~ 2.5 centimetres, and bottom stays 1 diameter to be the aperture of 0.6 ~ 1.0 centimetre, and nursery hole is cone or rectangular pyramid or polygonal pyramid body.
The present invention has following good effect: according to the requirement of double break root graft, the nutrient management method of Floating nursing is improved, namely the management carrying out healing and phase of taking root first is swum in clear water after grafting, make the moisture supply of matrix balanced, the temperature in seedbed, humidity uniformity, and easily control, be unlikely to again to make the nutrient content in matrix too high and root of hair after affecting grafting cuttage, together with so not only double break root graft being incorporated into the advantage of Floating nursing, but also overcome the shortcoming of the general root pruning and grafting of watermelon and Floating nursing, can overcome when adopting general Floating nursing mode to carry out root pruning and grafting and make the nutritious of cultivation matrix owing to swimming on nutrient solution, not easily take root after causing grafting cuttage thus affect the defect of survival rate, if general root pruning and grafting nursery also can be overcome healing and taking root the phase to temperature, the management of humidity is slightly neglected, and can affect the defect of survival rate.Adopt the seedling-cultivating method of this watermelon Long term cultivation, planting percent reaches more than 90%, transplanting survival rate reaches more than 95%, more than 10% is improved than directly swimming in nutrient solution the planting percent carrying out healing and period management of taking root after the cuttage of double break root graft seedling, improve 5% ~ 10% than the planting percent of traditional double root pruning and grafting nursery, improve more than 10% than the transplanting survival rate of traditional double root pruning and grafting nursery.Effectively can not only prevent and treat the generation of the soil-borne diseases such as watermelon blight and alleviation soil continuous cropping obstacle, but also reach grafting robust growth, well developed root system, vitality is strong, not easily old and feeble, stronger to the adaptability of low temperature, after field planting in early spring, slow seedling is fast, the grafting neat and consistent of producing, the object that commodity is good, field-transplanting survival rate can reach 96.5%.In addition, also can save seedling culture space, improve the productivity ratio in unit are seedbed; Grafting speed is fast, and planting percent is high, can reduce production cost; It is simple to operate, is convenient to batch production, intensive, large-scale production.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the Grafted Watermelon Seedlings growing way figure that the inventive method is cultivated.
Embodiment
There is following embodiment can be described in detail essence of the present invention, and can not the present invention be limited.
Embodiment 1
(1) stock and scion variety are selected: select that disease-resistant, affinity is strong, well developed root system, warm tolerance by force, not easily early ageing and easily produce the stock variety of adventive root, as No. 3, river in Zhejiang Province anvil, No. 1, the glad anvil in capital, the magic power introduced from Japan, and No. 1, river in Zhejiang Province anvil and No. 1, cucurbit anvil; Selection adaptation is strong, tolerance to low temperature and weak light, easily bear fruit, commodity is good, not early ageing, single melon weigh the high-quality small fruit type early mature watermelon kind of 1.5 ~ 2 kilograms, as early spring carbuncle, Jin Fu, cherub, by bit, red little jade, Huang little Yu etc.(2) seedling medium: commercial goods seedling medium can be selected, such as, the Overwater-floating seedling medium that Guangzhou Hu Di fertilizer Science and Technology Ltd. produces can be selected, the blue or green board factorial seedling growth in the Shandong that Jinan Lu Qing seedling Co., Ltd produces commonly uses matrix, the cotton water that Hunan Shui Mu Bioisystech Co., Ltd produces floats special seedling substrate etc., can be also that primary raw material is prepared with the peat composed of rotten mosses (or agricultural wastes such as edible fungi residue, crops straw, sawdust of fully fermentation), perlite, vermiculite.(3) nutrient solution prescription: every 1 premium on currency is containing macroelement: 431 milligrams, nitrate of lime, 325 milligrams, potassium nitrate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 75 milligrams, 193 milligrams, magnesium sulfate, containing trace element: disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate iron 12.5 milligrams, boric acid (H 3bO 3) 1.43 milligrams, manganese sulphate (MnSO 44H 2o) 1.04 milligrams, zinc sulphate (ZnSO 47H 2o) 0.11 milligram, copper sulphate (CuSO 45H 2o) 0.04 milligram; Or adopt Japanese vegetable garden experimental formula, use by 1/2 concentration, directly can buy flowers or vegetables soilless culture universal nutrient solution-Japanese vegetable garden experimental formula nutrient solution raw materials that Beijing small stream youth agricultural science and technology Co., Ltd produces, use by 1/2 of normal concentration; Or the Fertilizer for Floating Nursing of Cotton Seedling in Water Bed using Hunan Shui Mu Bioisystech Co., Ltd to produce, be first watered 5 kilograms by every bag special fertilizer for seedling culture (often wrapping 400 grams) and be made into mother liquor, then add water 150 ~ 200 kilograms; Also commercially available nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer can be selected simply to be mixed with the solution of 0.1% ~ 0.2% as nutrient solution.Control the pH value of nutrient solution between 6 ~ 7.(4) seedbed prepares: in common booth or the built-in seedbed of beam-connected greenhouse, dark 15 ~ 20 centimetres of seedbed, wide 1.2 meters, long 2.1 ~ 2.2 meters (standard seedbed), also can be determined on a case-by-case basis, at the bottom of bed, spread the polyethylene film (the most handy black) of one deck 0.06 ~ 0.1 millimeters thick, film is close to native face and each 15 centimetres of seedbed edge of bed is covered in extension, real by soil pressure, make the nutrient solution that 8 ~ 10 centimetres, seedling bed energy splendid attire is dark, seedbed is inserted bamboo chip again and build Small plastic shed.(5) cultivation of stock and scion: stock and scion are live after all adopting presoaking and germinating, generally 500 times of liquid and agricultural streptomycin 4,000,000 unit (being watered 15 kilograms) is made every effort to overcome with 72.2% before sowing, or 70% thiophanate methyl, 500 ~ 800 times of liquid, or 70% thiophanate-methyl, 800 ~ 1000 times of liquid water and execute matrix and carry out matrix sterilization.Stock was than the general planting early enough of scion 5 ~ 12 days, can broadcast sowing in seedbed after stock presprouting of seeds or 3 cm thick matrix (water content about 75%) are housed, the length of side 50 ~ 70 centimetres, bottom has in the plastic seeding culturing plate of osculum, thickness of sowing be between seed at a distance of 4 ~ 5 centimetres, carry out seedling management according to a conventional method; In order to improve graft survival rate, when the neat seedling of stock, cotyledon are open and flat, the paclobutrazol of available 80 ~ 85 mg/litre is sprayed 1 time, and stock hypocotyl is increased and is slightly beneficial to grafting, rootstock seedling the 1st true leaf occurs just expanding into grafting optimum period.Scion watermelon can carry out presoaking and germinating when rootstock seedling is unearthed and carries out to cotyledon, broadcast sowing in the seedling-cultivating tray that 3 cm thick matrix (water content about 75%) is housed (the nursery square plate of 45 cm x 45 centimetres can be selected), thickness of sowing is to be advisable at a distance of 1 ~ 2 centimetre between seed, cover matrix or vermiculite 1 ~ 2 cm thick, then 95% green prosperous No. 1 wetting powder, 3000 ~ 4000 times of liquid are sprayed, send into germinating box or germinating cabinet immediately, temperature 28 DEG C ~ 30 DEG C is kept to carry out scion water-retaining cultivation, when there being the seedling emergence of more than 80%, be positioned over can irradiate sunlight Small plastic shed or booth in, scion seedling is shown in 1 ~ 2 day sunlight, grafting is got final product when cotyledon has more than 1/3 to turn green, but grafting is best when turing green so that scion cotyledon is open and flat.(6) medium in tray: long 70 centimetres, wide 40 centimetres, high 6 centimetres of the specification Bian of floating seedling tray, has the polystyrene foam seedling-cultivating tray in 108 holes, cavities be taper shape or rectangular pyramid, upper bore 4.5 centimetres, lower bore 2 centimetres, dark 5.5 centimetres.During sabot, first matrix be poured on concrete floor or on film, the 600 times of liquid of the carbendazol wettable powder with 50% squirt and stir, make water content of substrate reach about 60% of own wt, namely hand is pinched agglomerating, loses flowing water between finger, backwardly naturally to scatter down, then just can sabot.First matrix is evenly poured in seedling-cultivating tray, shake seedling-cultivating tray, what allow matrix compare consolidation is filled in nursery hole, then with the little plank of 1 cm thick, 50 centimeter length, the matrix compacting on seedling-cultivating tray surface is struck off, water of revealing the exact details is watered before grafting, stamp 108 dark 1 centimetre of apertures with card punch at each cavities central point opposite position, treat that skewer broadcasts grafting.(7) grafting: adopt double break root graft, when firm expansion appears in rootstock seedling the 1st true leaf, scion young plant leaf just launches, cotyledon more than 1/3 carries out grafting when turning green, grafting first 1 day stock and scion will spray 1 water, and to strict sterilization be noted, dip in the potassium permanganate liquid opponent of 0.5 ‰ and the instrument disinfection such as blade, bamboo let of grafting with 70% medicinal alcohol cotton balls or cotton balls before grafting, every process in 1 ~ 1.5 hour 1 time during operation.First 1 day of the grafting 72.2% general mixed liquor of making every effort to overcome 700 times of liquid and adding agricultural streptomycin 400 ~ 5,000,000 unit (being watered 15 kilograms), or with 70% thiophanate methyl, 500 times of liquid, or 70% thiophanate-methyl, 800 ~ 1000 times of liquid spray stock and scion carries out disinfection, until blade drips, also scion seedling can be immersed before grafting in 800 times of thiophanate methyl liquid about 2 hours in batches.First to choose during grafting stock, and stock primitive root system is cut away at stock plumular axis collar place of 5 ~ 7 centimetres below cotyledonary node, the method such as the method for plant propagation with cutting or cleft graft is adopted to carry out grafting again, when adopting method of plant propagation with cutting grafting, first with blade, stock growing point is removed, the cotyledonary node of stock is clamped gently with the forefinger of left hand and thumb, it is flat that the right hand holds two sides, long 1.5 centimetres of inclined-plane, the small bamboo spike of top glut shape is close to arteries and veins base portion in cotyledon petioles and is become the oblique insertion of 30 ~ miter angle 0.8 ~ 1.0 centimetre to another cotyledon with plumular axis being parallel to cotyledon direction, namely insert to thumb direction from forefinger place, thumb place is just in time arrived with the tip of bamboo let, bamboo let head can be seen but do not break stock epidermis and be advisable.And then get scion seedling, scion two panels cotyledon is closed up and clutches, below cotyledonary node base portion, the plumular axis of 0.5 ~ 1 centimeters to be splayed a cutter to butt by end of blade, and long 0.8 ~ 1.0 centimetre of bevel, claim large inclined-plane, another side only need remove skim epidermis, claims little inclined-plane.Extract the bamboo let be inserted in stock, immediately stock is inserted in the watermelon scion that cut, make large inclined-plane downwards with the inclined-plane close proximity of stock socket, stock and scion cotyledon are " ten " shape, the elasticity that scion is inserted gently carries scion cotyledon with thumb and forefinger, can not extract and be advisable.After grafting rapidly by the cuttage of root pruning and grafting seedling in the expanded polystyrene foam seedling-cultivating tray filling matrix, 1 strain is inserted in every cave, the cuttage degree of depth 2 ~ 3 centimetres.(8) heal and the management of the phase of taking root: in seedbed, put into 3 ~ 4 centimetres of dark clear water, skewer is broadcast the seedling-cultivating tray rapid flotation of grafting in seedbed, be put on the seedling bed water surface by 2 horizontal 1 vertical setting of types, on seedling-cultivating tray, 800 times of carbendazim are sprayed immediately with sprayer, or gram bacterium star of 800 ~ 1000 times or tpn carry out disinfection, make seedling and matrix combine closely simultaneously.At once at Small plastic shed upper cover plastic film moisture-heat preservation, film is added a cover sunshade net shading.After grafting, 1 ~ 3 day temperature keeps daytime 25 DEG C ~ 30 DEG C, night 18 DEG C ~ 22 DEG C, promotes the healing of root of hair and grafting wound, stuffy, keeps air humidity more than 95%, and illumination management, based on shading, suitably can be shown in light sooner or later when scion is not wilted; Within after grafting 4 ~ 6 days, can induce the root that makes new advances, wound starts healing, suitably can reduce temperature, control daytime at 22 DEG C ~ 25 DEG C, night 18 DEG C ~ 20 DEG C, air humidity can be reduced to 90%, when scion is not wilted, suitable ventilation and penetrating light, and extend the ventilation and penetrating light time gradually; Grafting after 7 days grafting substantially survive, temperature still controls at 22 DEG C ~ 25 DEG C daytime, then be reduced to 16 DEG C ~ 18 DEG C night, air humidity is reduced to about 85%, further stronger ventilation printing opacity, slight wilting can not shading or only sunlight is strong at noon time hide l ~ 2 hour, make grafting accept natural lighting gradually by the hardening process of " seeing that light-shade-see light ".After general 10 days, grafting can survive completely, can enter grafting survive after management.(9) grafting survive after management: after grafting survives, the nutrient solution prepared is put into seedbed, Depth Nutrient Solution is made to reach 8 ~ 10 centimetres, allow grafting swim in nutrient solution, nutrient solution is risen from bottom to up by its content and supplies seedling moisture and nutrient under the capillarity of matrix.Temperature keeps daytime 20 DEG C ~ 25 DEG C, night 16 DEG C ~ 18 DEG C, progressively can throw off covering completely, only in overlay film insulation at night, when watermelon seedling grows to 2 leaf 1 heart, night, temperature can be reduced to 15 DEG C ~ 16 DEG C, was beneficial to Female flower differentiation, within before field planting 1 week, carry out cold acclimation, night, temperature can drop to 13 DEG C ~ 15 DEG C.Note at any time the axillalry bud grown between stock cotyledon being erased in time, in order to avoid affect scion growth.After grafting 16 ~ 24 days, garden field planting can be gone out when grafting 2 leaf 1 heart to 3 leaf 1 heart.Adopt the seedling-cultivating method of above-mentioned watermelon Long term cultivation, the watermelon seedlings neat and consistent of cultivating, robust growth, well developed root system, planting percent reaches 90.7%, 8.3% is improved than the planting percent 82.4% of traditional double root pruning and grafting nursery (contrast 2), 11.4% is improved with the planting percent 79.3% of period management of taking root (contrasting 1) than directly swimming in nutrient solution after the cuttage of double break root graft seedling to carry out healing, low temperature resistant and the disease resistance of seedling significantly strengthens, effectively can prevent and treat the generation of the soil-borne diseases such as watermelon blight and alleviation soil continuous cropping obstacle, take root rapidly after transplanting, slow seedling is fast, transplanting survival rate reaches 96.5%, 13.4% (seeing the following form 1) is improved than the transplanting survival rate 83.1% of traditional double root pruning and grafting nursery (contrast 2), effectively can prevent the aging of Grafted Watermelon shoot root system, later stage not easily occur early ageing and acute physiology wilting, number of bearing fruit is more than traditional grafting, output significantly improves.And it is simple to operate, save seedbed, dart transfer is with the obvious advantage, gets seedling, fortune seedling is convenient, is applicable to batch production, scale, industrialization production, is also adapted to the nursery voluntarily of dispersion peasant household.The Grafted Watermelon Seedlings growing way adopting said method to cultivate is shown in accompanying drawing.
The planting percent of the different seedling-cultivating method of table 1 and transplanting survival rate comparison sheet

Claims (10)

1. a seedling-cultivating method for watermelon Long term cultivation, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
(1) stock variety and the scion Small-sized watermelon kind of applicable Long term cultivation is selected;
(2) adopt double break root graft method to carry out grafting, then cuttage is in the floating seedling tray filling matrix;
(3) cuttage there is is the floating seedling tray of grafting to swim in the seedbed that clear water is housed to carry out the management of healing with the phase of taking root;
(4) nutrient solution is injected seedbed after surviving by grafting, makes cuttage have the floating seedling tray of grafting to swim in the management after surviving in nutrient solution.
2. the seedling-cultivating method of a kind of watermelon Long term cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the stock variety described in step (1) comprises: No. 3, river in Zhejiang Province anvil, No. 1, the glad anvil in capital, the magic power introduced from Japan, No. 1, river in Zhejiang Province anvil or No. 1, cucurbit anvil; Small-sized watermelon kind described in step (1) is the variety of watermelon that single melon weighs 1.5 ~ 2 kilograms; Comprise: early spring carbuncle, Jin Fu, cherub, by bit, red little jade or Huang little Yu.
3. the seedling-cultivating method of a kind of watermelon Long term cultivation according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, step (2) occurs firm expansion when rootstock seedling the 1st true leaf, scion young plant leaf have more than 1/3 turn green open and flat to cotyledon time employing double break root graft method carry out grafting.
4. the seedling-cultivating method of a kind of watermelon Long term cultivation according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, step (4) described nutrient solution prescription is: nitrogen content 95 ~ 300 mg/litre, phosphorus pentoxide content 18 ~ 300 mg/litre, potassium oxide content 20 ~ 300 mg/litre, iron content is no more than 20 mg/litre, Boron contents is no more than 2 mg/litre, and Fe content is no more than 4 mg/litre, and Zn content is no more than 2 mg/litre, copper content is no more than 0.5 mg/litre, pH6 ~ 7.
5. the seedling-cultivating method of a kind of watermelon Long term cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the healing of step (3) is swum in the seedbed that 3 ~ 4 centimetres of dark clear water are housed by the floating seedling tray of good for cuttage grafting with the management of phase of taking root.
6. the seedling-cultivating method of a kind of watermelon Long term cultivation according to claim 5, it is characterized in that, the healing of step (3) is on seedbed, build moisture-heat preservation and shading facility with the management of phase of taking root, by the scientific management of temperature, humidity and illumination, the healing of promotion grafting wound and taking root of stock, after 10 days, grafting survives completely, namely enter grafting survive after management.
7. the seedling-cultivating method of a kind of watermelon Long term cultivation according to claim 6, is characterized in that,
Seedbed is built moisture-heat preservation and shading facility, within after grafting 1 ~ 3 day, keep temperature daytime 25 DEG C ~ 30 DEG C, night 18 DEG C ~ 22 DEG C, stuffy, keep air humidity more than 95%, illumination management, based on shading, is respectively shown in light 0.5 ~ 1 hour when scion is not wilted in the morning and evening; After grafting 4 ~ 6 days, temperature controlled at 22 DEG C ~ 25 DEG C daytime, night 18 DEG C ~ 20 DEG C, air humidity is reduced to 90%, when scion is not wilted every day ventilation and penetrating light 2 ~ 3 hours, and extend the ventilation and penetrating light time gradually, namely, every day extends 1 ~ 3 hour ventilation and penetrating light time; Grafting after 7 days day temperature still control at 22 DEG C ~ 25 DEG C, then be reduced to 16 DEG C ~ 18 DEG C night, air humidity is reduced to 85%, slightly wilt not shading or only sunlight is strong at noon time hide l ~ 2 hour, after 10 days, grafting survives completely, namely enter grafting survive after management.
8. the seedling-cultivating method of a kind of watermelon Long term cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the management after step (4) survives is the nutrient solution that injection 8 ~ 10 centimetres is dark in seedbed.
9. the seedling-cultivating method of a kind of watermelon Long term cultivation according to claim 8, is characterized in that,
Cuttage is allowed to have the floating seedling tray of grafting to swim in nutrient solution, temperature keeps daytime 20 DEG C ~ 25 DEG C, night 16 DEG C ~ 18 DEG C, progressively throw off the covering for moisture-heat preservation and shading, only in overlay film insulation at night, when watermelon seedling grows to 2 leaf 1 heart, night, temperature was reduced to 15 DEG C ~ 16 DEG C, within before field planting 1 week, carried out cold acclimation, and night, temperature drop was to 13 DEG C ~ 15 DEG C; At any time the axillalry bud grown between stock cotyledon is erased in time, after grafting 16 ~ 24 days, when grafting 2 leaf 1 heart goes out garden field planting to during 3 leaf 1 heart.
10. the seedling-cultivating method of a kind of watermelon Long term cultivation according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, when the neat seedling of stock, cotyledon are open and flat, with the paclobutrazol solution spray 1 time of 80 ~ 85 mg/litre, stock hypocotyl is increased and is slightly beneficial to grafting, improve graft survival rate.
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